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infection control

I-Ting Tsai, Chao-Ping Wang, Teng-Hung Yu, Yung-Chuan Lu, Chih-Wen Lin, Li-Fen Lu, Cheng-Ching Wu, Fu-Mei Chung, Yau-Jiunn Lee, Wei-Chin Hung, Chia-Chang Hsu
Adipocytokines play an important role in adipose tissue homeostasis, especially in obesity-associated disorders such as non-alcoholic fatty liver and their complications including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although visfatin is an adipocytokine highly expressed in visceral fat that has been demonstrated to play a critical role in the progression of human malignancies, little is known about the role of visfatin in HCC associated with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection...
October 19, 2016: Cytokine
Sineewanlaya Wichit, Pauline Ferraris, Valérie Choumet, Dorothée Missé
Arboviruses such as Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika viruses represent a major public health problem due to globalization and propagation of susceptible vectors worldwide. Arthropod vector-derived salivary factors have the capacity to modulate human cells function by enhancing or suppressing viral replication and, therefore, modify the establishment of local and systemic viral infection. Here, we discuss how mosquito saliva may interfere with Dengue virus (DENV) infection in humans. Identification of saliva factors that enhance infectivity will allow the production of vector-based vaccines and therapeutics that would interfere with viral transmission by targeting arthropod saliva components...
October 19, 2016: Current Opinion in Virology
T Akhvlediani, N Akhvlediani, T Kuchuloria
Health care associated infections are the most frequent adverse event accompanying healthcare delivery worldwide. Of these, respiratory tract infections, including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), have been recognized as the most common infections in acute hospitals. Sparse anecdotal and epidemiologic data from intensive care units (ICU) and infectious diseases physicians, as well as several publications in this field, suggest that the etiology of VAP in Georgia is most likely Klebsiella pneumoniae. This review article discusses the challenges of infection control in the Georgian health care system, with a focus on VAP...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
N Didbaridze, N Lomidze, T Abuladze, G Qiliptari, T Didbaridze, I Gvasalia, Z Mkervalishvili, N Gogokhia
Anaerobic clostridial infection is the most severe form of paraproctitis. The incubation period is very short, from 3 to 6 hours, sometimes lasting for 1-2 days. Clostridial infection spreads rapidly and induces gas gangrene, causes destruction of cells and other intermediate substances, and impedes blood circulation. This paper presents a case study of an extremely severe form of anaerobic infection with spontaneous gas gangrene, cellulitis, fasciomyositic necrosis, severe intoxication and septic shock on the abdominal front and lateral surfaces...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
E Vashakidze, I Mikadze, E Pachkoria
Hepatitis C virus is responsible for the majority of persistent viral infections of the liver, chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and/ or hepatocellular carcinoma. Two strategies are important to curtailing the rising prevalence of disease: efficient diagnosis of acute hepatitis and identification of the likely mode of transmission. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical and epidemiological hallmarks of acute hepatitis C. During 2013-2015, 31 patients were hospitalized with a diagnosis of acute C hepatitis...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Emeli Torsson, Tebogo Kgotlele, Mikael Berg, Niwael Mtui-Malamsha, Emanuel S Swai, Jonas Johansson Wensman, Gerald Misinzo
Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes the acute, highly contagious disease peste des petits ruminants (PPR) that affects small domestic and wild ruminants. PPR is of importance in the small livestock-keeping industry in Tanzania, especially in rural areas as it is an important source of livelihood. Morbidity and case fatality rate can be as high as 80-100% in naïve herds; however, in endemic areas, morbidity and case fatality range between 10 and 100% where previous immunity, age, and species of infected animal determine severity of outcome...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
Hongqin Song, Dandan Liu, Jinjun Xu, Lili Wu, Yabin Dai, Mei Liu, Jianping Tao
Twenty-one, 25-day-old, artificially reared, coccidia-free goslings (Anser cygnoides var. domestica) were inoculated orally with 0.5 × 10(4), 1 × 10(4), or 100 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of Eimeria anseris and sacrificed at intervals from 24 to 216 h post-inoculation (HPI). Nine uninfected goslings served as negative controls. Parts of the visceral organs from goslings, including the intestines, kidneys, and liver, were fixed, sectioned, and observed microscopically. The results revealed that two generations of meronts occurred in the life cycle of E...
