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Eleonora Savi, Marcello Montagni, Silvia Peveri
Molecular diagnostic is a new therapeutic approach that - allows to valuate sensitization towards a single molecule in a allergenic source and to obtain relevant information on clinical features: sensitization towards molecules as alfa amylase of wheat or lipocalins of pets, Alt a 1 of alternaria spores and Hev b 6 of latex correlates with the risk to develop asthma - has a greater sensitivity in the serum IgE identification than the whole source.
November 2017: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Mario Di Gioacchino, Luca Di Giampaolo, Alessia Gatta, Annalisa Flacco, Rocco Mangifesta, Qiao Niu, Claudia Petrarca
OBJECTIVES: The first essential aspect for the prevention of occupational allergy is related to the accurate allergen identification and characterization. At present many efforts are made to characterize the potential for a chemical to be a sensitizing agent. METHODS: 'Omics' show great promise to identify key cellular and molecular events relevant to development of an adverse outcome pathway for respiratory sensitizers. One approach that shows promise is based on the measurement of the peptide reactivity of chemicals; the potential to form stable associations with protein/peptide being a key requirement for the induction of sensitization...
November 2017: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Enrico Maggi
OBJECTIVES: In the last decades the knowledge on pathogenetic mechanisms of allergic diseases extraordinarily improved with relevant clinical outputs. From the '90yrs we know that Th2 cells are essential for allergic inflammation, since they produce type 2 cytokines, recognise allergens, induce IgE switch on B cells and recruit mastcells and eosinophils into tissues for maintaining the flogosis. METHODS: Recently a new subset of innate immunity (ILC2) have been shown to amplify the allergic inflammation...
November 2017: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Ronnie O Pedersen, William L Nowatzke, Chung Y Cho, Kerry G Oliver, Eric A E Garber
Food allergies affect some 15 million Americans. The only treatment for food allergies is a strict avoidance diet. To help ensure the reliability of food labels, analytical methods are employed; the most common being enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). However, the commonly employed ELISAs are single analyte-specific and cannot distinguish between false positives due to cross-reactive homologous proteins; making the method of questionable utility for regulatory purposes when analyzing for unknown or multiple food allergens...
June 18, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Magda F Serra, Amanda C Cotias, Camila R R Pão, Julio B Daleprane, Patricia B Jurgilas, Gina C Couto, Edna A Anjos-Valotta, Renato S B Cordeiro, Vinicius F Carvalho, Patricia M R Silva, Marco A Martins
The importance of developing new animal models to assess the pathogenesis of glucocorticoid (GC)-insensitive asthma has been stressed. Because of the asthma-prone background of A/J mice, we hypothesized that asthma changes in these animals would be or become resistant to GCs under repeated exposures to an allergen. A/J mice were challenged with OVA for 2 or 4 consecutive d, starting on day 19 postsensitization. Oral dexamethasone or inhaled budesonide were given 1 h before challenge, and analyses were done 24 h after the last challenge...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Sigridur Jonsdottir, Sara Bjork Stefansdottir, Sæmundur Bjarni Kristinarson, Vilhjalmur Svansson, Jon Mar Bjornsson, Arna Runarsdottir, Bettina Wagner, Eliane Marti, Sigurbjorg Torsteinsdottir
Insect bite hypersensitivity is an allergic dermatitis of horses caused by bites of Culicoides midges. Sufficient amount of pure, endotoxin-free allergens is a prerequisite for development and monitoring of preventive and therapeutic allergen immunotherapy. Aims of the study were to compare the Culicoides nubeculosus (Cul n) allergens Cul n 3 and Cul n 4, produced in transgenic barley grains with the corresponding E. coli or insect cells expressed proteins for measuring antibody and cytokine responses. Allergen-specific IgG responses were measured by ELISA in sera from twelve horses not exposed to Culicoides, before and after vaccination with E...
