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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335275/methanol-tolerant-platinum-palladium-catalyst-supported-on-nitrogen-doped-carbon-nanofiber-for-high-concentration-direct-methanol-fuel-cells
#1
Jiyoung Kim, Jin-Sung Jang, Dong-Hyun Peck, Byungrok Lee, Seong-Ho Yoon, Doo-Hwan Jung
Pt-Pd catalyst supported on nitrogen-doped carbon nanofiber (N-CNF) was prepared and evaluated as a cathode electrode of the direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The N-CNF, which was directly synthesized by the catalytic chemical vapor deposition from acetonitrile at 640 °C, was verified as having a change of electrochemical surface properties such as oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activities and the electrochemical double layer compared with common carbon black (CB). To attain the competitive oxygen reduction reaction activity with methanol tolerance, the Pt and Pd metals were supported on the CB or the N-CNF...
August 15, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335199/highly-efficient-plasmon-enhanced-dye-sensitized-solar-cells-created-by-means-of-dry-plasma-reduction
#2
Van-Duong Dao, Ho-Suk Choi
Plasmon-assisted energy conversion is investigated in a comparative study of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) equipped with photo-anodes, which are fabricated by forming gold (Au) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) on an fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass surface by means of dry plasma reduction (DPR) and coating TiO₂ paste onto the modified FTO glass through a screen printing method. As a result, the FTO/Ag-NPs/TiO₂ photo-anode showed an enhancement of its photocurrent, whereas the FTO/Au-NPs/TiO₂ photo-anode showed less photocurrent than even a standard photo-anode fabricated by simply coating TiO₂ paste onto the modified FTO glass through screen printing...
April 14, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334115/faster-a-user-friendly-tool-for-ultrafast-and-robust-cell-segmentation-in-large-scale-microscopy
#3
Oliver Hilsenbeck, Michael Schwarzfischer, Dirk Loeffler, Sotiris Dimopoulos, Simon Hastreiter, Carsten Marr, Fabian J Theis, Timm Schroeder
Motivation: Quantitative large-scale cell microscopy is widely used in biological and medical research. Such experiments produce huge amounts of image data and thus require automated analysis. However, automated detection of cell outlines (cell segmentation) is typically challenging due to, e.g., high cell densities, cell-to-cell variability and low signal-to-noise ratios. Results: Here, we evaluate accuracy and speed of various state-of-the-art approaches for cell segmentation in light microscopy images using challenging real and synthetic image data...
February 22, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333432/ald-alumina-passivated-silicon-nanowires-probing-the-transition-from-electrochemical-double-layer-capacitor-to-electrolytic-capacitors
#4
Dorian Gaboriau, Maxime Boniface, Anthony Valero, Dmitry Aldakov, Thierry Brousse, Pascal Gentile, Said Sadki
Silicon nanowires were coated by a 1-5 nm thin alumina layer by Atomic Layer Deposition in order to replace poorly reproducible and unstable native silicon oxide by a highly conformal passivating alumina layer. The surface coating enabled probing the behavior of symmetric devices using such electrodes in EMI-TFSI electrolyte, allowing to attain a large cell voltage up to 6 V in ionic liquid, together with very high cyclability with less than 4% capacitance fade after 106 charge/discharge cycles. These results yielded fruitful insights on the transition between an electrochemical double-layer capacitor behavior and an electrolytic capacitor behavior...
March 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332675/tailoring-the-structure-and-thermoelectric-properties-of-batio3via-eu-2-substitution
#5
Xingxing Xiao, Marc Widenmeyer, Wenjie Xie, Tianhua Zou, Songhak Yoon, Marco Scavini, Stefano Checchia, Zhicheng Zhong, Philipp Hansmann, Stefan Kilper, Andrei Kovalevsky, Anke Weidenkaff
A series of Ba1-xEuxTiO3-δ (0.1 ≤ x ≤ 0.9) phases with ∼40 nm particle size were synthesized via a Pechini method followed by annealing and sintering under a reducing atmosphere. The effects of Eu(2+) substitution on the BaTiO3 crystal structure and the thermoelectric transport properties were systematically investigated. According to synchrotron X-ray diffraction data only cubic perovskite structures were observed. On the local scale below about 20 Å (equal to ∼5 unit cells) deviations from the cubic structure model (Pm3[combining macron]m) were detected by evaluation of the pair distribution function (PDF)...
