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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925941/cold-atmospheric-plasma-in-the-treatment-of-osteosarcoma
#1
REVIEW
Denis Gümbel, Sander Bekeschus, Nadine Gelbrich, Matthias Napp, Axel Ekkernkamp, Axel Kramer, Matthias B Stope
Human osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignant bone tumor occurring most commonly in adolescents and young adults. Major improvements in disease-free survival have been achieved by implementing a combination therapy consisting of radical surgical resection of the tumor and systemic multi-agent chemotherapy. However, long-term survival remains poor, so novel targeted therapies to improve outcomes for patients with osteosarcoma remains an area of active research. This includes immunotherapy, photodynamic therapy, or treatment with nanoparticles...
September 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925655/pleuritic-chest-pain-sorting-through-the-differential-diagnosis
#2
Brian V Reamy, Pamela M Williams, Michael Ryan Odom
Pleuritic chest pain is characterized by sudden and intense sharp, stabbing, or burning pain in the chest when inhaling and exhaling. Pulmonary embolism is the most common serious cause, found in 5% to 21% of patients who present to an emergency department with pleuritic chest pain. A validated clinical decision rule for pulmonary embolism should be employed to guide the use of additional tests such as d-dimer assays, ventilation-perfusion scans, or computed tomography angiography. Myocardial infarction, pericarditis, aortic dissection, pneumonia, and pneumothorax are other serious causes that should be ruled out using history and physical examination, electrocardiography, troponin assays, and chest radiography before another diagnosis is made...
September 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923702/zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-synthesis-antiseptic-activity-and-toxicity-mechanism
#3
REVIEW
A Król, P Pomastowski, K Rafińska, V Railean-Plugaru, B Buszewski
Zinc oxide (ZnO), as a material with attractive properties, has attracted great interest worldwide, particularly owing to the implementation of the synthesis of nano-sized particles. High luminescent efficiency, a wide band gap (3.36eV), and a large exciton binding energy (60meV) has triggered intense research on the production of nanoparticles using different synthesis methods and on their future applications. ZnO nanomaterials can be used in industry as nano-optical and nano-electrical devices, in food packaging and in medicine as antimicrobial and antitumor agents...
August 26, 2017: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922716/quaternary-ammonium-groups-modified-starch-microspheres-for-instant-hemorrhage-control
#4
Fangping Chen, Xiaoyan Cao, Junxia Yu, Huantong Su, Shuda Wei, Hua Hong, Changsheng Liu
Instant rapid hemostasis is crucial not only for decreasing mortality in these conditions, but also for optimal recovery. The hemostatic agents on the market suffer from inefficiency hemostasis, nondegradability, high cost and potential safety issues. It is necessary to develop a hemostatic agent with rapid hemostatic performance, potent biodegradation and improved biocompatibility. The aim of this work was to develop a novel type of cationic modified starch microspheres (CS) and investigate its hemostatic performance...
August 24, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919740/low-toxic-maghemite-nanoparticles-for-theranostic-applications
#5
Elena A Kuchma, Peter V Zolotukhin, Anna A Belanova, Mikhail A Soldatov, Tatiana A Lastovina, Stanislav P Kubrin, Anatoliy V Nikolsky, Lidia I Mirmikova, Alexander V Soldatov
BACKGROUND: Iron oxide nanoparticles have numerous and versatile biological properties, ranging from direct and immediate biochemical effects to prolonged influences on tissues. Most applications have strict requirements with respect to the chemical and physical properties of such agents. Therefore, developing rational design methods of synthesis of iron oxide nanoparticles remains of vital importance in nanobiomedicine. METHODS: Low toxic superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) for theranostic applications in oncology having spherical shape and maghemite structure were produced using the fast microwave synthesis technique and were fully characterized by several complementary methods (transmission electron microscopy [TEM], X-ray diffraction [XRD], dynamic light scattering [DLS], X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy [XPS], X-ray absorption near edge structure [XANES], Mossbauer spectroscopy, and HeLa cells toxicity testing)...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919526/chemical-crosslinking-of-biopolymeric-scaffolds-current-knowledge-and-future-directions-of-crosslinked-engineered-bone-scaffolds
#6
REVIEW
Ahmad Oryan, Amir Kamali, Ali Moshiri, Hossien Baharvand, Hamed Daemi
Bone tissue scaffolds made from either natural or synthetic polymers are employed to promote bone healing. However, lack of sufficient or poor mechanical properties such as low integrity and stability reduces their medical applications. Crosslinking, defined as induction of chemical or physical links among polymer chains, is a simple method generally used to modify mechanical, biological and degradation properties of hydrogels. Although crosslinking through chemical reactions improves the mechanical properties of bone substitutes, most of the reagents used for this aim demonstrate undesirable effects and may exert toxic reactions...
September 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919064/genetics-of-obesity-what-genetic-association-studies-have-taught-us-about-the-biology-of-obesity-and-its-complications
#7
REVIEW
Mark O Goodarzi
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, and other adiposity traits have identified more than 300 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Although there is reason to hope that these discoveries will eventually lead to new preventive and therapeutic agents for obesity, this will take time because such developments require detailed mechanistic understanding of how an SNP influences phenotype (and this information is largely unavailable). Fortunately, absence of functional information has not prevented GWAS findings from providing insights into the biology of obesity...
