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infection control

Stephen F Murphy, Jonathan F Anker, Daniel J Mazur, Christel Hall, Anthony J Schaeffer, Praveen Thumbikat
INTRODUCTION: Chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is a complex disorder that affects a large proportion of all men. A limited understanding of its etiology and pathogenesis is reflected by the absence of effective therapies. Although CPPS is deemed clinically non-infectious with no well-defined etiological role for microbes, bacteria is readily isolated from both healthy and patient prostate secretion and urine samples. Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that a specific gram-negative bacterial isolate can induce CPPS-like symptoms in mice...
September 21, 2018: Prostate
Stephanie Wehrstedt, Jan Kubis, Andreas Zimmermann, Heiko Bruns, Daniel Mayer, Mark Grieshober, Steffen Stenger
Tyrosine kinases are checkpoints for multiple cellular pathways and dysregulation induces malignancies, most notably chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Inhibition of Abl-tyrosine kinases has evolved as a new concept for the treatment of CML and other malignant diseases. Due to the multiple immune-modulatory pathways controlled by tyrosine kinases, treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) will not only affect the biology of malignant cells but also modulate physiological immune functions. To understand the effects of TKIs on host defense against intracellular bacteria, we investigated the immunological impact of the dual Abl/Src TKI dasatinib on the cellular immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)...
September 22, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
K Adinehbeigi, M Ebrahimi, M Soltani Eini, A Sameie
A cross-sectional survey was performed on domestic pigeons (Columba liviadomestica) to evaluate the prevalence of Haemoproteus columbae and Trichomonas gallinae in West Azerbaijan Province, northwest of Iran between July 2015 and September 2016. Five hundred and sixty oropharyngeal swab smears were examined, 297 (53%) of which were identified to be positive for T. gallinae. Also, the results obtained from blood smears examination indicated that 115 (20.5%) cases were found to be infected with H. columbae. The rates of T...
June 2018: Archives of Razi Institute
Juan Ling, Peng Cheng, Long Ge, Ding-Hua Zhang, An-Chen Shi, Jin-Hui Tian, Ya-Jing Chen, Xiu-Xia Li, Jing-Yun Zhang, Ke-Hu Yang
AIMS: The aim is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4-I: sitagliptin, saxagliptin, linagliptin, vildagliptin and alogliptin) in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and the Wanfang Database from inception to April, 2018. Randomized controlled trials were included if they compared the different versions of DPP4-I with each other or with placebo in treatment of type 2 diabetes...
September 21, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
Feng Huang, Zu-Chun Luo
Several recently published clinical trials have shown tofacitinib to be effective in the treatment of autoimmune diseases. This drug is commonly prescribed either in a 5-mg or in a10-mg dosage twice daily. In this review, we aimed to systematically compare the adverse drug events which were observed with 5 mg versus 10 mg tofacitinib for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, and were searched (from March to April 2018) for suitable English publications (published before April 2018)...
September 22, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Fernando Saldaña, Ignacio Barradas
In this paper, we propose control strategies for multigroup epidemic models. We use compartmental [Formula: see text] models to study the dynamics of n host groups sharing the same source of infection in addition to the transmission among members of the same group. In particular, we consider a model for infectious diseases with free-living pathogens in the environment and a metapopulation model with a central patch. We give the detailed derivation of the target reproduction number under three public health interventions and provide the corresponding biological insights...
September 21, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Nina R Ashfield-Crook, Zachary Woodward, Martin Soust, D İpek Kurtböke
Streptophages are currently being investigated to control potato common scab, however, since a majority of streptophages are reported to be polyvalent, their potential to infect beneficial soil streptomycetes during the application process may have unintended consequences. To test this hypothesis, two phytopathogenic fungi, namely Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani, were tested for their detrimental effect on the test crop wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Gutha). F. solani caused a significant root weight reduction (34%) in the wheat plant and therefore was tested further in the pot trials with actinomycetes present...
September 21, 2018: Current Microbiology
Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Pedro J Espinosa, Pilar Alberdi, Ladislav Šimo, James J Valdés, Lourdes Mateos-Hernández, Marinela Contreras, Margarita Villar Rayo, José de la Fuente
The carbohydrate Galα1-3Galβ1-(3)4GlcNAc-R (α-Gal) is produced in all mammals except for humans, apes and old world monkeys that lost the ability to synthetize this carbohydrate. Therefore, humans can produce high antibody titers against α-Gal. Anti-α-Gal IgE antibodies have been associated with tick-induced allergy (i.e. α-Gal syndrome) and anti-α-Gal IgG/IgM antibodies may be involved in protection against malaria, leishmaniasis and Chagas disease. The α-Gal on tick salivary proteins plays an important role in the etiology of the α-Gal syndrome...
September 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nina T Odermatt, Claudia Sala, Andrej Benjak, Stewart T Cole
Tight control of gene expression is crucial for Mycobacterium tuberculosis to adapt to the changing environments encountered when infecting or exiting human cells. While three nucleoid associated proteins (NAPs) EspR, HupB and Lsr2 have been investigated, the role of a fourth, the mycobacterial integration host factor (mIHF), remains elusive. Here, we report a multidisciplinary functional analysis that exploits a conditional mIHF mutant. Gene silencing was bactericidal and resulted in elongated cells devoid of septa, with only one nucleoid...
September 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Djamila Rojoa, Nikos Kontopodis, Stavros A Antoniou, Christos V Ioannou, George A Antoniou
BACKGROUND: For the diagnosis of vascular prosthetic graft infection (VPGI), an intra-operative peri-graft biopsy is often required. Controversy exists regarding the use of imaging techniques in the diagnostic process. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of 18-fluorine fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in VPGI. METHODS: A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted, applying a combination of free text and controlled vocabulary searches adapted to thesaurus headings, search operators, and limits to identify studies assessing the use of 18F-FDG PET in the diagnosis of VPGI...
