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Lean program

Martha G Cline, Angela L Witzel, Tamberlyn D Moyers, Claudia A Kirk
Objectives The objectives for this study were to compare the body composition of adult indoor neutered domestic cats with outdoor intact cats with an ideal body condition score using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and to report the body composition findings of free-roaming cats, as this has not been previously reported. Most domestic house cats differ from free-roaming cats as they are confined indoors and neutered. Indoor neutered cats have reduced activity and hormonal alterations that may result in lower muscle mass and higher body fat percentages vs outdoor intact cats, despite similar body condition scores...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Daniel A Hackett, Theban Amirthalingam, Lachlan Mitchell, Yorgi Mavros, Guy C Wilson, Mark Halaki
This study investigated the effect of a 12-week modified German Volume Training intervention, or the 10 sets method, on muscle strength and hypertrophy. Twelve healthy males were randomly assigned to either a 5-SET or 10-SET group and performed 5 or 10 sets, respectively, of 10 repetitions at 60⁻80% one-repetition maximum (1RM). Muscle strength and body composition measures were taken at baseline, six weeks, and after 12 weeks of training. No significant changes in total, trunk, and arm lean mass were found within and between groups at any time point...
January 29, 2018: Sports
Edward Archer, Carl J Lavie, James O Hill
The debate on the relative contributions of presumptive etiologic factors in the development of obesity is becoming increasingly speculative, insular, and partisan. As the global prevalence of obesity continues to rise, the sheer volume of unfounded conjecture threatens to obscure well-established evidence. We posit that the failure to distinguish between causal factors and mere statistical associations engendered the proliferation of misleading and demonstrably false research programs and failed public health initiatives...
June 12, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Harry Prapavessis, Stefanie De Jesus, Lyndsay Fitzgeorge, Scott Rollo
INTRODUCTION: Post-cessation weight gain contributes to smoking relapse, especially for women. Furthermore, excess weight in the form of android or visceral fat is associated with metabolic health problems. For this study, a secondary analysis was conducted in 2015 to determine whether quitting status, achieved through a 14 week supervised exercise-aided nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) cessation program [Getting Physical on Cigarette Trial-2009 to 2013; Prapavessis, et al., 2016], affects anthropometric and body composition parameters in female smokers (N = 413, M age = 42...
June 7, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
S I Mortimer, N M Fogarty, J H J van der Werf, D J Brown, A A Swan, R H Jacob, G H Geesink, D L Hopkins, J E Hocking Edwards, E N Ponnampalam, R D Warner, K L Pearce, D W Pethick
Genetic correlations between 16 meat quality and nutritional value traits and live weight at various ages, ultrasound fat and muscle depth, carcass measures and carcass dissection traits were estimated for Merino sheep in the Information Nucleus (IN). Genetic correlations between live weight at various ages and the carcass traits are also reported. The IN comprises 8 genetically linked flocks managed across a range of Australian sheep environments. Meat quality traits included between 1,200 and 1,300 records for progeny from over 170 sires for intramuscular fat (IMF), lean meat yield (LMY), shear force (SF5), pH, meat color and meat nutritional value traits including iron and zinc levels and long chain omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid levels...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Vlad Serbulea, Clint M Upchurch, Michael S Schappe, Paxton Voigt, Dory E DeWeese, Bimal N Desai, Akshaya K Meher, Norbert Leitinger
Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) adapt their metabolic phenotype either to maintain lean tissue homeostasis or drive inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity. However, the factors in the adipose tissue microenvironment that control ATM phenotypic polarization and bioenergetics remain unknown. We have recently shown that oxidized phospholipids (OxPL) uniquely regulate gene expression and cellular metabolism in Mox macrophages, but the presence of the Mox phenotype in adipose tissue has not been reported...
June 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Zachary S Zeigler, Pamela D Swan, Matthew P Buman, Farouk Mookadam, Glenn A Gaesser, Siddhartha S Angadi
PURPOSE: We assessed resting central/peripheral blood pressure (BP), postexercise BP and hemodynamic responses [stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), systemic vascular resistance (SVR)] after acute exercise and 2 wk of aerobic training in lean and centrally obese men matched for BP. METHODS: Eight lean (body mass index (BMI) <25 kg/m; visceral fat = 279±224 cm) and eight centrally obese (BMI>30 kg/m; visceral fat = 1,471±374 cm) men performed 6 training sessions (3d/wk for 40 min at 65-70%HRmax)...
