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Autonomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684202/the-relationship-between-autonomy-and-adult-mental-capacity-in-the-law-of-england-and-wales
#1
Paul Skowron
Judges in England and Wales tell three apparently contradictory stories about the relationship between autonomy and mental capacity. Sometimes, capacity is autonomy's gatekeeper: those with capacity are autonomous, but those without capacity are not. Sometimes, capacity is necessary for autonomy but insufficient; for voluntariness, freedom from undue external influences is also required. Finally, sometimes autonomy survives incapacity, and a person without capacity is nevertheless treated as autonomous. These three accounts coexist, so no story of evolution, in which one account comes to replace another, can be told...
April 18, 2018: Medical Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682853/prosocial-vs-antisocial-coping-and-general-life-satisfaction-of-youth-with-mild-intellectual-disability
#2
P Kurtek
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to find differences in general life satisfaction in adolescents with mild intellectual disability (MID) with respect to exhibiting a prosocial or an antisocial coping style. According to the ecological approach, using the antisocial style in a competitive school environment (a zero-sum game) may increase personal satisfaction, while in the family, which operates on the principles of 'common good' or 'common failure' (a non-zero-sum game), the antisocial style may reduce general satisfaction of the individual...
April 22, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682342/a-proposed-middle-range-theory-of-nursing-in-hypertension-care
#3
REVIEW
Eva Drevenhorn
Nursing in hypertension care comprises counselling about lifestyle changes, blood pressure measurement, and being a translator for the physician. For the patient, changing lifestyle means performing self-care. As not much in the form of research and guidelines for nurses is available, a middle-range theory of nursing in hypertension care was developed to guide nurses in their practice, in order to improve the nursing of patients and design studies for investigating nursing in hypertension care. Concepts are presented related to the patient (attitude and beliefs regarding health and sickness, autonomy, personality and traits, level of perceived vulnerability, hardiness, sense of coherence, locus of control, self-efficacy, and access to social support and network) and the nursing (applying theories and models for behavioural change in the consultation and using counselling skills, patient advocacy, empowerment, professional knowledge and health education, and supporting the patient)...
2018: International Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680141/-beneficence-and-nonmaleficence-in-care
#4
Isabelle Pipien
Is a medical decision rationally founded on the application of statistically efficient evidence-based medicine procedures fair and right for any given patient? Medical ethics invite us to consider the caregiving action through the prism of guidelines based on autonomy, beneficence/nonmaleficence and justice.
April 2018: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680134/-consent-in-everyday-medicine
#5
Olivier Lesieur
In its legal sense, the term 'consent' finalises an agreement between two parties. When the care relationship is a long-term process, consent becomes a dynamic interaction between patient and caregivers, resulting in a fragile compromise which is continuously being brought into question by the unpredictable nature of the illness. Based on a holistic approach to the concept of autonomy, the decision-making process should take into account both the rationality of the deliberation and the individual's specific preferences...
April 2018: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680133/-respecting-the-patient-s-autonomy
#6
Jean-François Mattei
Autonomy forms the foundation of ethical duties and the primary reason for the respect owed to human beings. Despite the limits sometimes encountered, the patient must always remain at the heart of his or her own individual battle.
April 2018: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679459/exploring-the-meaning-of-home-and-its-implications-for-the-care-of-older-people
#7
Michele Board, Brendan McCormack
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore the meaning of home for six baby boomers and consider how this insight can be used when caring for older people in hospital or residential settings. BACKGROUND: Feeling at home is important to help retain a sense of autonomy, security and well-being, but home is a complex concept to understand. The baby boomers are a large cohort entering later life and understanding their sense of home is not only an example of anticipatory gerontology but it could also provide the tools to explore home with the current older population, who may be in a variety of care settings...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679164/the-effect-of-a-school-based-intervention-on-physical-activity-and-well-being-a-non-randomised-controlled-trial-with-children-of-low-socio-economic-status
#8
Stephen Shannon, Deirdre Brennan, Donncha Hanna, Zoe Younger, Jessica Hassan, Gavin Breslin
BACKGROUND: Self-determination theory (SDT) has been used to predict children's physical activity and well-being. However, few school-based SDT intervention studies have been conducted, and no research exists with children of low socio-economic status (SES). Therefore, SDT-derived needs-supportive teaching techniques informed the design and analyses of the Healthy Choices Programme (HCP). The aim was to determine if the HCP could enhance moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and well-being among children of low SES through increasing autonomy-support, needs satisfaction and intrinsic motivation...