March 23, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332607/-breakthrough-osmosis-and-unusually-high-power-densities-in-pressure-retarded-osmosis-in-non-ideally-semi-permeable-supported-membranes
#6
Andriy Yaroshchuk
Osmosis is the movement of solvent across a membrane induced by a solute-concentration gradient. It is very important for cell biology. Recently, it has started finding technological applications in the emerging processes of Forward Osmosis and Pressure-Retarded Osmosis. They use ultrathin and dense membranes supported mechanically by much thicker porous layers. Until now, these processes have been modelled by assuming the membrane to be ideally-semipermeable. We show theoretically that allowing for even minor deviations from ideal semipermeability to solvent can give rise to a previously overlooked mode of "breakthrough" osmosis...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331853/melanomas-and-dysplastic-nevi-differ-in-epidermal-cd1c-dendritic-cell-count
#7
Grzegorz Dyduch, Katarzyna Ewa Tyrak, Anna Glajcar, Joanna Szpor, Magdalena Ulatowska-Białas, Krzysztof Okoń
Background. Dendritic cells could be involved in immune surveillance of highly immunogenic tumors such as melanoma. Their role in the progression melanocytic nevi to melanoma is however a matter of controversy. Methods. The number of dendritic cells within epidermis, in peritumoral zone, and within the lesion was counted on slides immunohistochemically stained for CD1a, CD1c, DC-LAMP, and DC-SIGN in 21 of dysplastic nevi, 27 in situ melanomas, and 21 invasive melanomas. Results. We found a significant difference in the density of intraepidermal CD1c+ cells between the examined lesions; the mean CD1c cell count was 7...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331757/inflammatory-myofibroblastic-tumor-of-the-breast-coexisting-with-pseudoangiomatous-stromal-hyperplasia
#8
Canan Kelten Talu, Yasemin Çakır, Ezgi Hacıhasanoğlu, Cem Leblebici, Şefika Aksoy, Mehmet Ali Nazlı
Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) are uncommon breast lesions that consist of spindle cells accompanied by plasma cell-rich inflammatory infiltration, which may mimic breast cancer clinico-radiologically. A woman aged 38 years with a breast mass was referred to our general surgery clinic. The physical examination revealed a mass with irregular borders in the upper outer quadrant of the left breast. In mammography, the lesion was 15 mm in diameter with a spheric form and high density. Ultrasonographically, the mass was solid, heterogeneous, and hypoechoic with posterior enhancement...
October 2016: J Breast Health (2013)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331546/increasing-phosphorus-recovery-from-dewatering-centrate-in-microbial-electrolysis-cells
#9
Pengyi Yuan, Younggy Kim
BACKGROUND: Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) use bioelectrochemical reactions to remove organic contaminants at the bioanode and produce hydrogen gas at the cathode. High local pH conditions near the cathode can also be utilized to produce struvite from nutrient-rich wastewater. This beneficial aspect was investigated using lab-scale MECs fed with dewatering centrate collected at a local wastewater treatment plant. The main objective was to improve phosphorus recovery by examining various cathode configurations and electric current conditions...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331084/structural-insights-into-emerging-pediatric-pathogens-human-bocaparvoviruses
#10
Mario Mietzsch, Shweta Kailasan, Jamie Garrison, Maria Ilyas, Paul Chipman, Kalle Kantola, Mandy E Janssen, John Spear, Duncan Sousa, Robert McKenna, Kevin Brown, Maria Söderlund-Venermo, Timothy Baker, Mavis Agbandje-McKenna
Bocaparvoviruses are emerging pathogens of the Parvoviridae family. Human bocaviruses 1 (HBoV1) causes severe respiratory infections and HBoV2-4 gastrointestinal infections in young children. Recent reports of life threatening cases, lack of direct treatment or vaccination, and a limited understanding of their disease mechanisms demand the need to study these pathogens on a molecular and structural level for the development of therapeutics. Towards this end, the capsid structures of HBoV1, HBoV3, and HBoV4 were determined to 2...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330872/nadph-oxidase-1-supports-proliferation-of-colon-cancer-cells-by-modulating-reactive-oxygen-species-dependent-signal-transduction
#11
Agnes Juhasz, Susan Markel, Shikha Gaur, Han Liu, Jiamo Lu, Guojian Jiang, Xiwei Wu, Smitha Antony, Yongzhong Wu, Giovanni Melillo, Jennifer L Meitzler, Diana C Haines, Donna Butcher, Krishnendu Roy, James H Doroshow