September 14, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918734/the-2016-royal-australian-and-new-zealand-college-of-psychiatrists-guidelines-for-the-management-of-schizophrenia-and-related-disorders
#8
David J Castle, Cherrie A Galletly, Frances Dark, Verity Humberstone, Vera A Morgan, Eóin Killackey, Jayashri Kulkarni, Patrick McGorry, Olav Nielssen, Nga T Tran, Assen Jablensky
The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists (RANZCP) clinical practice guidelines for the management of schizophrenia and related disorders provide evidence-based recommendations for optimising treatment and prognosis. This update to the 2005 RANZCP guidelines has a greater emphasis on psychosocial treatments, physical health comorbidities and vocational rehabilitation. Main recommendations: The guidelines advise a clinical staging approach and deliver specific recommendations for:•comprehensive treatment using second generation antipsychotic agents continuously for 2-5 years;•early treatment of comorbid substance use;•community treatment after initial contact, during crises and after discharge from hospital;•physical health monitoring and management of comorbidities, particularly metabolic health;•interventions to optimise recovery of social function and return to study or work; and•management of schizophrenia in specific populations and circumstances...
June 19, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918604/symptom-experience-of-multiple-myeloma-symmex-patients-treated-with-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-following-high-dose-melphalan-a-descriptive-longitudinal-study
#9
Matthias Naegele, Monika Kirsch, Gabriele Ihorst, Katharina Fierz, Monika Engelhardt, Sabina De Geest
PURPOSE: High-dose melphalan and autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) are associated with high symptom burden. This study aimed to explore multiple myeloma (MM) patients' experience of symptom frequency, intensity, and distress during therapy. METHODS: This descriptive longitudinal study enrolled 29 MM patients who completed the 43-item PROVIVO questionnaire, measuring symptom experience across the dimensions of frequency, intensity, and distress at four assessment points: hospital admission (T0), leucocyte nadir (T1), discharge (T2), and 30 days post discharge (T3)...
September 16, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917985/the-effect-of-particle-shape-on-cellular-interaction-and-drug-delivery-applications-of-micro-and-nanoparticles
#10
REVIEW
Anil B Jindal
Encapsulation of therapeutic agents in nanoparticles offers several benefits including improved bioavailability, site specific delivery, reduced toxicity and in vivo stability of proteins and nucleotides over conventional delivery options. These benefits are consequence of distinct in vivo pharmacokinetic and biodistribution profile of nanoparticles, which is dictated by the complex interplay of size, surface charge and surface hydrophobicity. Recently, particle shape has been identified as a new physical parameter which has exerted tremendous impact on cellular uptake and biodistribution, thereby in vivo performance of nanoparticles...
September 13, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917929/development-of-carboxymethyl-cellulose-chitosan-hybrid-micro-and-macroparticles-for-encapsulation-of-probiotic-bacteria
#11
P Singh, B Medronho, L Alves, G J da Silva, M G Miguel, B Lindman
Novel carboxymethyl cellulose-chitosan (CMC-Cht) hybrid micro- and macroparticles were successfully prepared in aqueous media either by drop-wise addition or via nozzle-spray methods. The systems were either physically or chemically crosslinked using genipin as the reticulation agent. The macroparticles (ca. 2mm) formed are found to be essentially of the core-shell type, while the microparticles (ca. 5μm) are apparently homogeneous. The crosslinked particles are robust, thermally resistant and less sensitive to pH changes...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917271/cognitive-impairment-and-chemotherapy-a-brief-overview
#12
REVIEW
Milena Vitali, Carla Ida Ripamonti, Fausto Roila, Claudia Proto, Diego Signorelli, Martina Imbimbo, Giulia Corrao, Angela Brissa, Gallucci Rosaria, Filippo de Braud, Marina Chiara Garassino, Giuseppe Lo Russo
Patients with cancer are experiencing long-term survival following chemotherapy, but the treatment may also be associated with short and long-term toxicity, including the possibility of cognitive dysfunction. A literature overview indicated a significant association between chemotherapy and cognitive impairment but prospective longitudinal research is warranted to examine the degree and persisting nature of this decline. Although chemotherapeutic agents are unlikely to cross the blood-brain barrier, it has been alleged that the occurrence of neurotoxicity is linked to the pro-inflammatory cytokine pathways...
October 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917257/exploiting-molecular-genomics-in-precision-radiation-oncology-a-marriage-of-biological-and-physical-precision
#13
Janice S H Tan, Xiaotian Lin, Kevin L M Chua, Paula Y Lam, Khee-Chee Soo, Melvin L K Chua
Achieving local tumour control is paramount for cure in head and neck and prostate cancers. With the transition to precision radiotherapy (RT) techniques, survival rates have improved in the majority of these cancers, but a substantial proportion of 30-40% still relapse following primary treatment. Recent large-scale molecular profiling studies have revealed unique biological events that could explain for tumour aggression and resistance to therapies, redefining the molecular taxonomy of head and neck and prostate cancers...
