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Physical agent

Yong Yang, Brent A Langellier, Ivana Stankov, Jonathan Purtle, Katherine L Nelson, Ana V Diez Roux
OBJECTIVES: Daily transport may impact depression risk among older adults through several pathways including facilitating the ability to meet basic needs, enabling and promoting contact with other people and nature, and promoting physical activity (e.g. through active transportation such as walking or walking to public transit). Both daily transport and depression are influenced by the neighborhood environment. To provide insights into how transport interventions may affect depression in older adults, we developed a pilot agent-based model to explore the contribution of daily transport and neighborhood environment to older adults' depression in urban areas...
March 15, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Shin-Ichi Oikawa, Kiyoto Shiga, Daisuke Saito, Katsunori Katagiri, Aya Ikeda, Kodai Tuchida, Jun Miyaguchi, Kazuyuki Ishida, Tamotsu Sugai
The present study aimed to investigate the usefulness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) and a newly developed analysis software for the detection of microcapillary network distribution in lymph nodes of patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) by comparing the CEUS and histopathological findings. Patients that were diagnosed with HNC between February and September 2016 were enrolled. A total of five patients underwent resection of the primary tumor and neck dissection as their initial treatment. The cervical lymph nodes of these patients were analyzed by CEUS intraoperatively, and their surgical specimens were examined histopathologically...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Na Jia, Yuan-Chun Zheng, Jia-Fu Jiang, Rui-Ruo Jiang, Bao-Gui Jiang, Ran Wei, Hong-Bo Liu, Qiu-Bo Huo, Yi Sun, Yan-Li Chu, Hang Fan, Qiao-Cheng Chang, Nan-Nan Yao, Wen-Hui Zhang, Hong Wang, Dong-Hui Guo, Xue Fu, Ya-Wei Wang, Peter J Krause, Ju-Liang Song, Wu-Chun Cao
Background: Human babesiosis is an emerging health problem in China. Methods: Babesia were identified in ticks, sheep, and humans in northeastern China using PCR followed by genetic sequencing. We enrolled residents of Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces between 2015 and 2016 who reported a recent tick bite and experienced a viral like illness after recent tick bite or were healthy residents. We evaluated them for Babesia infection using history; physical examination; and blood smear, PCR, and genetic sequencing...
March 10, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Wen-Ting K Tsai, Anna M Wu
The exquisite specificity of antibodies and antibody fragments renders them excellent agents for targeted delivery of radionuclides. Radiolabeled antibodies and fragments have been successfully used for molecular imaging and radioimmunotherapy (RIT) of cell-surface targets in oncology and immunology. Protein engineering has been employed for antibody humanization essential for clinical applications, as well as optimization of important characteristics including pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and clearance...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
Arwa Abu Khweek, Amal O Amer
Legionella pneumophila ( L. pneumophila ) is an opportunistic waterborne pathogen and the causative agent for Legionnaires' disease, which is transmitted to humans via inhalation of contaminated water droplets. The bacterium is able to colonize a variety of man-made water systems such as cooling towers, spas, and dental lines and is widely distributed in multiple niches, including several species of protozoa In addition to survival in planktonic phase, L. pneumophila is able to survive and persist within multi-species biofilms that cover surfaces within water systems...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Trisha L Roy, Thomas L Forbes, Andrew D Dueck, Graham A Wright
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has advanced significantly in the past decade and provides a safe and non-invasive method of evaluating peripheral artery disease (PAD), with and without using exogenous contrast agents. MRI offers a promising alternative for imaging patients but the complexity of MRI can make it less accessible for physicians to understand or use. This article provides a brief introduction to the technical principles of MRI for physicians who manage PAD patients. We discuss the basic principles of how MRI works and tailor the discussion to how MRI can evaluate anatomic characteristics of peripheral arterial lesions...