September 18, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Sharman P Tan Tanny, Minjung Yoo, John M Hutson, Jacob C Langer, Sebastian K King
BACKGROUND: Surgical management of adult ulcerative colitis (UC) is well-studied, but not readily applicable to children. Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (RPC-IPAA), performed as one-, two-, or three-stage procedure, is preferred in pediatric patients with adequate anal sphincter function. PURPOSE: METHODS: Systematic review of Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, and EMBASE databases was conducted (January 1987-December 2016), in accordance with PRISMA...
September 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Andrew P Brown, Fiona C Denison
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is the most common cause of early-onset neonatal sepsis in many countries and responsible for significant perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis has been the mainstay of efforts to prevent early-onset GBS disease in recent decades, however it is unclear if women should be targeted based on the presence of clinical risk factors or by screening for GBS colonisation during pregnancy. Universal bacteriological screening of women in late pregnancy has been widely adopted but questions remain regarding its benefits and potential harms...
September 18, 2018: Early Human Development
Oyebola O Oyesola, Simon P Früh, Lauren M Webb, Elia D Tait Wojno
Parasitic helminth infection elicits a type 2 cytokine-mediated inflammatory response. During type 2 inflammation, damaged or stimulated epithelial cells exposed to helminths and their products produce alarmins and cytokines including IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin. These factors promote innate immune cell activation that supports the polarization of CD4+ T helper type 2 (Th2) cells. Activated innate and Th2 cells produce the cytokines IL-4, -5, -9, and -13 that perpetuate immune activation and act back on the epithelium to cause goblet cell hyperplasia and increased epithelial cell turnover...
September 18, 2018: Cytokine
Eduardo M Costa, Sara Silva, Mariana Veiga, Freni K Tavaria, Maria M Pintado
Nowadays, nosocomial skin infections are increasingly harder to manage and control. In the search for new, natural compounds capable of being alternatives to traditional antibiotics, chitosan and its nanoparticles, have garnered attention. This work sought to understand the potential of chitosan NPs in the management of infections caused by MDR skin pathogens in planktonic and sessile assays. Additionally, NPs' capacity to inhibit biofilm quorum sensing and prevent HaCat infections was also evaluated. The results obtained showed that chitosan NPs had an average size and charge of 226...
December 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
A Alyahya, G R J Swennen
Bone grafting has been used in orthognathic surgery to fill the gaps created by jaw repositioning, with the intention of improving healing and stability. Since the majority of orthognathic cases have a satisfactory result, the decision to graft or not is a clinical dilemma. A systematic review of the literature was performed on the use of bone grafts in orthognathic surgery. A search of PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials yielded 1927 articles published up until 2018...
September 18, 2018: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Robert Steffen
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) vaccination recommendations for children residing in high-endemicity countries in Europe vary from universal recommendations to none at all. Such differences may result in uncertainty about the value of such prevention among public health authorities, healthcare professionals and parents. We conducted a systematic review of publications and data from the European Centres for Disease Prevention and Control focusing on the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of TBE in a pediatric population...
September 1, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Elichilia R Shao, Innocent B Mboya, Daniel W Gunda, Flora G Ruhangisa, Elizabeth M Temu, Mercy L Nkwama, Jeremia J Pyuza, Kajiru G Kilonzo, Furaha S Lyamuya, Venance P Maro
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus infection is a global health problem with the highest prevalence in East Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of infected people, including healthcare workers are unaware of their status. This study is aimed to determining seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus infection and associated factors among healthcare workers in northern Tanzania. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 442 healthcare workers (HCWs) from a tertiary and teaching hospital in Tanzania before the nationwide hepatitis B vaccination campaign in 2004...
September 21, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Ronald B Reisler, Xiankun Zeng, Christopher W Schellhase, Jeremy J Bearss, Travis K Warren, John C Trefry, George W Christopher, Mark G Kortepeter, Sina Bavari, Anthony P Cardile
In the 2014⁻2016 West Africa Ebola Virus (EBOV) outbreak, there was a significant concern raised about the potential for secondary bacterial infection originating from the gastrointestinal tract, which led to the empiric treatment of many patients with antibiotics. This retrospective pathology case series summarizes the gastrointestinal pathology observed in control animals in the rhesus EBOV-Kikwit intramuscular 1000 plaque forming unit infection model. All 31 Non-human primates (NHPs) exhibited lymphoid depletion of gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) but the severity and the specific location of the depletion varied...
September 20, 2018: Viruses
Kendra A Bussey, Melanie M Brinkmann
Immune evasion is a hallmark of viral persistence. For the seven human tumor viruses to establish lifelong infection in their hosts, they must successfully control the host response to them. Viral inhibition of immune responses occurs at many levels. While some viruses directly target the pattern recognition receptors (PRR) of the innate immune system, they may also antagonize downstream effectors of PRR signaling cascades or activation of transcription, which would otherwise induce a type I interferon (IFN) and/or pro-inflammatory cytokine response...
September 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
Ruining Wang, Yi Yu, Weili Kong, Cunfa Li, Yinfeng Kang, Guoqiang Wang, Wenjia Wang, Jian He, Mengmeng Zhao
Porcine 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase-like protein is an essential antiviral protein induced by interferons; however, its bioinformatics, genetic characteristics and immunological characteristics related to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus are still unknown. In this study, porcine 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase-like protein was cloned, and various attributes were predicted by bioinformatics analysis. Through RNAi depletion and overexpression methods, it was determined that porcine OASL not only inhibits porcine reproductive and respiratory virus replication but also activates interferon-beta production and the interferon-beta promoter, promoting the expression of interferon-beta mRNA...
September 18, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
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