September 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916492/overcoming-ocular-drug-delivery-barriers-through-the-use-of-physical-forces
#14
Di Huang, Ying-Shan Chen, Ilva D Rupenthal
Overcoming the physiological barriers in the eye remains a key obstacle in the field of ocular drug delivery. While ocular barriers naturally have a protective function, they also limit drug entry into the eye. Various pharmaceutical strategies, such as novel formulations and physical force-based techniques, have been investigated to weaken these barriers and transport therapeutic agents effectively to both the anterior and the posterior segments of the eye. This review summarizes and discusses the recent research progress in the field of ocular drug delivery with a focus on the application of physical methods, including electrical fields, sonophoresis, and microneedles, which can enhance penetration efficiency by transiently disrupting the ocular barriers in a minimally or non-invasive manner...
September 12, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916319/inhibition-of-growth-and-biofilm-formation-of-clinical-bacterial-isolates-by-nio-nanoparticles-synthesized-from-eucalyptus-globulus-plants
#15
Samia Saleem, Bilal Ahmed, Mohammad Saghir Khan, Majed Al-Shaeri, Javed Musarrat
Nanotechnology based therapeutics has emerged as a promising approach for augmenting the activity of existing antimicrobials due to the unique physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles (NPs). Nickel oxide nanoparticles (NiO-NPs) have been suggested as prospective antibacterial and antitumor agent. In this study, NiO-NPs have been synthesized by a green approach using Eucalyptus globulus leaf extract and assessed for their bactericidal activity. The morphology and purity of synthesized NiO-NPs determined through various spectroscopic techniques like UV-Visible, FT-IR, XRD, EDX and electron microscopy differed considerably...
September 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915485/long-acting-and-broad-spectrum-antimicrobial-electrospun-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-gelatin-micro-nanofibers-for-wound-dressing
#16
Rui Shi, Huan Geng, Min Gong, Jingjing Ye, Chengai Wu, Xiaohua Hu, Liqun Zhang
Trimethoxysilylpropyl octadecyldimethyl ammonium chloride (QAS), which forms facile bonds with hydroxyl groups, acts asa cationic antibacterial agent. In this work, QAS was introduced into a polycaprolactone (PCL)/gelatin hybrid in increasing concentrations to fabricate a long-acting and broad-spectrum antimicrobial micro/nanofiber membrane as a novel wound dressing. The physical interactions and chemical bonding between QAS/PCL and QAS/gelatin were demonstrated by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914527/locally-induced-adipose-tissue-browning-by-microneedle-patch-for-obesity-treatment
#17
Yuqi Zhang, Qiongming Liu, Jicheng Yu, Shuangjiang Yu, Jinqiang Wang, Li Qiang, Zhen Gu
Obesity is one of the most serious public health problems in the 21st century that may lead to many comorbidities such as type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Current treatments toward obesity including diet, physical exercise, pharmacological therapy, as well as surgeries are always associated with low effectiveness or undesired systematical side effects. In order to enhance treatment efficiency with minimized side effects, we developed a transcutaneous browning agent patch to locally induce adipose tissue transformation...
September 15, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912946/crosslinking-method-of-hyaluronic-based-hydrogel-for-biomedical-applications
#18
Sureerat Khunmanee, Younghyen Jeong, Hansoo Park
In the field of tissue engineering, there is a need for advancement beyond conventional scaffolds and preformed hydrogels. Injectable hydrogels have gained wider admiration among researchers as they can be used in minimally invasive surgical procedures. Injectable gels completely fill the defect area and have good permeability and hence are promising biomaterials. The technique can be effectively applied to deliver a wide range of bioactive agents, such as drugs, proteins, growth factors, and even living cells...
January 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911059/forcing-the-vicious-circle-sarcopenia-increases-toxicity-decreases-response-to-chemotherapy-and-worsens-with-chemotherapy
#19
F Bozzetti
Sarcopenia has recently emerged as a new condition that, independently from malnutrition, may adversely affect the prognosis of cancer patients. Purpose of this narrative review is to define the prevalence of sarcopenia in different primaries, its role in leading to chemotherapy toxicity and decreased compliance with the oncological therapy and the effect of some drugs on the onset of sarcopenia. Finally, the review aims to describe the current approaches to restore the muscle mass through nutrition, exercise and anti-inflammatory agents or multimodal programmes with a special emphasis on the results of randomized controlled trials...
September 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910216/psychopathy-in-the-medical-emergency-department
#20
Stephen D Benning, Stephany M Molina, Emily A Dowgwillo, Christopher J Patrick, Karen F Miller, Alan B Storrow
Psychopathy is a personality disorder representing an admixture of a fearless and dominant temperament with an impulsive and antisocial orientation. A sample of 1,026 participants in the waiting room of the medical emergency department of a city hospital exhibited levels of fearless dominance similar to university undergraduates and federal inmates; their levels of impulsive antisociality fell between those of federal and state inmates. Both psychopathy factors were correlated with male gender, younger age, and more frequent average alcohol consumption...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
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