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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045485/alterations-in-the-placental-methylome-with-maternal-obesity-and-evidence-for-metabolic-regulation
#1
Kohzoh Mitsuya, Ashley N Parker, Lu Liu, Jianhua Ruan, Margreet C M Vissers, Leslie Myatt
The inflammatory and metabolic derangements of obesity in pregnant women generate an adverse intrauterine environment, increase pregnancy complications and adverse fetal outcomes and program the fetus for obesity and metabolic syndrome in later life. We hypothesized that epigenetic modifications in placenta including altered DNA methylation/hydroxymethylation may mediate these effects. Term placental villous tissue was collected following cesarean section from lean (prepregnancy BMI<25) or obese (BMI>30) women...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040226/propranolol-and-oxandrolone-therapy-accelerated-muscle-recovery-in-burned-children
#2
Tony Chao, Craig Porter, David N Herndon, Aikaterina Siopi, Henry Ideker, Ronald P Mlcak, Labros S Sidossis, Oscar E Suman
INTRODUCTION: Severe burns result in prolonged hypermetabolism and skeletal muscle catabolism. Rehabilitative exercise training (RET) programs improved muscle mass and strength in severely burned children. The combination of RET with β-blockade or testosterone analogues showed improved exercise-induced benefits on body composition and muscle function. However, the effect of RET combined with multiple drug therapy on muscle mass, strength, cardiorespiratory fitness and protein turnover are unknown...
October 16, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036016/exercise-preserves-physical-function-in-prostate-cancer-patients-with-bone-metastases
#3
Daniel A Galvão, Dennis R Taaffe, Nigel Spry, Prue Cormie, David Joseph, Suzanne K Chambers, Raphael Chee, Carolyn Peddle-McIntyre, Nicolas H Hart, Freerk T Baumann, James Denham, Michael Baker, Robert U Newton
PURPOSE: The presence of bone metastases has excluded participation of cancer patients in exercise interventions and is a relative contraindication to supervised exercise in the community setting due to concerns of fragility fracture. We examined the efficacy and safety of a modular multi-modal exercise program in prostate cancer patients with bone metastases. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2015, 57 prostate cancer patients (70.0±8.4 years; BMI 28.7±4.0 kg/m) with bone metastases (pelvis 75...
October 14, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030644/how-to-prevent-the-detrimental-effects-of-two-months-of-bed-rest-on-muscle-bone-and-cardiovascular-system-an-rct
#4
Andreas Kramer, Albert Gollhofer, Gabriele Armbrecht, Dieter Felsenberg, Markus Gruber
Physical inactivity leads to a deconditioning of the skeletal, neuromuscular and cardiovascular system. It can lead to impaired quality of life, loss of autonomy, falls and fractures. Regular exercise would be a logical remedy, but the generally recommended high-volume endurance and strength training programs require a lot of time and equipment. In this randomized controlled study with 23 healthy participants, we established that a short, intensive jump training program can prevent the large musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning effects caused by two months of physical inactivity during bed rest, particularly the loss of bone mineral mass and density, lean muscle mass, maximal leg strength and peak oxygen uptake...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982549/achieving-a-3-star-society-of-thoracic-surgery-lobectomy-ranking-by-using-continuing-process-improvement-lean-methodology-and-root-cause-analysis
#5
Robert J Cerfolio, Douglas J Minnich, Benjamin Wei, Caroline Watson, Malcolm M DeCamp
Our purpose is to identify the metrics used by the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) to rank lobectomy and to show our process to improve. This is a review of our STS data for lobectomy and our results using the process of root cause analysis and lean methodology to improve our outcomes. The STS metrics are 30-day mortality, pneumonia, adult respiratory distress syndrome, bronchopleural fistula, pulmonary embolus, initial ventilator support greater than 48 hours, reintubation and respiratory failure, tracheostomy, myocardial infarction, or unexpected return to the operating room...
