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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532513/barriers-to-utilisation-of-antenatal-care-services-in-south-sudan-a-qualitative-study-in-rumbek-north-county
#1
Calistus Wilunda, Chiara Scanagatta, Giovanni Putoto, Francesca Montalbetti, Giulia Segafredo, Risa Takahashi, Serge André Mizerero, Ana Pilar Betrán
BACKGROUND: Access to adequate antenatal care (ANC) is critical in ensuring a good maternal health and in preventing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. South Sudan has one of the world's poorest health indicators due to a fragile health system and a combination of socio-cultural, economic, and political factors. This study was conducted to identify barriers to utilisation of ANC services in Rumbek North County. METHODS: Using a qualitative design, data were collected through 14 focus group discussions with 169 women and 45 men and 12 key informant interviews with community leaders, staff working in health facilities, and the staff of the County Health Department...
May 22, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513901/transcriptomic-profiling-reveals-disordered-regulation-of-surfactant-homeostasis-in-neonatal-cloned-bovines-with-collapsed-lungs-and-respiratory-distress
#2
Yan Liu, Yifan Rao, Xiaojing Jiang, Fanyi Zhang, Linhua Huang, Weihua Du, Haisheng Hao, Xueming Zhao, Dong Wang, Qiuling Jiang, Huabin Zhu, Xiuzhu Sun
Respiratory distress is a major cause of mortality in cloned neonatal animals, but its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. Here, we used necropsy and histology procedures to evaluate the lungs of cloned neonatal bovines dying of respiratory distress, finding incomplete lung dilation, alveolar collapse, and thickened alveolar walls. Comparison of the transcriptomes between collapsed lungs of cloned bovines and their normal counterparts revealed 1373 differentially expressed genes in collapsed lungs (p < 0...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513788/comparisons-of-iga-response-in-saliva-and-colostrum-against-oral-streptococci-species
#3
Barbara Bellocchio Bertoldo, Camilla Beatriz da Silva, Denise Bertulucci Rocha Rodrigues, Vinicius Rangel Geraldo-Martins, Virginia Paes Leme Ferriani, Ruchele Dias Nogueira
The present study compared IgA specificity against oral streptococci in colostrum and saliva samples. Sixty-two mother-and-child pairs were included; samples of colostrum (C) and saliva (MS) were collected from the mothers and saliva samples were collected from babies (BS). The specificity of IgA against Streptococcus mutans and S. mitis were analyzed by western blot. Only 30% of babies' samples presented IgA reactivity to S. mutans, while 74 and 80% of MS and C, respectively, presented this response. IgA reactivity to S...
May 15, 2017: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508995/l-carnitine-and-acetyl-l-carnitine-roles-and-neuroprotection-in-developing-brain
#4
Gustavo C Ferreira, Mary C McKenna
L-Carnitine functions to transport long chain fatty acyl-CoAs into the mitochondria for degradation by β-oxidation. Treatment with L-carnitine can ameliorate metabolic imbalances in many inborn errors of metabolism. In recent years there has been considerable interest in the therapeutic potential of L-carnitine and its acetylated derivative acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) for neuroprotection in a number of disorders including hypoxia-ischemia, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease and in conditions leading to central or peripheral nervous system injury...
May 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505479/women-s-self-reported-experience-of-unplanned-caesarean-section-results-of-a-swedish-study
#5
Annika Karlström
BACKGROUND: women´s experience of emergency caesarean section is often described as less positive compared to a vaginal birth or a planned caesarean section. Midwifery care for women where deviations from a normal birth process are present is a challenge. The aim of study was to compare self-reported birth outcomes for women undergoing birth through spontaneous onset of labour between those who actually had a vaginal birth and those who eventually had an emergency caesarean section. DESIGN AND SETTING: the study was part of a prospective longitudinal cohort study of parents' experiences, attitudes, and beliefs related to childbirth...
April 27, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489289/introducing-high-flow-nasal-cannula-to-the-neonatal-transport-environment
#6
Michael A Boyle, Arunava Dhar, Susan Broster
We are encouraged to see that other neonatal transport services are using High-Flow nasal cannula (HFNC) respiratory support during neonatal transport as outlined by Brunton et al (1). The experiences appear to be broadly similar across the two services, however, due to the central location of the neonatal transport base and the well served road network in the East of England region air transports are not conducted. Despite the increasing numbers of articles relating to HFNC use in neonatal units and consensus statements on best practice there is a relative paucity of data relating to its use on transport (2,3)...