March 1, 2018: Vascular Medicine
Zhimin Tao, Mandar Deepak Muzumdar, Alexandre Detappe, Xing Huang, Eric Xu, Yingjie Yu, Tarek H Mouhieddine, Haiqin Song, Tyler Jacks, P Peter Ghoroghchian
Human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) contains a distinctively dense stroma that limits the accessibility of anticancer drugs, contributing to its poor overall prognosis. Nanoparticles can enhance drug delivery and retention in pancreatic tumors and have been utilized clinically for their treatment. In preclinical investigations, various mouse models differentially recapitulate the microenvironmental features of human PDAC. Here, we demonstrate that through utilization of different organic co-solvents and by doping of a homopolymer of poly(ε-caprolactone), a diblock copolymer composition of poly(ethylene oxide)- block-poly(ε-caprolactone) may be utilized to generate biodegradable and nanoscale micelles with different physical properties...
March 13, 2018: Nano Letters
Heerak Chugh, Damini Sood, Ishita Chandra, Vartika Tomar, Gagan Dhawan, Ramesh Chandra
Development of nanoparticles (NPs) as a part of cancer therapeutics has given rise to a new field of research - cancer nanomedicine. In comparison to traditional anti-cancer drugs, NPs provide a targeted approach which prevents undesirable effects. In this communication, we have reviewed the role of gold and silver NPs (AgNPs) in the cancer nanomedicine. The preparation of gold NPs (AuNPs) and AgNPs can be grouped into three categories - physical, chemical and biological. Among the three approaches, the biological approach is growing and receiving more attention due to its safe and effective production...
March 13, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Michael Malone, Abdul Waheed, Samiullah Samiullah
Functional lower gastrointestinal disorders include irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), functional constipation, functional fecal incontinence, and functional anorectal pain. These disorders are common and have significant medical and social effects. They also can be challenging to manage. Patients with mild symptoms may benefit from lifestyle modification. IBS is classified into two subtypes: diarrhea-predominant and constipation-predominant. Depending on the IBS subtype and its likely etiology, patients may benefit from treatment with antispasmodics, antidepressants, guanylate cyclase-C agonists, chloride channel activators, antidiarrheal agents, probiotics, and/or antibiotics...
March 2018: FP Essentials
Ashley Ann Ellsworth, Amy Victoria Walker
Electroless deposition is widely used in industry to deposit metals because it is inexpensive and compatible with organic materials. The deposition rate and deposited film properties critically depend on the reducing agent, complexing agent, and bath pH and temperature as well as bath additives. We have investigated the role of ethanolamine additives in the electroless deposition of copper using the reducing agent dimethylamine borane on -CH3 and -OH terminated SAMs adsorbed on gold. Three additives were studied: ethanolamine, diethanolamine and triethanolamine...
March 12, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Serge W Wiltshire
An agent-based computer model that builds representative regional U.S. hog production networks was developed and employed to assess the potential impact of the ongoing trend towards increased producer specialization upon network-level resilience to catastrophic disease outbreaks. Empirical analyses suggest that the spatial distribution and connectivity patterns of contact networks often predict epidemic spreading dynamics. Our model heuristically generates realistic systems composed of hog producer, feed mill, and slaughter plant agents...
2018: PloS One
Bai Yang, Yue Wu, Xiaopan Li, Ronghai Yu
It is difficult to fabricate high-purity amorphous FeCo alloys by traditional physical methods due to their weak glass forming ability. In this work, the fully amorphous FeCo nanoalloys with high purity and good stability have been prepared by a direct chemical reduction of Fe2+ and Co2+ ions with NaBH₄ as the reducing agent and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as the surfactant. The morphologies, surface compositions and particle sizes with their distribution of these amorphous samples can be effectively tuned by the suitable PVP additions...
March 9, 2018: Nanomaterials
Jichun Gu, Hexige Saiyin, Deliang Fu, Ji Li
Pancreatic cancer is a uniformly lethal malignancy with an abundant dense desmoplastic stroma. Because of its dense stroma, conventional drugs were considered to not penetrate this physical barrier, and this caused a systemic drug resistance. Thus, abolishing this barrier with targeted agents is considered to improve the efficiency of chemotherapeutic treatment. The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is a critical regulator of pancreas development and plays diversified roles in pancreatic cancer stroma and neoplastic cells...
