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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816770/prevalence-of-disability-in-patients-with-musculoskeletal-pain-and-rheumatic-diseases-in-a-population-from-cuenca-ecuador
#1
Sergio Vicente Guevara-Pacheco, Astrid Feican-Alvarado, Jorge Delgado-Pauta, Angelita Lliguisaca-Segarra, Ingris Pelaez-Ballestas
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of disability in patients with musculoskeletal pain and rheumatic diseases in Cuenca, Ecuador. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analytical study with randomized sampling in 4877 subjects, from urban and rural areas. COPCORD (Community Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases)-validated questionnaire was administered house-to-house to identify subjects with nontraumatic musculoskeletal pain and rheumatic diseases...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795140/resting-and-exercise-energy-metabolism-after-liver-transplantation-for-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#2
Josh Levitsky, Ajay Singhvi, H Steven Sadowsky, Ayelet Cohen, Alysen Demzik, Lisa VanWagner, Mary Rinella
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a leading indication for liver transplantation (LT). We hypothesized that weight gain after LT may be exacerbated by reduced metabolic rates due to the LT procedure, particularly during exercise. We aimed to compare resting and exercise energy expenditure between patients transplanted for NASH and nontransplant nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) subjects. METHODS: NASH LT recipients (>1-year post, n = 14) and NAFLD controls (n = 13) underwent analysis of body composition, resting energy expenditure (REE), and exercise energy expenditure (VO2max), the latter using a ramped-Bruce protocol assessed by expired gas analysis and peak heart rate...
August 2017: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776203/adaptive-temperature-regulation-in-the-little-bird-in-winter-predictions-from-a-stochastic-dynamic-programming-model
#3
Anders Brodin, Jan-Åke Nilsson, Andreas Nord
Several species of small birds are resident in boreal forests where environmental temperatures can be -20 to -30 °C, or even lower, in winter. As winter days are short, and food is scarce, winter survival is a challenge for small endothermic animals. A bird of this size will have to gain almost 10% of its lean body mass in fat every day to sustain overnight metabolism. Birds such as parids (titmice and chickadees) can use facultative hypothermia, a process in which body temperature is actively down-regulated to a specific level, to reduce heat loss and thus save energy...
August 3, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760111/differences-in-prevalence-of-muscle-wasting-in-patients-receiving-peritoneal-dialysis-per-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-due-to-variation-in-guideline-definitions-of-sarcopenia
#4
Rachel Hung, Bethany Wong, Gabrielle Goldet, Andrew Davenport
BACKGROUND: Muscle wasting is associated with increased risk for mortality. There is no agreed universal definition for muscle wasting (sarcopenia), and we wished to determine whether using different criteria altered the prevalence in patients treated by peritoneal dialysis. METHODS: We measured lean body and appendicular lean mass indices in 325 outpatients by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, comparing muscle mass with that used to define muscle wasting (sarcopenia) by various clinical guideline publications...
August 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759650/microrna-expression-profiles-differ-between-primary-myofiber-of-lean-and-obese-pig-breeds
#5
Dongting He, Tiande Zou, Xiangrong Gai, Jideng Ma, Mingzhou Li, Zhiqing Huang, Daiwen Chen
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding small miRNAs ~22 nucleotides in length and play a vital role in muscle development by binding to messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Large White (LW, a lean type pig) and Meishan pigs (MS, a Chinese indigenous obese breed) have significant postnatal phenotype differences in growth rate, muscle mass and meat quality, and these differences are programmed during prenatal muscle development. Little research shed light directly on the miRNA transcriptome difference in prenatal muscles between these two distinct pig breeds...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723906/genomic-prediction-with-parallel-computing-for-slaughter-traits-in-chinese-simmental-beef-cattle-using-high-density-genotypes
#6
Peng Guo, Bo Zhu, Lingyang Xu, Hong Niu, Zezhao Wang, Long Guan, Yonghu Liang, Hemin Ni, Yong Guo, Yan Chen, Lupei Zhang, Xue Gao, Huijiang Gao, Junya Li
Genomic selection has been widely used for complex quantitative trait in farm animals. Estimations of breeding values for slaughter traits are most important to beef cattle industry, and it is worthwhile to investigate prediction accuracies of genomic selection for these traits. In this study, we assessed genomic predictive abilities for average daily gain weight (ADG), live weight (LW), carcass weight (CW), dressing percentage (DP), lean meat percentage (LMP) and retail meat weight (RMW) using Illumina Bovine 770K SNP Beadchip in Chinese Simmental cattle...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682931/understanding-anthropometric-characteristics-associated-with-performance-in-manual-lifting-tasks
#7
Ben Beck, Kane J Middleton, Daniel C Billing, Joanne N Caldwell, Greg L Carstairs
Manual lifting is an essential military job task and is commonly linked to occupational injury. Methods to reduce injury risk focus on ensuring that employees have the requisite physical capacity to safely conduct critical job tasks. The aim of this study was to investigate which anthropometric characteristics are associated with lifting performance to inform targeted training programs for job critical lifting tasks. Sixty-three (42 males and 21 females) participants conducted three maximal lifts to a platform (pack lift to 1...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678424/the-metabolic-syndrome-alters-the-mirna-signature-of-porcine-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#8
Yu Meng, Alfonso Eirin, Xiang-Yang Zhu, Hui Tang, Pritha Chanana, Amir Lerman, Andre J Van Wijnen, Lilach O Lerman
Autologous transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a viable option for the treatment of several diseases. Evidence indicates that MSCs release extracellular vesicles (EVs) and that EVs shuttle miRNAs to damaged parenchymal cells to activate an endogenous repair program. We hypothesize that comorbidities may interfere with the packaging of cargo in MSC-derived EVs. Therefore, we examined whether metabolic syndrome (MetS) modulates the miRNA content packed within MSC-derived EVs. MSCs were collected from swine abdominal adipose tissue after 16 weeks of lean or obese diet (n = 7 each)...