October 22, 2016: Parasitology Research
Douglas W Jones, Kirsten Dansey, Allen D Hamdan
Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who present with critical limb ischemia (CLI) have become an increasingly common and complex treatment problem for vascular surgeons. Dialysis patients have high short-term mortality rates regardless of whether revascularization is pursued. ESRD patients with CLI can be managed with: local wound care, endovascular or surgical revascularization, or amputation. Some patients may heal small foot wounds with local wound care alone, even if distal perfusion is marginal, as long as any infectious process has been controlled...
October 20, 2016: Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Yanzhu Lin, Zhen-Xia Chen, Brian Oliver, Susan T Harbison
Differences in phenotype among genetically identical individuals exposed to the same environmental condition are often noted in genetic studies. Despite this commonplace observation, little is known about the causes of this variability, which has been termed microenvironmental plasticity. One possibility is that stochastic or technical sources of variance produce these differences. A second possibility is that this variation has a genetic component. We have explored gene expression robustness in the transcriptomes of 730 individual Drosophila melanogaster of 16 fixed genotypes, 9 of which are infected with Wolbachia Three replicates of flies were grown controlling for food, day/night cycles, humidity, temperature, sex, mating status, social exposure, and circadian timing of RNA extraction...
October 21, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Jamie L Burgess, R Alan Burgess, Yalemi Morales, Jenna M Bouvang, Sean J Johnson, Nicholas E Dickenson
Like many Gram-negative pathogens, Shigella rely on a complex type three secretion system (T3SS) to inject effector proteins into host cells, take over host functions, and ultimately establish infection. Despite these critical roles, the energetics and regulatory mechanisms controlling the T3SS and pathogen virulence remain largely unclear. In this study, we present a series of high-resolution crystal structures of Spa47 and use the structures to model an activated Spa47 oligomer, finding that ATP hydrolysis may be supported by specific sidechain contributions from adjacent protomers within the complex...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Angélica Rossana Castro de Souza, Daiana Bortoluzzi Baldoni, Jessica Lima, Vitória Porto, Camila Marcuz, Carolina Machado, Rafael Camargo Ferraz, Raquel C Kuhn, Rodrigo J S Jacques, Jerson V C Guedes, Marcio A Mazutti
Production of a bioherbicide for biological control of weeds requires a series of steps, from selection of a suitable microbial strain to final formulation. Thus, this study aimed to select fungi for production of secondary metabolites with herbicidal activity using biological resources of the Brazilian Pampa biome. Phytopathogenic fungi were isolated from infected tissues of weeds in the Pampa biome. A liquid synthetic culture medium was used for production of metabolites. The phytotoxicity of fungal metabolites was assessed via biological tests using the plant Cucumis sativus L...
October 4, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Marcelo Arantes Levenhagen, Hélio Conte, Julia Maria Costa-Cruz
Strongyloides stercoralis is a helminth parasite that can infect millions of people worldwide, particularly in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions with poor sanitation. Several aspects of epidemiology, biology and host-parasite interactions of S. stercoralis have been studied, and substantial knowledge has been acquired; however, very few studies on immunotherapeutic control strategies to prevent infection and disease in humans have been conducted. Therefore, this article reviews the current progress and targets toward vaccine and passive immunization approaches for Strongyloides spp...