April 20, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679141/ethical-considerations-of-researchers-conducting-pediatric-clinical-drug-trials-a-qualitative-survey-in-two-belgian-university-children-s-hospitals
#9
Wannes Van Hoof, Kevin Meesters, Lien Dossche, Daphné Christiaens, Pauline De Bruyne, Johan Vande Walle
There is a general consensus about the underlying theoretical ethical principles that ground the practice of pediatric clinical trials: scientific necessity, good risk/benefit ratio, minimized burden, and parental consent/child assent. However, these principles are so broadly construed that it is not always clear how they should be applied in clinical practice. We conducted a qualitative study at Ghent University Hospital and the hospital of the Dutch-speaking university of Brussels on how researchers weigh ethical principles, assess the risk/benefit balance, estimate patient experience, and experience informed consent procedures in pediatric drug studies...
April 21, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678801/stigma-and-its-association-with-glycemic-control-and-hypoglycemia-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-type-1-diabetes-cross-sectional-study
#10
Anne-Sophie Brazeau, Meranda Nakhla, Michael Wright, Mélanie Henderson, Constadina Panagiotopoulos, Daniele Pacaud, Patricia Kearns, Elham Rahme, Deborah Da Costa, Kaberi Dasgupta
BACKGROUND: Qualitative studies in type 1 diabetes indicate that visibility of diabetes supplies, self-care, and hypoglycemia symptoms are associated with stigma and suboptimal management. This may be particularly salient in youth who face concurrent challenges such as establishing autonomy and making vocational choices. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to estimate stigma prevalence in youth (aged 14-24 years) with type 1 diabetes and its associations with glycemic control...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678202/using-ryff-s-scales-of-psychological-well-being-in-adolescents-in-mainland-china
#11
Jie Gao, Ros McLellan
BACKGROUND: Psychological well-being in adolescence has always been a focus of public attention and academic research. Ryff's six-factor model of psychological well-being potentially provides a comprehensive theoretical framework for investigating positive functioning of adolescents. However, previous studies reported inconsistent findings of the reliability and validity of Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-being (SPWB). The present study aimed to explore whether Ryff's six-factor model of psychological well-being could be applied in Chinese adolescents...
April 20, 2018: BMC Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676287/electrophysiological-correlates-of-neurodegeneration-in-motor-and-non-motor-brain-regions-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-implications-for-brain-computer-interfacing
#12
Philipp Kellmeyer, Moritz Grosse-Wentrup, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage, Ulf Ziemann, Tonio Ball
For patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) who are suffering from severe communication or motor problems, brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can improve the quality of life and patient autonomy. However, current BCI systems are not as widely used as their potential and patient demand would let assume. This underutilization is a result of technological as well as user-based limitations but also of the comparatively poor performance of currently existing BCIs in patients with late-stage ALS, particularly in the locked-in state...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676218/vaunting-the-independent-amateur-scientific-american-and-the-representation-of-lay-scientists
#13
Sean F Johnston
This paper traces how media representations encouraged enthusiasts, youth and skilled volunteers to participate actively in science and technology during the twentieth century. It assesses how distinctive discourses about scientific amateurs positioned them with respect to professionals in shifting political and cultural environments. In particular, the account assesses the seminal role of a periodical, Scientific American magazine, in shaping and championing an enduring vision of autonomous scientific enthusiasms...