July 5, 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662555/cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-after-an-employer-based-risk-reduction-program-an-observational-cohort-study
#9
David H Holben, Chelsea Rambo, Cheryl Howe, Deborah H Murray, Jay H Shubrook
Context: The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to be a public health concern. Workplace interventions that focus on modifying lifestyle habits may reduce CVD risk factors in people at risk. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention program that integrated dietary modification, physical activity, stress management, and behavior modification counseling to reduce the risk of CVD in at-risk adults. Methods: Twelve 1-year cohorts who participated in a comprehensive employer-sponsored lifestyle intervention program targeting diet, exercise, behavior modification, and stress management between 2006 and 2010 at a rural university in Appalachian Ohio were studied...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662129/maternal-gestational-weight-gain-and-objectively-measured-physical-activity-among-offspring
#10
Niko S Wasenius, Kimberly P Grattan, Alysha L J Harvey, Nick Barrowman, Gary S Goldfield, Kristi B Adamo
OBJECTIVE: Animal studies have suggested that maternal weight-related factors during pregnancy can program offspring physical activity in a sex-dependent manner. However, there is limited evidence in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) and offspring total physical activity (TPA) level and to determine whether these associations are moderated by sex of offspring or maternal pre-pregnancy weight status. METHOD: We studied 56 boys (mean age = 3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661198/metabolic-regulation-of-adipose-tissue-macrophage-atm-function-in-obesity-and-diabetes
#11
Mahesh Appari, Keith M Channon, Eileen McNeill
SIGNIFICANCE: Obesity and diabetes are associated with chronic activation of inflammatory pathways that are important mechanistic links between insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease pathogenesis. The development of these metabolic diseases is associated with changes in the both the number and phenotype of adipose tissue macrophages. Emerging lines of evidence have shown that adipose tissue macrophages (ATM) release pro-inflammatory cytokines similar to classically-activated M1 macrophages, that directly contribute to IR or T2D...
June 29, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614127/a-hospital-is-not-just-a-factory-but-a-complex-adaptive-system-implications-for-perioperative-care
#12
Aman Mahajan, Salim D Islam, Michael J Schwartz, Maxime Cannesson
Many methods used to improve hospital and perioperative services productivity and quality of care have assumed that the hospital is essentially a factory, and therefore, that industrial engineering and manufacturing-derived redesign approaches such as Six Sigma and Lean can be applied to hospitals and perioperative services just as they have been applied in factories. However, a hospital is not merely a factory but also a complex adaptive system (CAS). The hospital CAS has many subsystems, with perioperative care being an important one for which concepts of factory redesign are frequently advocated...
July 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607221/vastus-lateralis-and-rectus-femoris-echo-intensity-fail-to-reflect-knee-extensor-specific-tension-in-middle-school-boys
#13
Jacob Mota, Matt S Stock, Brennan Thompson
The potential dissociation between muscle strength and size has led to interest in the ability to assess muscle quality across the lifespan. We examined the association between echo intensity and specific tension in middle-school boys. Twenty-five boys participated in this study. Sixteen (mean ± SD age = 12 ± 1 years) engaged in a 16-week after-school strength and conditioning program. Nine boys (12 ± 1 years) served as controls. The program involved two, 90 minute sessions per week of lower-body speed, power, and resistance training...
June 13, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578654/progressive-resistance-training-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-during-concomitant-chemoradiotherapy-design-of-the-dahanca-31-randomized-trial
#14
Camilla K Lonkvist, Simon Lønbro, Anders Vinther, Bo Zerahn, Eva Rosenbom, Hanne Primdahl, Pernille Hojman, Julie Gehl
BACKGROUND: Head and neck cancer patients undergoing concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) frequently experience loss of muscle mass and reduced functional performance. Positive effects of exercise training are reported for many cancer types but biological mechanisms need further elucidation. This randomized study investigates whether progressive resistance training (PRT) may attenuate loss of muscle mass and functional performance. Furthermore, biochemical markers and muscle biopsies will be investigated trying to link biological mechanisms to training effects...