April 2018: Pancreas
Gary A Toranzos, Raúl J Cano
Environmental forensics is a tool that uses chemical, physical, and statistical techniques to investigate contaminants in the environment as a means to determine attribution for legal purposes. Environmental microbiology is a branch of science that has benefited from the use of metagenomics. The term microbial forensics, which includes nucleic acid sequencing methods, is now used to investigate the sources of microorganisms for attribution purposes as well. Environmental microbial forensics can fully address the questions that must be answered for attribution of causation and subsequent remedial actions within a reasonably short time frame...
March 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Minoo Batooei, Ahmad Tahamoli Roudsari, Zahra Basiri, Fatemeh Yasrebifar, Maryam Shahdoust, Azadeh Eshraghi, Maryam Mehrpooya, Sara Ataei
OBJECTIVE: Oxidative stress and Overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines are contributed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent which demonstrated analgesic effects in some studies. This study is designed to assess the effects of oral NAC as an adjuvant therapy on the clinical symptoms of patients with active RA. METHODS: In this randomized clinical trial, 51 RA patients with active RA were studied in 2 groups, NAC group (27 patients) received standard treatment of RA and 600 mg NAC twice a day for 12 weeks and placebo group (24 patients) received the standard treatment of RA and placebo...
March 7, 2018: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
Dinesh Puri, Anil Bhandari, Praveen Kumar Gaur, Mohd Yasir, S Sadish Kumar, Deepak Choudhary
OBJECTIVE: The aim of present research work was to develop a herbal fast disintegrating tablet containing Fagonia schweinfurthii Hadidi dried extract and determining its antihistaminic activity using guinea pig ileum. METHOD: The tablets were formulated by wet granulation technique using three different superdisintegrants (croscarmillose, crospovidone and sodium starch glycolate) at three different use levels. The tablets were evaluated for various physical properties like hardness, friability weight variation etc...
March 9, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
Małgorzata Kiełczykowska, Joanna Kocot, Marek Paździor, Irena Musik
Selenium is a trace element which fulfils important functions in the organism. Its deficit may cause acute disorders, but an overdose can also lead to severe consequences. The functions of selenium in the organism are mainly connected with its antioxidant properties, as it is an essential part of important antioxidant enzymes. Disturbances of oxidant balance have been found to be involved in the activity of numerous harmful factors as well as in the pathogenesis of diverse illnesses. Selenium administration has proved to be effective against the toxicity of many agents and the side effects of drugs...
February 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Kirsten Hastrup, Astrid Oberborbeck Andersen, Bjarne Grønnow, Mads Peter Heide-Jørgensen
The formation of the North Water in Smith Sound about 4500 years ago, as evidenced by the establishment of bird colonies and human presence, also initiated a long-term anthropogenic agent as part of this High Arctic ecosystem. Different epochs have influenced the human occupation in the area: immigration pulses from Canada and Alaska, trade with meteorite iron throughout the Arctic, introduction of new technologies by whalers and explorers, exploitation of resources by foreigners, political sequestration, export of fox and seal skins and later narwhal products, and recently fishing...
March 8, 2018: Ambio
Françoise Debart, Christelle Dupouy, Jean-Jacques Vasseur
Oligonucleotides (ONs) have been envisaged for therapeutic applications for more than thirty years. However, their broad use requires overcoming several hurdles such as instability in biological fluids, low cell penetration, limited tissue distribution, and off-target effects. With this aim, many chemical modifications have been introduced into ONs definitively as a means of modifying and better improving their properties as gene silencing agents and some of them have been successful. Moreover, in the search for an alternative way to make efficient ON-based drugs, the general concept of prodrugs was applied to the oligonucleotide field...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
Mariel Araceli Oyervides-Muñoz, Antonio Alí Pérez-Maya, Hazyadee Frecia Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Gabriela Sofía Gómez Macias, Oscar Raúl Fajardo-Ramírez, Víctor Treviño, Hugo Alberto Barrera-Saldaña, María Lourdes Garza-Rodríguez
Cervical cancer is one of the main causes of female cancer death worldwide, and human papilloma virus (HPV) its causal agent. To investigate viral oncogenesis several studies have focused on the effects of HPV oncoproteins E6 and E7 and the mechanisms by which these proteins stimulate the cellular transformation process. However, phenomena such as the physical state of the viral genome (episomal or integrated) and the effects of this integration on cell proliferation contribute new clues to understand how HPV infection causes carcinogenesis...
March 5, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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