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Patricia o'sullivan

Jimmie Leppink, Patricia O'Sullivan, Kal Winston
The overall purpose of the 'Statistical Points and Pitfalls' series is to help readers and researchers alike increase awareness of how to use statistics and why/how we fall into inappropriate choices or interpretations. We hope to help readers understand common misconceptions and give clear guidance on how to avoid common pitfalls by offering simple tips to improve your reporting of quantitative research findings. Each entry discusses a commonly encountered inappropriate practice and alternatives from a pragmatic perspective with minimal mathematics involved...
October 17, 2016: Perspectives on Medical Education
Elizabeth Weathers, Rónán O'Caoimh, Ronan O'Sullivan, Constança Paúl, Frances Orfilia, Roger Clarnette, Carol Fitzgerald, Anton Svendrovski, Nicola Cornally, Patricia Leahy-Warren, D William Molloy
Predicting risk of adverse healthcare outcomes is important to enable targeted delivery of interventions. The Risk Instrument for Screening in the Community (RISC), designed for use by public health nurses (PHNs), measures the 1-year risk of hospitalisation, institutionalisation and death in community-dwelling older adults according to a five-point global risk score: from low (score 1,2) to medium (3) to high (4,5). We examined the inter-rater reliability (IRR) of the RISC between student PHNs (n=32) and expert raters using six cases (two low, medium and high-risk), scored before and after RISC training...
September 2016: British Journal of Community Nursing
John Q Young, Savannah M van Dijk, Patricia S O'Sullivan, Eugene J Custers, David M Irby, Olle Ten Cate
CONTEXT: The handover represents a high-risk event in which errors are common and lead to patient harm. A better understanding of the cognitive mechanisms of handover errors is essential to improving handover education and practice. OBJECTIVES: This paper reports on an experiment conducted to study the effects of learner knowledge, case complexity (i.e. cases with or without a clear diagnosis) and their interaction on handover accuracy and cognitive load. METHODS: Participants were 52 Dutch medical students in Years 2 and 6...
September 2016: Medical Education
Kaylin Pennington, Ian L Tong, Cindy J Lai, Patricia S O'Sullivan, Leslie Sheu
INTRODUCTION: Research has shown that student-run clinics (SRCs) are ideal experiential learning arenas for medical students, but no studies have characterized the impact of SRC participation on premedical students. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study with newly matriculated first-year medical students at five California medical schools to determine the impact of premedical involvement in SRCs. Participants completed an anonymous one-time online survey that included demographic information and questions regarding SRC involvement prior to medical school...
2016: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Jimmie Leppink, Patricia O'Sullivan, Kal Winston
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Perspectives on Medical Education
Patricia Alves Drummond De Oliveira, Saul Martins Paiva, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães De Abreu, Sheyla Márcia Auad
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) on dental erosion (DE) in children and analyze the association between dental erosion and diet, oral hygiene, and sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS: This case-control study encompassed 43 two- to 14-year-olds diagnosed positive for GERD by the 24-hour pH monitoring, paired by age group with 136 healthy controls, in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil...
2016: Pediatric Dentistry
Bridget C O'Brien, Melissa R Bachhuber, Arianne Teherani, Theresa M Iker, Joanne Batt, Patricia S O'Sullivan
PURPOSE: Early workplace learning experiences may be effective for learning systems-based practice. This study explores systems-oriented workplace learning experiences (SOWLEs) for early learners to suggest a framework for their development. METHOD: The authors used a two-phase qualitative case study design. In Phase 1 (spring 2014), they prepared case write-ups based on transcribed interviews from 10 SOWLE leaders at the authors' institution and, through comparative analysis of cases, identified three SOWLE models...
May 31, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
David K Duong, Patricia S O'Sullivan, Derek D Satre, Philippa Soskin, Jason Satterfield
PROBLEM: Residency education is challenged by a shortage of personnel and time, particularly for teaching behavioral interventions such as screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) to reduce hazardous drinking and drug use. However, social workers may be well placed to teach SBIRT in clinical training settings. INTERVENTION: We describe a curriculum with social workers as SBIRT trainers of emergency medicine (EM) residents during actual clinical shifts in an EM residency training program...
July 2016: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
Justin L Sewell, Christy K Boscardin, John Q Young, Olle Ten Cate, Patricia S O'Sullivan
OBJECTIVES: Few studies have investigated cognitive factors affecting learning of procedural skills in medical education. Cognitive load theory, which focuses on working memory, is highly relevant, but methods for measuring cognitive load during procedural training are not well understood. Using colonoscopy as an exemplar, we used cognitive load theory to develop a self-report instrument to measure three types of cognitive load (intrinsic, extraneous and germane load) and to provide evidence for instrument validity...
June 2016: Medical Education
Karen E Hauer, Olle Ten Cate, Christy K Boscardin, William Iobst, Eric S Holmboe, Benjamin Chesluk, Robert B Baron, Patricia S O'Sullivan
Background The expectation for graduate medical education programs to ensure that trainees are progressing toward competence for unsupervised practice prompted requirements for a committee to make decisions regarding residents' progress, termed a clinical competency committee (CCC). The literature on the composition of these committees and how they share information and render decisions can inform the work of CCCs by highlighting vulnerabilities and best practices. Objective We conducted a narrative review of the literature on group decision making that can help characterize the work of CCCs, including how they are populated and how they use information...