April 20, 2018: Annals of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675415/practical-and-ethical-aspects-of-advance-research-directives-for-research-on-healthy-aging-german-and-israeli-professionals-perspectives
#14
Perla Werner, Silke Schicktanz
Background: Healthy aging is the development and maintenance of optimal cognitive, social and physical well-being, and function in older adults. Preventing or minimizing disease is one of the main ways of achieving healthy aging. Dementia is one of the most prevalent and life-changing diseases of old age. Thus, dementia prevention research is defined as one of the main priorities worldwide. However, conducting research with persons who lack the capacity to give consent is a major ethical issue...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674369/do-conceptualisations-of-health-differ-across-social-strata-a-concept-mapping-study-among-lay-people
#15
Karien Stronks, Nancy Hoeymans, Beatrijs Haverkamp, Frank R J den Hertog, Marja J H van Bon-Martens, Henrike Galenkamp, Marcel Verweij, Hans A M van Oers
OBJECTIVES: The legitimacy of policies that aim at tackling socioeconomic inequalities in health can be challenged if they do not reflect the conceptualisations of health that are valued in all strata. Therefore, this study analyses how different socioeconomic groups formulate their own answers regarding: what does health mean to you? DESIGN: Concept mapping procedures were performed in three groups that differ in educational level. All procedures followed exactly the same design...
April 19, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674248/frequency-of-participation-and-association-with-functioning-in-adolescents-born-extremely-preterm-findings-from-a-population-based-cohort-in-northern-germany
#16
K Sell, M Rapp, H Muehlan, J Spiegler, U Thyen
BACKGROUND: Outcomes after extremely preterm birth (<28 weeks gestation) have been studied intensely, and follow-up into adulthood is well-established. Following the introduction of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, participation has been recognized to be a relevant outcome in rehabilitation research. During adolescence, participation is crucial to adapting to new social roles. The aim of our study was to investigate participation in the domains Autonomy, Relationships and Community Recreation...
April 16, 2018: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673720/-study-of-parental-bonding-in-childhood-in-children-and-adolescents-with-anorexia-nervosa
#17
A M H Albinhac, F A M Jean, M P Bouvard
INTRODUCTION: Anorexia nervosa constitutes a severe and complex eating disorder occurring principally in adolescence. It is one of the most deadly psychiatric disorders. Considering the multifactorial nature of anorexia nervosa, the important place of the family and the growing interest in the theory of attachment in eating disorders, parental bonding is questioned in anorexia nervosa. The main study goal is to analyze parental bonding in a population of children and adolescents with anorexia nervosa...
April 16, 2018: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673342/medical-end-of-life-practices-in-swiss-cultural-regions-a-death-certificate-study
#18
Samia A Hurst, Ueli Zellweger, Georg Bosshard, Matthias Bopp
BACKGROUND: End-of-life decisions remain controversial. Switzerland, with three main languages shared with surrounding countries and legal suicide assistance, allows exploration of the effects of cultural differences on end-of-life practices within the same legal framework. METHODS: We conducted a death certificate study on a nationwide continuous random sample of Swiss residents. Using an internationally standardized tool, we sent 4998, 2965, and 1000 anonymous questionnaires to certifying physicians in the German-, French-, and Italian-speaking regions...
April 20, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673224/new-vectorial-propulsion-system-and-trajectory-control-designs-for-improved-auv-mission-autonomy
#19
Ivan Masmitja, Julian Gonzalez, Cesar Galarza, Spartacus Gomariz, Jacopo Aguzzi, Joaquin Del Rio
Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUV) are proving to be a promising platform design for multidisciplinary autonomous operability with a wide range of applications in marine ecology and geoscience. Here, two novel contributions towards increasing the autonomous navigation capability of a new AUV prototype (the Guanay II) as a mix between a propelled vehicle and a glider are presented. Firstly, a vectorial propulsion system has been designed to provide full vehicle maneuverability in both horizontal and vertical planes...
April 17, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673066/total-pancreaticoduodenectomy-with-autologous-islet-transplantation-fourteen-years-after-liver-contained-composite-visceral-transplantation
#20
Ahmed Nassar, Cristiano Quintini, Guilherme Costa, Elizabeth Lennon, Rita Bottino, Betul Hatipoglu, Koji Hashimoto, Masato Fujiki, Fouad Kandeel, R Matthew Walsh, Kareem Abu-Elmagd
Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a severely disabling disorder with potential detrimental effects on quality of life, gut function, and glucose homeostasis. Disease progression often results in irreversible morphological and functional abnormalities with development of chronic pain, mechanical obstruction, and pancreatic insufficiency. Along with comprehensive medical management, the concept of total pancreatectomy and islet autotransplantation (TP-AIT) was introduced forty years ago for patients with intractable pain and preserved beta-cell function...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
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