May 10, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483975/developmental-disruption-of-recurrent-inhibitory-feedback-results-in-compensatory-adaptation-in-the-renshaw-cell-motor-neuron-circuit
#7
Anders Enjin, Sharn Perry, Markus M Hilscher, Chetan Nagaraja, Martin Larhammar, Henrik Gezelius, Anders Eriksson, Katarina E Leão, Klas Kullander
When activating muscles, motor neurons in the spinal cord also activate Renshaw cells, which provide recurrent inhibitory feedback to the motor neurons. The tight coupling with motor neurons suggests that Renshaw cells have an integral role in movement, a role that is yet to be elucidated. Here we used the selective expression of the nicotinic cholinergic receptor alpha 2 (Chrna2) in mice to genetically target the vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VIAAT) in Renshaw cells. Loss of VIAAT from Chrna2(Cre) expressing Renshaw cells did not impact any aspect of drug-induced fictive locomotion in the neonatal mouse, nor did it change gait, motor coordination or grip strength in adult mice of both sexes...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483818/newborn-infants-with-bilious-vomiting-a-national-audit-of-neonatal-transport-services
#8
Shalini Ojha, Laura Sand, Nandiran Ratnavel, Stephen Terence Kempley, Ajay Kumar Sinha, Syed Mohinuddin, Helen Budge, Andrew Leslie
OBJECTIVE: The precautionary approach to urgently investigate infants with bilious vomiting has increased the numbers referred to transport teams and tertiary surgical centres. The aim of this national UK audit was to quantify referrals and determine the frequency of surgical diagnoses with the purpose to inform the consequent inclusion of these referrals in the national 'time-critical' data set. METHODS: A prospective, multicentre UK-wide audit was conducted between 1 August, 2015 and 31 October, 2015...
May 8, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482944/increased-birth-weight-is-associated-with-altered-gene-expression-in-neonatal-foreskin
#9
L J Reynolds, R I Pollack, R J Charnigo, C S Rashid, A J Stromberg, S Shen, J M O'Brien, K J Pearson
Elevated birth weight is linked to glucose intolerance and obesity health-related complications later in life. No studies have examined if infant birth weight is associated with gene expression markers of obesity and inflammation in a tissue that comes directly from the infant following birth. We evaluated the association between birth weight and gene expression on fetal programming of obesity. Foreskin samples were collected following circumcision, and gene expression analyzed comparing the 15% greatest birth weight infants (n=7) v...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482666/chlorinated-polyfluoroalkyl-ether-sulfonic-acids-in-matched-maternal-cord-and-placenta-samples-a-study-of-transplacental-transfer
#10
Fangfang Chen, Shanshan Yin, Barry C Kelly, Weiping Liu
Currently, information regarding concentrations of chlorinated polyfluoroalkyl ether sulfonic acids (Cl-PFESAs) in human placenta does not exist. The main objective of this study was to assess the occurrence and distribution of two Cl-PFESAs, 6:2 Cl-PFESA and 8:2 Cl-PFESA, in maternal serum, umbilical cord serum, and placenta to better assess the transport pathways related to human prenatal exposure. The widely studied perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) was studied for comparison. This study was a hospital-based survey involving quantitative determination of Cl-PFESA and PFOS concentrations in maternal serum (n = 32), cord serum (n = 32), and placenta (n = 32) samples from women in Wuhan, China...
May 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471544/neonatal-hypothyroidism-affects-testicular-glucose-homeostasis-through-increased-oxidative-stress-in-prepubertal-mice-effects-on-glut3-glut8-and-cx43
#11
D Sarkar, S K Singh
Thyroid hormones (THs) play an important role in maintaining the link between metabolism and reproduction and the altered THs status is associated with induction of oxidative stress in various organs like brain, heart, liver and testis. Further, reactive oxygen species play a pivotal role in regulation of glucose homeostasis in several organs, and glucose utilization by Leydig cells is essential for testosterone biosynthesis and thus is largely dependent on glucose transporter 8 (GLUT8). Glucose uptake by Sertoli cells is mediated through glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3) under the influence of THs to meet energy requirement of developing germ cells...
May 4, 2017: Andrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459713/cardiac-outcomes-after-perinatal-sertraline-exposure-in-mice
#12
Sarah E Haskell, Cecilia Lo, Mitchell E Kent, Timothy M Eggleston, Kenneth A Volk, Benjamin E Reinking, Robert D Roghair
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are prescribed to 6-10% of pregnant women in the United States. Using an intrauterine plus neonatal exposure model to represent exposure throughout human pregnancy, we hypothesized sertraline exposure would impact intracardiac serotonin signaling and lead to small left heart syndrome in the absence of maternal psychopathology. C57BL/6 adult female mice received sertraline (5 mg/kg/d IP) or saline throughout pregnancy to time of delivery. Pups maintained exposure on postnatal days 1-14 to encompass the developmental window analogous to human gestation...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453711/improving-access-to-child-health-services-at-the-community-level-in-zambia-a-country-case-study-on-progress-in-child-survival-2000-2013
#13
Aaron M Kipp, Margaret Maimbolwa, Marie A Brault, Penelope Kalesha-Masumbu, Mary Katepa-Bwalya, Phanuel Habimana, Sten H Vermund, Kasonde Mwinga, Connie A Haley
Reductions in under-five mortality in Africa have not been sufficient to meet the Millennium Development Goal #4 (MDG#4) of reducing under-five mortality by two-thirds by 2015. Nevertheless, 12 African countries have met MDG#4. We undertook a four country study to examine barriers and facilitators of child survival prior to 2015, seeking to better understand variability in success across countries. The current analysis presents indicator, national document, and qualitative data from key informants and community women describing the factors that have enabled Zambia to successfully reduce under-five mortality over the last 15 years and achieve MDG#4...