May 2016: Journal of Graduate Medical Education
Courtney A Green, Carolyn J Vaughn, Susannah M Wyles, Patricia S O'Sullivan, Edward H Kim, Hueylan Chern
BACKGROUND: Preparatory courses for senior medical students aim to ease the transition from medical school to residency. We designed a novel adjunct curriculum to enhance students' readiness for surgical internship. This study addresses the feasibility and outcomes of this course. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A curriculum was designed based on ACGME surgical milestones. Students participated in 8 (3h) sessions held over 4 weeks as an adjunct to a well-established intern preparatory course...
July 2016: Journal of Surgical Education
Jed D Gonzalo, Michael Dekhtyar, Stephanie R Starr, Jeffrey Borkan, Patrick Brunett, Tonya Fancher, Jennifer Green, Sara Jo Grethlein, Cindy Lai, Luan Lawson, Seetha Monrad, Patricia O'Sullivan, Mark D Schwartz, Susan Skochelak
PURPOSE: The authors performed a review of 30 Accelerating Change in Medical Education full grant submissions and an analysis of the health systems science (HSS)-related curricula at the 11 grant recipient schools to develop a potential comprehensive HSS curricular framework with domains and subcategories. METHOD: In phase 1, to identify domains, grant submissions were analyzed and coded using constant comparative analysis. In phase 2, a detailed review of all existing and planned syllabi and curriculum documents at the grantee schools was performed, and content in the core curricular domains was coded into subcategories...
April 5, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Jimmie Leppink, Kal Winston, Patricia O'Sullivan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Perspectives on Medical Education
Leslie Sheu, Patricia S O'Sullivan, Eva M Aagaard, Darlene Tad-Y, Heather E Harrell, Jennifer R Kogan, James Nixon, Harry Hollander, Karen E Hauer
PURPOSE: Although residents trust interns to provide patient care, little is known about how trust forms. METHOD: Using a multi-institutional mixed-methods study design, the authors interviewed (March-September 2014) internal medicine (IM) residents in their second or third postgraduate year at a single institution to address how they develop trust in interns. Transcript analysis using grounded theory yielded a model for resident trust. Authors tested (January-March 2015) the model with residents from five IM programs using a two-section quantitative survey (38 items; 31 rated 0 = not at all to 100 = very much; 7 rated 0 = strongly disagree to 100 = strongly agree) to identify influences on how residents form trust...
March 15, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Patricia S O'Sullivan, Charles Mkony, Jessica Beard, David M Irby
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies on the identity development and motivation of faculty developers have occurred with seasoned developers in a research-rich environment. We sought to determine if the findings of those studies could be replicated with novice faculty developers in a resource-constrained environment. METHODS: We interviewed 15 novice faculty developers from Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS) who, at the time, had led faculty development activities for no more than two years...
September 2016: Medical Teacher
H Carrie Chen, Olle ten Cate, Patricia O'Sullivan, Christy Boscardin, W Suzanne Eidson-Ton, Preetha Basaviah, Theresa Woehrle, Arianne Teherani
CONTEXT: Workplace learning is optimised when learners engage in the activities of the workplace; learner engagement is influenced by workplace affordances and learner agency. Learner agency can be operationalised through achievement goal theory, which explains that students can have different goal orientations as they enter learning situations: mastery (learn and improve), performance approach (demonstrate competence) or performance-avoid (avoid demonstrating incompetence). Mastery-orientated, compared with performance-orientated, students approach curricular experiences as opportunities for developing rather than demonstrating competence...
February 2016: Medical Education
Sandrijn M van Schaik, Patricia S O'Sullivan, Kevin W Eva, David M Irby, Glenn Regehr
OBJECTIVE: Receptiveness to interprofessional feedback, which is important for optimal collaboration, may be influenced by 'in-group or out-group' categorisation, as suggested by social identity theory. We used an experimental design to explore how nurses and resident physicians perceive feedback from people within and outside their own professional group. METHODS: Paediatric residents and nurses participated in a simulation-based team exercise. Two nurses and two physicians wrote anonymous performance feedback for each participant...
February 2016: Medical Education
John Q Young, Olle Ten Cate, Patricia S O'Sullivan, David M Irby
ISSUE: The transfer of a patient from one clinician to another is a high-risk event. Errors are common and lead to patient harm. More effective methods for learning how to give and receive sign-out is an important public health priority. EVIDENCE: Performing a handoff is a complex task. Trainees must simultaneously apply and integrate clinical, communication, and systems skills into one time-limited and highly constrained activity. The task demands can easily exceed the information-processing capacity of the trainee, resulting in impaired learning and performance...
2016: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
John Q Young, Robert M Wachter, Olle Ten Cate, Patricia S O'Sullivan, David M Irby
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: BMJ Quality & Safety
Jimmie Leppink, Kal Winston, Patricia O'Sullivan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Perspectives on Medical Education
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