August 18, 2017: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979731/role-of-transformational-leadership-on-employee-productivity-of-teaching-hospitals-using-structural-equation-modeling
#6
Soudabeh Vatankhah, Samira Alirezaei, Omid Khosravizadeh, Seyyed Elmira Mirbahaeddin, Mahtab Alikhani, Mobarakeh Alipanah
BACKGROUND: In today's transforming world, increased productivity and efficient use of existing facilities are practically beyond a choice and become a necessity. In this line, attention to change and transformation is one of the affecting factors on the growth of productivity in organizations, especially in hospitals. AIM: To examine the effect of transformational leadership on the productivity of employees in teaching hospitals affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences...
August 2017: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964826/randomized-four-arm-dose-response-clinical-trial-to-optimize-resistance-exercise-training-for-older-adults-with-age-related-muscle-atrophy
#7
Michael J Stec, Anna Thalacker-Mercer, David L Mayhew, Neil A Kelly, S Craig Tuggle, Edward K Merritt, Cynthia J Brown, Samuel T Windham, Louis J Dell'Italia, C Scott Bickel, Brandon M Roberts, Kristina M Vaughn, Irina Isakova-Donahue, Gina M Many, Marcas M Bamman
PURPOSE: The myriad consequences of age-related muscle atrophy include reduced muscular strength, power, and mobility; increased risk of falls, disability, and metabolic disease; and compromised immune function. At its root, aging muscle atrophy results from a loss of myofibers and atrophy of the remaining type II myofibers. The purpose of this trial (NCT02442479) was to titrate the dose of resistance training (RT) in older adults in an effort to maximize muscle regrowth and gains in muscle function...
September 28, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964688/administering-blood-products-before-selected-interventional-radiology-procedures-developing-applying-and-monitoring-a-standardized-protocol
#8
Nam S Hoang, Nishita Kothary, Seema Saharan, Jarrett Rosenberg, Andrew A Tran, Shaughnessy B Brown, David M Hovsepian
PURPOSE: To apply and monitor a single institution's adherence to internally established guidelines for the preoperative administration of platelets and/or fresh frozen plasma (FFP) before a specified subset of minimally invasive interventional radiology (IR) procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Beginning in December 2008, we implemented a set of restrictive guidelines for preoperative platelet and/or FFP administration before IR procedures at a single academic hospital...
September 27, 2017: Journal of the American College of Radiology: JACR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952131/dynamic-changes-in-p66shc-mrna-expression-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-following-resistance-training-intervention-in-old-frail-women-born-to-obese-mothers-a-pilot-study
#9
Alessandra Berry, Marco Bucci, Carla Raggi, Johan G Eriksson, Maria Angela Guzzardi, Pirjo Nuutila, Ville Huovinen, Patricia Iozzo, Francesca Cirulli
The p66Shc gerontogene may affect healthspan by promoting fat accumulation. We assessed changes of p66Shc-mRNA in peripheral tissues in relation to maternal obesity and the moderating effects of resistance-training (RT) exercise in elderly frail women. Thirty-seven women participated in a 4-month RT program. Twenty were offspring of lean/normal weight mothers and 17 were offspring of overweight/obese mothers (OOM). P66Shc was assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) before and after RT...
September 26, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938290/body-composition-changes-in-severely-burned-children-during-icu-hospitalization
#10
Janos Cambiaso-Daniel, Ioannis Malagaris, Eric Rivas, Gabriel Hundeshagen, Charles D Voigt, Elizabeth Blears, Ron P Mlcak, David N Herndon, Celeste C Finnerty, Oscar E Suman
OBJECTIVES: Prolonged hospitalization due to burn injury results in physical inactivity and muscle weakness. However, how these changes are distributed among body parts is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of body composition changes in different anatomical regions during ICU hospitalization. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Children's burn hospital. PATIENTS: Twenty-four severely burned children admitted to our institution between 2000 and 2015...