October 18, 2016: Immunology Letters
A-Mei Zhang, Cheng-Lin Zhang, Yuzhu Song, Ping Zhao, Yue Feng, Binghui Wang, Zheng Li, Li Liu, Xueshan Xia
OBJECTIVES: About 2% of the world population infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV), which was one of the main reasons for hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Recently, NPC1L1 was identified to be an important factor for HCV entry into host cells. Whether genetic variations of the NPC1L1 gene were associated with HCV-infection was unknown. METHODS: In this study, we analyzed five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the NPC1L1 gene in 261 HCV-infected individuals and 265 general controls from Yunnan Province, China...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Ljiljana Zmak, Mihaela Obrovac, Zvjezdana Lovric, Mateja Jankovic Makek, Vera Katalinic Jankovic
As tuberculosis incidence decreases, the possibility of overlooking the disease increases, especially in vulnerable populations. We describe here a major tuberculosis outbreak among mentally ill patients in Croatia, focusing on 1 regional hospital where most patients were hospitalized. The outbreak emphasizes the vulnerability of mentally ill patients to tuberculosis infection and the complexity of infection control measures in psychiatric institutions. The awareness of tuberculosis in these settings should be maintained to interrupt prolonged exposure and avoid unnecessary infection...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
A Aguirre-Quiñonero, L Martínez-Martínez
Infections caused by carbapenemase-producing bacteria are becoming a major clinical and public health concern. Detection of carbapenemase producing strains is often challenging, since susceptibility to carbapenems may vary significantly among carbapenemase producers. Some carbapenemases have shown to exhibit weak activity against carbapenems leading to minimum inhibitory concentrations of carbapenems below the breakpoint for defining clinical resistance and even below the proposed screening breakpoint. Thus, reliable and rapid detection of carbapenemase-activity is needed for an appropriate patient management and a rapid implementation of infection prevention and control measures...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Anthony L Cunningham, Nathalie Garçon, Oberdan Leo, Leonard R Friedland, Richard Strugnell, Béatrice Laupèze, Mark Doherty, Peter Stern
In the 21st century, an array of microbiological and molecular allow antigens for new vaccines to be specifically identified, designed, produced and delivered with the aim of optimising the induction of a protective immune response against a well-defined immunogen. New knowledge about the functioning of the immune system and host pathogen interactions has stimulated the rational design of vaccines. The design toolbox includes vaccines made from whole pathogens, protein subunits, polysaccharides, pathogen-like particles, use of viral/bacterial vectors, plus adjuvants and conjugation technology to increase and broaden the immune response...
October 18, 2016: Vaccine
Juliet Richetto, Renaud Massart, Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer, Moshe Szyf, Marco A Riva, Urs Meyer
BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to infectious or inflammatory insults increases the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders. Using a well-established mouse model of prenatal viral-like immune activation, we examined whether this pathological association involves genome-wide DNA methylation differences at single nucleotide resolution. METHODS: Prenatal immune activation was induced by maternal treatment with the viral mimetic polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid in middle or late gestation...
August 12, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
Eiji Matsuura, Yoshimi Enose-Akahata, Karen Yao, Unsong Oh, Yuetsu Tanaka, Hiroshi Takashima, Steven Jacobson
Pathology of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/Tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is believed to be the result of "bystander damage" involving effector CD8 (+) T lymphocytes (CTLs) killing of virus infected cells. But the specific cellular events leading up to tissue injury are still unclear. Here, we developed the Microscopy Imaging of Cytotoxic T lymphocyte assay with Fluorescence emission (MI-CaFé), an optimized visualization analysis to explore the interactions between CTLs and virus infected or viral antigen presenting target cells...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Tan A Nguyen, Ken C Pang, Seth L Masters
An effective innate immune response relies on the detection of pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by various host pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that result in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Viruses and bacteria have co-evolved with the immune system and developed multiple strategies to usurp or circumvent host machinery and blunt the innate immune response in infected cells. Recently, it has become apparent that infected or dying cells can transmit PAMPs and host PRR signalling proteins to uninfected bystander cells to thereby bypass pathogen evasion strategies, and potentiate innate immune signalling...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Immunology
J R Teijaro
Since Isaac's and Lindenmann's seminal experiments over 50 years ago demonstrating a soluble factor generated from heat killed virus-stimulated chicken embryos could inhibit live influenza virus replication, the term interferon has been synonymous with inhibition of virus replication. While the antiviral properties of type 1 interferon (IFN-I) are undeniable, recent studies have reported expanding and somewhat unexpected roles of IFN-I signaling during both acute and persistent viral infections. IFN-I signaling can promote morbidity and mortality through induction of aberrant inflammatory responses and recruitment of inflammatory innate immune cell populations during acute respiratory viral infections...
2016: Advances in Immunology
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