July 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Veronica Swystun, Francis H Y Green, John H Dennis, Emmanouil Rampakakis, Gurkeet Lalli, Morenike Fadayomi, Andrea Chiu, Grishma Shrestha, Sharif Galal El Shahat, David Evan Nelson, Tamer Y El Mays, Cora A Pieron, Richard Leigh
BACKGROUND: This study evaluates a novel bronchodilator, S1226, for its efficacy in reversing allergen-induced bronchoconstriction in subjects with mild, allergic asthma. S1226 is a new class of bronchodilator that is an aerosol/vapor/gas mixture combining pharmacological and biophysical principles for a novel mode of action. It contains a potent bronchodilator gas (carbon dioxide or CO2 ) and nebulized perflubron (a synthetic surfactant possessing mucolytic properties). It has demonstrated rapid reversal of allergen-induced bronchoconstriction in an ovine study model...
June 18, 2018: Trials
Kewal Asosingh, Kelly Weiss, Kimberly Queisser, Nicholas Wanner, Mei Yin, Mark Aronica, Serpil Erzurum
Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2), an airway epithelial pattern recognition receptor (PRR), participates in the genesis of house dust mite-induced (HDM-induced) asthma. Here, we hypothesized that lung endothelial cells and proangiogenic hematopoietic progenitor cells (PACs) that express high levels of PAR-2 contribute to the initiation of atopic asthma. HDM extract (HDME) protease allergens were found deep in the airway mucosa and breaching the endothelial barrier. Lung endothelial cells and PACs released the Th2-promoting cytokines IL-1α and GM-CSF in response to HDME, and the endothelium had PAC-derived VEGF-C-dependent blood vessel sprouting...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Nina Fischer, Noémi Tarpataki, Federica Leidi, Ana Rostaher, Claude Favrot
BACKGROUND: Previously published studies evaluating a recombinant Der f 2-based immunotherapy have demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of dogs experimentally and naturally sensitized to house dust mites (HDM). Der f 2 sensitization is thought to play a minor role in European atopic dogs sensitized to HDM. OBJECTIVE: The study evaluated the short-term efficacy of a recombinant Der f 2 product in the treatment of naturally sensitized atopic dogs in Switzerland and Hungary...
June 17, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
Melanie Sarah Prout, Ryan L Kyle, Franca Ronchese, Graham Le Gros
Although IL-4 is long associated with CD4 Th2 immune responses, its role in Th2 subset development in non-lymphoid tissues is less clear. We sought to better define IL-4's role in CD4 Th2 responses by using transgenic mice that express a dual IL-4 AmCyan/IL-13 DsRed (IL-4AC/IL-13DR) fluorescent reporter on an IL-4-sufficient or IL-4-deficient background. Using primary Th2 immune response models against house dust mite or Nippostrongylus brasiliensis ( Nb ) allergens, we examined the requirement for IL-4 by each of the defined Th2 subsets in the antigen draining lymph node, skin, and lung tissues...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yoon-Young Sung, Seung-Hyung Kim, Won-Kyung Yang, Yang-Chun Park, Ho Kyoung Kim
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. Bleomycin (BLM) contributes to the induction of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in animals. Although skin and lung tissue inflammation is closely related in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, a proper animal model for investigating the relationship between skin and lung inflammation is lacking. Therefore, we developed a mouse model of AD with relapsing dermatitis and pulmonary fibrosis caused by the administration of allergen and BLM. The present study determined whether lung injury caused by the bronchial application of BLM would exacerbate AD-like allergic inflammation induced by 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) in NC/Nga mice...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Wang Wanjun, Hu Qiurong, Xie Yanqing, Xian Mo, Wei Nili, Li Jing
Background The results of skin and blood allergen testing are not consistently relevant to clinical manifestations in allergic patients. Objective The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between severity of allergic rhinitis and different allergen diagnostic tests in Dermatophagoides species-sensitized patients. Methods Study subjects included 65 rhinitis patients-50 with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP) sensitization (DP+) and 15 without DP sensitization (DP-), and 15 DP+ and 37 DP- healthy controls (HCs) confirmed by allergen skin prick (SPT) and blood specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) tests...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
Maureen Egan, Dan Atkins
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Observations suggesting that aeroallergens trigger eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in a subset of patients raise questions about the implications this finding has on the evaluation and management of patients with EoE, including a potential role for allergen immunotherapy. RECENT FINDINGS: The majority of studies evaluating the potential role of aeroallergens as provocateurs of EoE have addressed this issue by assessing the seasonal variation in EoE diagnosis and/or symptom onset or worsening, with mixed results...