September 21, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933713/adaptations-associated-with-an-after-school-strength-and-conditioning-program-in-middle-school-aged-boys-a-quasi-experimental-design
#11
Brennan J Thompson, Matt S Stock, Jacob A Mota, Alexander S Drusch, Ryan N DeFranco, Tyler R Cook, Matthew A Hamm
High-intensity strength and conditioning programs aimed at improving youth performance are becoming increasingly prevalent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a 16-week after-school strength and conditioning program on performance and body composition in middle-school-aged boys. Subjects in the training group (n = 16, mean age = 11.8 years) performed 90 minutes of supervised plyometric and resistance training twice weekly for 16 weeks. A group of control subjects (n = 9, age = 12.1 years) maintained their current activity levels...
October 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927970/hormonal-response-patterns-are-differentially-influenced-by-physical-conditioning-programs-during-basic-military-training
#12
Jace R Drain, Herbert Groeller, Simon D Burley, Bradley C Nindl
OBJECTIVES: Compare traditional military physical training and more contemporary physical training on catabolic and anabolic hormones and body composition in recruits undertaking basic military training (BMT). DESIGN: A prospective cross-sectional study design. METHODS: Two recruit intakes were assessed over the 12-week Australian Army BMT course. The control group (CON) comprised 40 recruits (26M/14F) and the experimental group (EXP) comprised 35 recruits (25M/10F)...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921414/multimedia-education-program-and-nutrition-therapy-improves-hba1c-weight-and-lipid-profile-of-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#13
Lubia Velázquez-López, Abril Violeta Muñoz-Torres, Patricia Medina-Bravo, Jenny Vilchis-Gil, Miguel Klϋnder-Klϋnder, Jorge Escobedo-de la Peña
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of a multimedia education program and nutrition therapy on metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH QUESTION: What is the effect of a multimedia education program and nutritional therapy on metabolic control in type 2 diabetes? PATIENTS AND METHODS: A randomized clinical trial was conducted in 351 patients randomly assigned to either an experimental group receiving a multimedia diabetes education program (MDE) and nutrition therapy (NT) (NT + MDE: n = 173), or to a control group who received nutrition therapy only (NT: n = 178)...
September 18, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917135/failing-to-learn-from-negative-prediction-errors-obesity-is-associated-with-alterations-in-a-fundamental-neural-learning-mechanism
#14
David Mathar, Jane Neumann, Arno Villringer, Annette Horstmann
Prediction errors (PEs) encode the difference between expected and actual action outcomes in the brain via dopaminergic modulation. Integration of these learning signals ensures efficient behavioral adaptation. Obesity has recently been linked to altered dopaminergic fronto-striatal circuits, thus implying impairments in cognitive domains that rely on its integrity. 28 obese and 30 lean human participants performed an implicit stimulus-response learning paradigm inside an fMRI scanner. Computational modeling and psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis was utilized for assessing PE-related learning and associated functional connectivity...
August 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890833/gender-success-and-drop-out-during-a-resistance-exercise-program-in-community-dwelling-old-adults
#15
O G Geirsdottir, M Chang, K Briem, P V Jonsson, I Thorsdottir, A Ramel
BACKGROUND: Resistance exercise training can be effective against sarcopenia. We identified predictors of drop-out and compared physical outcomes between men and women after such training. METHODS: Subjects (N = 236, 73.7 ± 5.7 years) participated in a 12-week resistance exercise program. Outcome variables were measured at baseline and endpoint. RESULTS: Drop-out was 11.9% and not significantly different between genders. Drop-outs were significantly older and had poorer strength and physical function in comparison to completers...
