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Adrian Brückner, Günther Raspotnig, Katja Wehner, Reinhard Meusinger, Roy A Norton, Michael Heethoff
Cyanogenesis denotes a chemical defensive strategy where hydrogen cyanide (HCN, hydrocyanic or prussic acid) is produced, stored, and released toward an attacking enemy. The high toxicity and volatility of HCN requires both chemical stabilization for storage and prevention of accidental self-poisoning. The few known cyanogenic animals are exclusively mandibulate arthropods (certain myriapods and insects) that store HCN as cyanogenic glycosides, lipids, or cyanohydrins. Here, we show that cyanogenesis has also evolved in the speciose Chelicerata...
March 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sung-Tak Lee, Na-Rae Choi, Jae-Min Song, Sang-Hun Shin
BACKGROUND: The aim of this report is to present a new reference for aesthetic mandible surgery using three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography-based treatment planning for orthognathic surgery which can be implemented in surgical planning and perioperative procedure. METHODS: To make an objective standard for evaluating aesthetic mandibular outline, we make an aesthetic scoring criteria with consideration of asymmetry, broad mandibular border line, and prominent mandibular angle...
December 2016: Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
M Xu, X H Chen, X L Zhang, R Y Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 9, 2016: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Stomatology
Nicholas J Strausfeld, Xiaoya Ma, Gregory D Edgecombe
The discovery of fossilized brains and ventral nerve cords in lower and mid-Cambrian arthropods has led to crucial insights about the evolution of their central nervous system, the segmental identity of head appendages and the early evolution of eyes and their underlying visual systems. Fundamental ground patterns of lower Cambrian arthropod brains and nervous systems correspond to the ground patterns of brains and nervous systems belonging to three of four major extant panarthropod lineages. These findings demonstrate the evolutionary stability of early neural arrangements over an immense time span...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Ali Yilmaz, Melike Akçaalan
BACKGROUND: Clinical detection of anatomic narrowing of the upper airway may faciliate early recognition of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The aim of this study was to investigate whether anthropometric measurement can be used to predict OSA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 147 subject were included from those who were referred patients for suspected sleep apnea to our sleep laboratory. All patients were divided 2 groups with respect to the apnea-hypopnea index. The first group was diagnosed as OSA, AHI greater than 5...
October 7, 2016: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Jessica E Martin, Karen Christensen, Yvonne Vizzier-Thaxton, Malcolm A Mitchell, Dorothy E F McKeegan
A novel approach to pre-slaughter stunning of chickens has been developed in which birds are rendered unconscious by progressive hypobaric hypoxia. Termed Low Atmospheric Pressure Stunning (LAPS), this approach involves application of gradual decompression lasting 280s according to a prescribed curve. We examined responses to LAPS by recording behaviour, electroencephalogram (EEG) and electrocardiogram (ECG) in individual male chickens, and interpreted these with regard to the welfare impact of the process...
September 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Derek E G Briggs, Derek J Siveter, David J Siveter, Mark D Sutton, David Legg
The ∼430-My-old Herefordshire, United Kingdom, Lagerstätte has yielded a diversity of remarkably preserved invertebrates, many of which provide fundamental insights into the evolutionary history and ecology of particular taxa. Here we report a new arthropod with 10 tiny arthropods tethered to its tergites by long individual threads. The head of the host, which is covered by a shield that projects anteriorly, bears a long stout uniramous antenna and a chelate limb followed by two biramous appendages. The trunk comprises 11 segments, all bearing limbs and covered by tergites with long slender lateral spines...
April 19, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Xiaorui Su, Bowei Zhang, Li Su, Rong Xu, Feihong Wu, Haijun Li, Dechang Peng
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the soft palate, hard palate and mandibule for the pathogenesis and clinical treatment of patients who have obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome. METHOD: There were 52 patients with OSAHS diagnosed by the PSG and 32 cases of normal healthy volunteers in our hospital. All objects were given 128 slice spiral CT scan of the upper airway. We measured the related indexes of the soft palate, hard palate and mandible, then analysed statistical differences between them and did Pearson correlation analysis with apnea hypoventilation index (AHI), average blood oxygen saturation (MSaO2) in PSG...
October 2015: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Javier Ortega-Hernández, Graham E Budd
Recent studies have clarified the segmental organization of appendicular and exoskeletal structures in the anterior region of Cambrian stem-group Euarthropoda, and thus led to better understanding of the deep evolutionary origins of the head region in this successful animal group. However, there are aspects of the anterior organization of Palaeozoic euarthropods that remain problematic, such as the morphological identity and significance of minute limb-like projections on the anterior region in stem and crown-group representatives...
March 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Haixin Qian, Fuqiang Zhang, Ting Jiao
PATIENT: A fifty-year-old man received embolization for mandibular hemangioma two years ago, and the surgeon had placed four implants in his mandible and made a removable denture upon the implants. His denture however fractured repeatedly in the past years. After examination and communication with the patient, an implant-assisted overdenture incorporating bar attachment combined ERA attachment and Locator abutment was re-fabricated. A sixteen months follow-up showed acceptable outcome...
October 2016: Journal of Prosthodontic Research
Ariel D Chipman
BACKGROUND: Our understanding of the early evolution of the arthropod body plan has recently improved significantly through advances in phylogeny and developmental biology and through new interpretations of the fossil record. However, there has been limited effort to synthesize data from these different sources. Bringing an embryological perspective into the fossil record is a useful way to integrate knowledge from different disciplines into a single coherent view of arthropod evolution...