June 3, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575048/effects-of-a-weight-management-program-delivered-by-social-media-on-weight-and-metabolic-syndrome-risk-factors-in-overweight-and-obese-adults-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Monica Jane, Martin Hagger, Jonathan Foster, Suleen Ho, Robert Kane, Sebely Pal
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this project was to evaluate the effectiveness of using social media to augment the delivery of, and provide support for, a weight management program delivered to overweight and obese individuals during a twenty four week intervention. METHODS: Participants randomly divided into either one of two intervention groups or a control group. The two intervention groups were instructed to follow identical weight-management program. One group received the program within a Facebook group, along with a support network with the group, and the other intervention group received the same program in a booklet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572857/changes-in-health-related-quality-of-life-in-elderly-men-after-12%C3%A2-weeks-of-strength-training
#16
Kristin Haraldstad, Gudrun Rohde, Tonje Holte Stea, Hilde Lohne-Seiler, Ken Hetlelid, Gøran Paulsen, Sveinung Berntsen
BACKGROUND: Muscular strength is associated with functional ability in elderly, and older adults are recommended to perform muscle-strengthening exercise. Understanding how improved muscle strength and -mass influence general and specific domains of quality of life is important when planning health promotion efforts targeting older adults. The aims of the present study were to describe changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in older men participating in 12 weeks of systematic strength training, and to investigate whether improvements in muscle strength and muscle mass are associated with enhancements in HRQOL...
2017: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571519/using-lean-manufacturing-principles-to-evaluate-wait-times-for-hiv-positive-patients-in-an-urban-clinic-in-kenya
#17
Aliza Monroe-Wise, Elizabeth Reisner, Kenneth Sherr, David Ojakaa, Lilian Mbau, Paul Kisia, Samuel Muhula, Carey Farquhar
As human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment programs expand in Africa, delivery systems must be strengthened to support patient retention. Clinic characteristics may affect retention, but a relationship between clinic flow and attrition is not established. This project characterized HIV patient experience and flow in an urban Kenyan clinic to understand how these may affect retention. We used Toyota's lean manufacturing principles to guide data collection and analysis. Clinic flow was evaluated using value stream mapping and time and motion techniques...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566529/unconditional-seasonal-cash-transfer-increases-intake-of-high-nutritional-value-foods-in-young-burkinabe-children-results-of-24-hour-dietary-recall-surveys-within-the-moderate-acute-malnutrition-out-mam-out-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Audrey Tonguet-Papucci, Freddy Houngbe, Lieven Huybregts, Myriam Ait-Aissa, Chiara Altare, Patrick Kolsteren, Jean-François Huneau
Background: Cash transfer programs have the potential to improve dietary intake by improving accessibility to food. However, quantitative data on the impact of cash transfer programs on children's energy and nutrient intakes are lacking.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seasonal unconditional cash transfers on children's energy, micro- and macronutrient, and food group intakes during the lean season in Burkina Faso.Methods: Within the framework of the MAM'Out (Moderate Acute Malnutrition Out) cluster-randomized controlled trial, two 24-h dietary recall surveys were conducted in July and August 2014...
July 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561278/the-effects-of-testosterone-on-body-composition-in-obese-men-are-not-sustained-after-cessation-of-testosterone-treatment
#19
Mark Ng Tang Fui, Rudolf Hoermann, Jeffrey D Zajac, Mathis Grossmann
BACKGROUND: Testosterone treatment in obese dieting men augments the diet-associated loss of fat mass, but protects against loss of lean mass. We assessed whether body composition changes are maintained following withdrawal of testosterone treatment. METHODS: We conducted a prespecified double-blind randomized placebo-controlled observational follow-up study of a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Participants were men with baseline obesity (body mass index >30 kg/m(2) ) and a repeated total testosterone level <12 nmol/L, previously enrolled in a 56-week testosterone treatment trial combined with a weight loss programme...
May 31, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561039/sedentary-behavior-and-compensatory-mechanisms-in-response-to-different-doses-of-exercise-a-randomized-controlled-trial-in-overweight-and-obese-adults
#20
E A Castro, P B Júdice, A M Silva, P J Teixeira, P J Benito
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To examine compensatory changes in sedentary behavior (SB) and light-intensity physical activities (LIPA) in response to a 22-week exercise training program in overweight/obese adults; and to determine if different forms of exercise training and physical activity recommendations interact with these compensatory changes. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Eighty-nine overweight and obese individuals (body mass index (BMI): 25-34.9 kg/m(2), 48% males), aged 18-50 years, were randomized into four intervention groups (strength, endurance, combined strength + endurance and physical activity recommendations) with a 25-30% caloric restriction of total daily energy expenditure for 22 weeks...
May 31, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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