June 8, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Favil Singh, Daniel A Galvão, Robert U Newton, Nigel A Spry, Michael K Baker, Dennis R Taaffe
BACKGROUND: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation treatment (CRT) in rectal cancer patients is associated with a reduction in physical capacity, lean mass and increased fatigue. As a countermeasure to these treatment-related adverse effects, we examined the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a 10-week exercise program during CRT. METHODS: Ten rectal cancer patients (7 men, aged 27-70 years, body mass index = 26.4 ± 3.8 kg/m2 ) receiving CRT undertook supervised resistance and aerobic exercise twice weekly...
June 1, 2018: Integrative Cancer Therapies
M-B Skoradal, E Purkhús, H Steinholm, M H Olsen, C Ørntoft, M N Larsen, J Dvorak, M Mohr, P Krustrup
We evaluated effects of the school-based intervention "FIFA 11 for Health" for Europe on health and fitness profile in 10- to 12-year-old Faroese schoolchildren. 392 fifth-grade children were randomized into a control group (CG: n = 100, 11.1 ± 0.3 years, 149.0 ± 6.7 cm, 42.4 ± 10.2 kg) and an intervention group (IG: n = 292, 11.1 ± 0.3 years, 150.6 ± 6.9 cm, 44.2 ± 9.4 kg). IG underwent an 11-week intervention in which 2 weekly sessions of 45 minutes were included in the school curriculum focusing on health aspects, football skills, and 3v3 small-sided games...
June 8, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Jeerunda Santiprabhob, Kawewan Limprayoon, Prapun Aanpreung, Ratiya Charoensakdi, Ruchaneekorn W Kalpravidh, Benjaluck Phonrat, Rungsunn Tungtrongchitr
BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of adipocytokines, inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress are associated with the pathogenesis of obesity-related complications. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a group-based lifestyle modification program on adipocytokines, inflammatory cytokines, oxidative status and arterial stiffness in obese youth. METHODS: A 1-year weight-reduction program was conducted. The program consisted of initial hospitalization and five outpatient group-based sessions held at 1, 2, 3, 6 and 9 months...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Tatiana Moro, Camille R Brightwell, Rachel R Deer, Ted G Graber, Elfego Galvan, Christopher S Fry, Elena Volpi, Blake B Rasmussen
Background: The muscle protein anabolic response to contraction and feeding may be blunted in older adults. Acute bouts of exercise can improve the ability of amino acids to stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) by activating mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling, but it is not known whether exercise training may improve muscle sensitivity to amino acid availability. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if muscle protein anabolism is resistant to essential amino acids (EAAs) and whether resistance exercise training (RET) improves muscle sensitivity to EAA in healthy older adults...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Małgorzata Moszak, Agnieszka Klupczyńska, Alina Kanikowska, Zenon Kokot, Agnieszka Zawada, Małgorzata Grzymisławska, Marian Grzymisławski
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have showed differences in the amino acid (AA) composition in the plasma of people with obesity when compared to lean individuals, but the perturbations of AA concentrations in obesity and the dynamics of AA changes after weight loss is not fully understood. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of a short-term weight reduction program on the metabolic status and plasma AA levels in individuals with obesity...
April 16, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Maria Castaldi, John McNelis
INTRODUCTION: Inadequate electronic medical record (EMR) documentation remains a significant source of revenue loss. The Department of Surgery in a trauma and tertiary care teaching hospital developed a revenue optimization initiative for inpatients on general, vascular, and trauma surgery and surgical intensive care unit services to enhance clinical documentation and increase revenue capture. METHODS: Clinical documentation management program included six trained clinical documentation specialists (CDSs), five physician assistants (PAs), directors of health information management (HIM), and two surgical champions...
May 18, 2018: Journal for Healthcare Quality: Official Publication of the National Association for Healthcare Quality
Kelly Cleland, Brandon Wagner, Pelin Batur, Megan McNamara, Justine Wu, Michael B Rothberg
OBJECTIVE: The most effective forms of emergency contraception (EC) require a prescription or a medical procedure; therefore, provider willingness to offer EC remains critical to patient access. This study seeks to assess whether political alignment of a provider's county is associated with provider attitudes and behaviors regarding EC. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed survey data collected from 1313 healthcare providers from February 2013 to April 2014 at 14 academic medical centers in the United States...