June 16, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
Chris Carlsten
Paradoxically, the vast majority of research models intended to understand the relationship between exogenous exposures and lung disease are reduced to a single inhalant. This is understandable given the practical challenges of investigation, but is problematic in terms of translation to the real-world human condition. Furthermore, use of data from such models can lead to under-estimation of effect, which may adversely impact regulatory imperatives to protect public health based on the most robust information...
June 14, 2018: Chest
Masaya Matsuda, Yuki Morie, Hirotaka Oze, Kana Doi, Tatsuya Tsutsumi, Junpei Hamaguchi, Miki Inaba, Takeshi Nabe
INTRODUCTION: The mechanisms of allergen immunotherapy are not fully elucidated. Here, we sought to develop a murine model to demonstrate the effectiveness of subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) for allergic responses. As excessive antigen dosages may induce immune tolerance in sensitized mice, the effects of SCIT were assessed by varying the antigen dosage. The mechanisms of SCIT were analyzed by focusing on the induction of Foxp3+ Treg cells and IL-10-producing Foxp3- CD4+ T cells, as well as on the phenotype of the latter cells...
June 14, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
W Marty Blom, Anouska D Michelsen-Huisman, Harmieke van Os-Medendorp, Gert van Duijn, Mary-Lène de Zeeuw-Brouwer, Astrid Versluis, Jacqueline J M Castenmiller, Hubert P J M Noteborn, Astrid G Kruizinga, André C Knulst, Geert F Houben
BACKGROUND: Accidental allergic reactions to food are frequent, can be severe and even fatal. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the culprit food products and levels of unexpected allergens in accidental reactions. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in adults (n=157) with a physician-confirmed diagnosed food allergy. During a 1-year follow up, 73 patients reported accidental allergic reactions and the culprit food products. Food samples received (51) were analyzed for a wide range of suspected non-ingredient allergens and the risk was quantified...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Haohui Zhan, Fengsen Ma, Yingcong Huang, Jie Zhang, Xiayun Jiang, Yongchang Qian
We report a type of dissolving microneedles (DMNs) which was made of composite matrix materials of hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and poly(methylvinylether‑co‑maleic anhydride) (PMVE/MA copolymer, Gantrez S-97), and was successfully loaded with lidocaine hydrochloride. The weight of lidocaine hydrochloride loaded in the microneedles tip was 70% of the weight of the whole tip. The content was 3.43 ± 0.12 mg in weight, which was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results for mechanical test showed that these microneedles were able to penetrate into the skin of the experimental animals, that was proved using organic staining, texture analyzer and histological examination...
June 14, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Ioana Adriana Muntean, Ioana Corina Bocsan, Diana Deleanu
Wheat is the most commonly grown cereal. Immunological reaction to wheat may be IgE or T-cell- mediated. Asthma could be induced by inhaled flour or by exposure to allergens present in bakery products. In patients with IgE-mediated allergy to wheat proteins there is no specific therapy, except oral immunotherapy (OIT). There are few data regarding OIT with wheat protein in allergic patients. We present a case of a 32-yearold female patient, who worked for 5 years in wheat and bakery products industry, who developed an occupational asthma and chronic urticaria after flour inhalation or ingestion of foods that containit...
June 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
Ziba Ghasemi, Abdol-Reza Varasteh, Malihe Moghadam, Seyed-Amir Jalali, Ali Anissian, Mojtaba Sankian
Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has been introduced as a noninvasive and safer approach for allergen-specific immunotherapies. In this study we investigated the efficacy of oral immunotherapy with recombinant Salsola kali 1 protein (Sal k 1) on Th1/Th2 balance in a mouse model of allergy. Female Balb/c mice were intraperitoneally sensitized with rSal k1, followed by a respiratory challenge with 1% (w/v) rSal k1. The sensitized mice were subjected to SLIT using rSal K1 expressing Lactobacillus lactis strain for three weeks...
June 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
Laila Hellkvist, Eric Hjalmarsson, Susanna Kumlien Georén, Agnetha Karlsson, Karin Lundkvist, Ola Winqvist, Ulla Westin, Lars Olaf Cardell
Intralymphatic immunotherapy (ILIT) with only three lymph node-injections was performed with a combination of grass and birch allergen, with maintained safety and reduced reactivity at nasal grass allergen challenge.
June 13, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
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