2017: Journal of Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887432/maternal-pregravid-obesity-remodels-the-dna-methylation-landscape-of-cord-blood-monocytes-disrupting-their-inflammatory-program
#16
Suhas Sureshchandra, Randall M Wilson, Maham Rais, Nicole E Marshall, Jonathan Q Purnell, Kent L Thornburg, Ilhem Messaoudi
Prepregnancy maternal obesity is associated with adverse outcomes for the offspring, including increased incidence of neonatal bacterial sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis. We recently reported that umbilical cord blood (UCB) monocytes from babies born to obese mothers generate a reduced IL-6/TNF-α response to TLR 1/2 and 4 ligands compared to those collected from lean mothers. These observations suggest altered development of the offspring's immune system, which in turn results in dysregulated function...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884881/effects-of-a-randomized-weight-loss-intervention-trial-in-obese-adolescents-on-tibia-and-radius-bone-geometry-and-volumetric-density
#17
Jennifer C Kelley, Nicolas Stettler-Davis, Mary B Leonard, Douglas Hill, Brian H Wrotniak, Justine Shults, Virginia A Stallings, Robert Berkowitz, Melissa S Xanthopoulos, Elizabeth Prout-Parks, Sarah B Klieger, Babette S Zemel
Obese adolescents have increased fracture risk, but effects of alterations in adiposity on bone accrual and strength in obese adolescents are not understood. We evaluated 12-month changes in trabecular and cortical volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and cortical geometry in obese adolescents undergoing a randomized weight management program, and investigated the effect of body composition changes on bone outcomes. Peripheral quantitative CT of the radius and tibia, and whole body DXA scans were obtained at baseline, six and 12 months in 91 obese adolescents randomized to standard care versus behavioral intervention for weight loss...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872752/time-on-androgen-deprivation-therapy-and-adaptations-to-exercise-secondary-analysis-from-a-12-month-randomized-controlled-trial-in-men-with-prostate-cancer
#18
Dennis R Taaffe, Laurien M Buffart, Robert U Newton, Nigel Spry, James Denham, David Joseph, David Lamb, Suzanne K Chambers, Daniel A Galvão
OBJECTIVES: To explore if duration of prior exposure to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in men with prostate cancer (PCa) undertaking a yearlong exercise program moderates the exercise response on body composition and muscle performance. In addition, we explored the moderator effect of baseline testosterone, time since ADT, and baseline value of the outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In a multicenter randomized controlled trial, 100 patients previously treated for either 6 months (short-term) or 18 months (long-term) ADT in combination with radiotherapy as part of the TROG 03...
September 5, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871849/resistance-training-combined-with-diet-decreases-body-fat-while-preserving-lean-mass-independent-of-resting-metabolic-rate-a-randomized-trial
#19
Todd Miller, Stephanie Mull, Alan Albert Aragon, James Krieger, Brad Jon Schoenfeld
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of resistance training only (RT n=10), dietary intervention only (DIET n=10), resistance training plus diet (RT+DIET n=10) and control (CON n=10) on body composition and resting metabolic rate (RMR) in a cohort of 40 premenopausal female volunteers. Subjects in DIET and RT+DIET were provided with daily macronutrient and calorie goals based on DXA and RMR tests, with protein maintained at 1.4 g/kg/day. Subjects in the RT and RT+DIET groups performed a supervised progressive RT program consisting of exercises for all the major muscle groups of the body...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868988/effects-of-resistance-guided-high-intensity-interval-functional-electrical-stimulation-cycling-on-an-individual-with-paraplegia-a-case-report
#20
David R Dolbow, Daniel P Credeur
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) are more than twice as likely to develop and die from cardio-metabolic diseases as compared to able-bodied. This increased risk is thought to be in part due to accelerated muscle atrophy and reduced blood flow through sublesional arteries. Thus, strategies to recondition paralyzed skeletal muscles may help reduce cardio-metabolic disease risk. The purpose of this case report was to examine the impact of a novel, resistance-guided, high intensity interval training functional electrical stimulation (RG-HIIT-FES) cycling program on cardio-metabolic health in people with chronic SCI...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
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