May 17, 2018: Contraception
David A Hill, Hee-Woong Lim, Yong Hoon Kim, Wesley Y Ho, Yee Hoon Foong, Victoria L Nelson, Hoang C B Nguyen, Kavya Chegireddy, Jihoon Kim, Andreas Habertheuer, Prashanth Vallabhajosyula, Taku Kambayashi, Kyoung-Jae Won, Mitchell A Lazar
Obesity is characterized by an accumulation of macrophages in adipose, some of which form distinct crown-like structures (CLS) around fat cells. While multiple discrete adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) subsets are thought to exist, their respective effects on adipose tissue, and the transcriptional mechanisms that underlie the functional differences between ATM subsets, are not well understood. We report that obese fat tissue of mice and humans contain multiple distinct populations of ATMs with unique tissue distributions, transcriptomes, chromatin landscapes, and functions...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Rodrigo R Fernandes, Hellen C G Nabuco, Paulo Sugihara Junior, Edilaine F Cavalcanti, Crisieli M Tomeleri, Alex S Ribeiro, Décio S Barbosa, Danielle Venturini, Brad J Schoenfeld, Edilson S Cyrino
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of higher protein (HP) intake associated with resistance training (RT) on parameters of cardiometabolic risk disease (CMR). METHODS: A randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled design was conducted. Thirty-two pre-conditioned older women were randomized in two groups to receive 35 g of protein (high protein group - HP) or 35 g of placebo (low protein group - LP) after training sessions. The RT program was carried out over 12 weeks, 3 days per week and 3 sets of 8-12 repetitions...
May 9, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Wanda Pilch, Łukasz Tota, Anna Piotrowska, Ewa Śliwicka, Olga Czerwińska-Ledwig, Roxana Zuziak, Łucja Pilaczyńska-Szcześniak
Objectives: Nordic walking (NW) is relatively new and popular type of physical exercise with less studied effects than other sports activities. The aim of the study was to analyze possible changes in somatic indices, oxidant and antioxidant status, interleukins, and calcidiol levels in middle-aged women after a 12-week NW training program. Study Design: In this study, we examined the effects of NW training on selected measures and changes in body weight, fat mass, and calcidiol levels...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Isabela Peixoto Martins, Júlio Cezar de Oliveira, Audrei Pavanello, Camila Cristina Ianoni Matiusso, Carina Previate, Laize Peron Tófolo, Tatiane Aparecida Ribeiro, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva Franco, Rosiane Aparecida Miranda, Kelly Valério Prates, Vander Silva Alves, Flávio Andrade Francisco, Ana Maria Praxedes de Moraes, Paulo Cezar de Freitas Mathias, Ananda Malta
Protein restriction during the suckling phase can malprogram rat offspring to a lean phenotype associated with metabolic dysfunctions later in life. We tested whether protein-caloric restriction during lactation can exacerbate the effect of a high-fat (HF) diet at adulthood. To test this hypothesis, we fed lactating Wistar dams with a low-protein (LP; 4% protein) diet during the first 2 weeks of lactation or a normal-protein (NP; 23% protein) diet throughout lactation. Rat offspring from NP and LP mothers received a normal-protein diet until 60 days old...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
F Bertolini, G Schiavo, G Galimberti, S Bovo, M D'Andrea, M Gallo, L Buttazzoni, M F Rothschild, L Fontanesi
Protected designation of origin dry-cured hams are obtained from heavy pigs (slaughtered at about 160 kg of live weight). A specific breeding program designed to improve meat quality for this production has included as key traits the level of intermuscular fat between the leg muscles and ham weight loss during the seasoning period together with a balance between fat and lean cuts. In this study we carried out genome-wide association studies for seven traits used in the genetic merit of Italian Duroc heavy pigs, five related to meat and carcass quality traits (visible intermuscular fat, ham weight loss at first salting, backfat thickness, ham weight and lean cuts), and two related to performance and efficiency traits (average daily gain and feed : gain ratio)...
April 30, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Donna Weetra, Karen Glover, Roxanne Miller, Rikki Wilson, Cathy Leane, Deanna Stuart-Butler, Amanda Mitchell, Deirdre Gartland, Stephanie Brown
BACKGROUND: Aboriginal women and families are under-represented in Australian research on pregnancy and childbirth. The Aboriginal Families Study aimed to investigate the views and experiences of a representative sample of women giving birth to an Aboriginal baby in South Australia between July 2011 and June 2013, using methods designed to respect Aboriginal culture and communities. METHODS: A team of 12 Aboriginal researchers facilitated community engagement and recruitment of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal mothers of Aboriginal infants in urban, regional and remote areas of South Australia over a two-year period...
April 23, 2018: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
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