2015: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Gregory D Edgecombe, Xiaoya Ma, Nicholas J Strausfeld
Extant panarthropods (euarthropods, onychophorans and tardigrades) are hallmarked by stunning morphological and taxonomic diversity, but their central nervous systems (CNS) are relatively conserved. The timing of divergences of the ground pattern CNS organization of the major panarthropod clades has been poorly constrained because of a scarcity of data from their early fossil record. Although the CNS has been documented in three-dimensional detail in insects from Cenozoic ambers, it is widely assumed that these tissues are too prone to decay to withstand other styles of fossilization or geologically older preservation...
December 19, 2015: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Nicholas J Strausfeld
The middle Cambrian taxon Waptia fieldensis offers insights into early evolution of sensory arrangements that may have supported a range of actions such as exploratory behavior, burrowing, scavenging, swimming, and escape, amongst others. Less elaborate than many modern pancrustaceans, specific features of Waptia that suggest a possible association with the pancrustacean evolutionary trajectory, include mandibulate mouthparts, a single pair of antennae, reflective triplets on the head comparable to ocelli, and traces of brain and optic lobes that conform to the pancrustacean ground pattern...
March 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Nicholas J Strausfeld, Xiaoya Ma, Gregory D Edgecombe, Richard A Fortey, Michael F Land, Yu Liu, Peiyun Cong, Xianguang Hou
Four types of eyes serve the visual neuropils of extant arthropods: compound retinas composed of adjacent facets; a visual surface populated by spaced eyelets; a smooth transparent cuticle providing inwardly directed lens cylinders; and single-lens eyes. The first type is a characteristic of pancrustaceans, the eyes of which comprise lenses arranged as hexagonal or rectilinear arrays, each lens crowning 8-9 photoreceptor neurons. Except for Scutigeromorpha, the second type typifies Myriapoda whose relatively large eyelets surmount numerous photoreceptive rhabdoms stacked together as tiers...
March 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
Isabella Grohmann, Stefan Raith, Thomas Mücke, Herbert Stimmer, Nils Rohleder, Marco R Kesting, Frank Hölzle, Timm Steiner
Advantages and disadavantages of the three most commonly-used bone grafts for mandibular reconstruction are widely known, but biomechanical experimental studies are rare. We have done loading tests on cadaveric mandibles reconstructed with fibular, iliac crest, and scapular grafts using 3 different osteosynthesis systems to detect and compare their primary stability. Loading tests were done on mandibles with grafts from the fibula and iliac crest and published previously. A 4.5cm paramedian L-type defect was reconstructed with scapula using 2 monocortical non-locking plates, 2 monocortical locking plates, or a single bicortical locking plate/fracture gap in 18 human cadaveric mandibles...
October 2015: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Prashant P Sharma, Oscar A Tarazona, Davys H Lopez, Evelyn E Schwager, Martin J Cohn, Ward C Wheeler, Cassandra G Extavour
The segmental architecture of the arthropod head is one of the most controversial topics in the evolutionary developmental biology of arthropods. The deutocerebral (second) segment of the head is putatively homologous across Arthropoda, as inferred from the segmental distribution of the tripartite brain and the absence of Hox gene expression of this anterior-most, appendage-bearing segment. While this homology statement implies a putative common mechanism for differentiation of deutocerebral appendages across arthropods, experimental data for deutocerebral appendage fate specification are limited to winged insects...
June 7, 2015: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Linlin Fan, Qin Kuang, Yujuan Tang, Pu Qin
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of premolar extractions on third molar angulation changes in orthodontic patients. METHODS: The Cochrane library, PubMed, Embase, China Science and Technology Periodical Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) and Wanfang database were searched from January 1, 1990 to May 20, 2014 to identify all the studies about third molar angulation changes in orthodontic patients with or without premolars extraction, which was assigned as a extraction group and a control group...
March 2015: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Gabriella H Wolff, Nicholas J Strausfeld
Except in species that have undergone evolved loss, paired lobed centers referred to as "mushroom bodies" occur across invertebrate phyla. Unresolved is the question of whether these centers, which support learning and memory in insects, correspond genealogically or whether their neuronal organization suggests convergent evolution. Here, anatomical and immunohistological observations demonstrate that across phyla, mushroom body-like centers share a neuroanatomical ground pattern and proteins required for memory formation...
January 5, 2015: Current Biology: CB
T Steiner, S Raith, E Scherer, T Mücke, T Torsiglieri, N H Rohleder, M Eder, I Grohmann, M Kesting, H Bier, K-D Wolff, F Hölzle
PURPOSE: Retrospective clinical evaluation and biomechanical tests were performed to compare the primary stability and the rate of pseudarthrosis formation after irradiation for two types of mandibular split osteotomies: the stairstep osteotomy (SSO) and the straight-line osteotomy (SLO). METHODS: The postoperative occurrence of pseudarthrosis was retrospectively analysed in 46 non-consecutive clinical cases of SSO and SLO between 2003 and 2013. Biomechanical tests were performed on 12 standardised synthetic mandibles (Synbone) to compare the SSO and SLO approaches...
March 2015: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Tobias Lehmann, Martin Heß, Gerhard Wanner, Roland R Melzer
BACKGROUND: The research field of connectomics arose just recently with the development of new three-dimensional-electron microscopy (EM) techniques and increasing computing power. So far, only a few model species (for example, mouse, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster) have been studied using this approach. Here, we present a first attempt to expand this circle to include pycnogonids, which hold a key position for the understanding of arthropod evolution...
2014: BMC Biology
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