June 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450044/benzyl-alcohol-induces-a-reversible-fragmentation-of-the-golgi-apparatus-and-inhibits-membrane-trafficking-between-endosomes-and-the-trans-golgi-network
#14
Roger Simm, Audun Sverre Kvalvaag, Bo van Deurs, Toril Lindbäck, Kirsten Sandvig
Benzyl alcohol (BnOH) is widely used as a component of foods, cosmetics, household products and medical products. It is generally considered to be safe for human use, however, it has been connected to a number of adverse effects, including hypersensitivity reactions and neonatal deaths. BnOH is a membrane fluidizing agent that can affect membrane protein activity and cellular processes such as ligand binding to cell surface receptors, endocytosis and degradation of lysosomal cargo. In this study, we examined the effects of BnOH on intracellular transport using Shiga toxin (Stx), diphtheria toxin (DT) and ricin...
April 24, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443597/a-different-slc2a1-gene-mutation-in-glut-1-deficiency-syndrome-c-734a-c
#15
Rüya Çolak, Senem Alkan Özdemir, Ezgi Yangın Ergon, Mehtap Kağnıcı, Şebnem Çalkavur
BACKGROUND: Neonatal seizures can be the first symptom of the inborn errors of metabolism. Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1DS) is the result of impaired glucose transport into the brain. GLUT1DS patient presents with infantile seizures with resistant to traditional seizure medications, developmental delay, acquired microcephaly, spasticity and ataxia. CASE REPORT: Here, we report a rare case of Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome caused by a different pathogenic variant in a 10-day-old neonate who presented with intractable seizures and respiratory arrest...
April 13, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441512/a-historical-perspective-on-the-transport-of-premature-infants
#16
Shannon E Perry
A premature newborn was first transported via helicopter from place of birth to a specialty nursery 50 years ago. Since that time, the care of high-risk and premature newborns has evolved, but specialized services are not always available at the birth site. As a result, the demand for newborn transfer continues to grow. Today, neonates are transported to tertiary centers via ground ambulances, helicopters, and airplanes by highly trained personnel using sophisticated incubators and equipment.
April 22, 2017: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437783/evacuation-of-a-tertiary-neonatal-centre-lessons-from-the-2016-kumamoto-earthquakes
#17
Osuke Iwata, Akihiko Kawase, Masanori Iwai, Kazuko Wada
BACKGROUND: Newborn infants hospitalised in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are vulnerable to natural disasters. However, publications on evacuation from NICUs are sparse. The 2016 Kumamoto Earthquakes caused serious damage to Kumamoto City Hospital and its level III regional core NICU. Local/neighbour NICU teams and the disaster-communication team of a neonatal academic society cooperated to evacuate 38 newborn infants from the ward. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to highlight potential key factors to improve emergency NICU evacuation and coordination of hospital transportation following natural disasters...
April 25, 2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434222/isomer-specific-transplacental-transfer-of-perfluoroalkyl-acids-results-from-a-survey-of-paired-maternal-cord-sera-and-placentas
#18
Fangfang Chen, Shanshan Yin, Barry C Kelly, Weiping Liu
Currently, information regarding isomer-specific concentrations of PFHxS, PFOS, and PFOA in human placenta, and corresponding placental-maternal ratios (RPM) of these compounds does not exist. The objective of the present study was to assess the occurrence, and distribution of different PFHxS, PFOS, and PFOA isomers in maternal serum, umbilical cord serum, and placenta to gain a better understanding of transplacental transport efficiency and prenatal exposure risks. The study involved quantitative determination of isomer-specific concentrations of PFHxS, PFOS, and PFOA in samples of maternal serum (n = 32), cord serum (n = 32), and placenta (n = 32) from pregnant women in Wuhan, China...
May 1, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434009/hypoxic-ischaemic-encephalopathy-and-the-blood-brain-barrier-in-neonates
#19
Wei Ling Amelia Lee, Adina T Michael-Titus, Divyen K Shah
This review aims to highlight a possible relationship between hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE) and the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Inflammatory reactions perpetuate a large proportion of cerebral injury. The extent of injury noted in HIE is not only determined by the biochemical cascades that trigger the apoptosis-necrosis continuum of cell death in the brain parenchyma, but also by the breaching of the BBB by pro-inflammatory factors. We examine the changes that contribute to the breakdown of the BBB that occur during HIE at a macroscopic, cellular, and molecular level...
April 22, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432841/comparison-of-pneumatic-tube-system-with-manual-transport-for-routine-chemistry-hematology-coagulation-and-blood-gas-tests
#20
Alex Pupek, Beverly Matthewson, Erin Whitman, Rachel Fullarton, Yu Chen
BACKGROUND: The pneumatic tube system (PTS) is commonly used in modern clinical laboratories to provide quick specimen delivery. However, its impact on sample integrity and laboratory testing results are still debatable. In addition, each PTS installation and configuration is unique to its institution. We sought to validate our Swisslog PTS by comparing routine chemistry, hematology, coagulation and blood gas test results and sample integrity indices between duplicate samples transported either manually or by PTS...
April 22, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
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