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in cell signaling and proliferation. NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1), a membrane-bound flavin dehydrogenase that generates superoxide, is highly expressed in colon cancer. To investigate the role that NOX1 plays in colon cancer growth, we used shRNA to decrease NOX1 expression stably in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. The 80-90% decrease in NOX1 expression achieved by RNAi produced a significant decline in ROS production and a G1/S block that translated into a 2-3-fold increase in tumor cell doubling time without increased apoptosis...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330813/atp-binding-cassette-transporter-a1-deficiency-in-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-hepatocytes-abrogates-hdl-biogenesis-and-enhances-triglyceride-secretion
#12
Xin Bi, Evanthia E Pashos, Marina Cuchel, Nicholas N Lyssenko, Mayda Hernandez, Antonino Picataggi, James McParland, Wenli Yang, Ying Liu, Ruilan Yan, Christopher Yu, Stephanie L DerOhannessian, Michael C Phillips, Edward E Morrisey, Stephen A Duncan, Daniel J Rader
Despite the recognized role of the ATP-binding Cassette Transporter A1 (ABCA1) in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism, our understanding of ABCA1 deficiency in human hepatocytes is limited. To define the functional effects of human hepatocyte ABCA1 deficiency, we generated induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) from Tangier disease (TD) and matched control subjects. Control HLCs exhibited robust cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and formed nascent HDL particles...
March 14, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330685/renal-clear-cell-carcinoma-diffusion-tensor-imaging-diagnostic-accuracy-and-correlations-with-clinical-and-histopathological-factors
#13
Q Feng, W Fang, X P Sun, S H Sun, R M Zhang, Z J Ma
AIM: To investigate whether diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can be used to assess renal clinical histopathology, including the nuclear grade (NG), cell density (CD), and the presence of ki-67. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients were enrolled in the study and were confirmed at surgical histopathology to have clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC). For DTI, a coronal echo-planar imaging sequence was performed (1400 ms repetition time, 76 ms echo time, diffusion direction=6, number of excitations=4; b=0 and 800 s/mm(2), 6 mm section thickness with no intersection gap)...
March 19, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329760/low-temperature-hydrogen-production-from-water-and-methanol-using-pt-%C3%AE-moc-catalysts
#14
Lili Lin, Wu Zhou, Rui Gao, Siyu Yao, Xiao Zhang, Wenqian Xu, Shijian Zheng, Zheng Jiang, Qiaolin Yu, Yong-Wang Li, Chuan Shi, Xiao-Dong Wen, Ding Ma
Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) running on hydrogen are attractive alternative power supplies for a range of applications, with in situ release of the required hydrogen from a stable liquid offering one way of ensuring its safe storage and transportation before use. The use of methanol is particularly interesting in this regard, because it is inexpensive and can reform itself with water to release hydrogen with a high gravimetric density of 18.8 per cent by weight. But traditional reforming of methanol steam operates at relatively high temperatures (200-350 degrees Celsius), so the focus for vehicle and portable PEMFC applications has been on aqueous-phase reforming of methanol (APRM)...
March 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329636/correlation-between-cancer-incidences-and-google-searches-in-the-united-states
#15
Mackenzie R Wehner, Kevin T Nead, Eleni Linos
IntroductionDespite being highly prevalent, keratinocyte carcinomas (basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas lack nationwide registries. Internet search data has emerged as a new method to evaluate previously difficult to quantify public health outcomes and may be useful in keratinocyte carcinoma research.ObjectiveWe aimed to evaluate whether Google search density correlated with known incidences of common cancers in the United States.MethodsWe used the Center for Disease Control's National Program of Cancer Registries ageTadjusted cancer incidences (2008T2012 ...
September 15, 2016: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328927/effect-of-phosphorus-stress-on-microcystis-aeruginosa-growth-and-phosphorus-uptake
#16
Sajeela Ghaffar, R Jan Stevenson, Zahiruddin Khan
This study was designed to advance understanding of phosphorus regulation of Microcystis aeruginosa growth, phosphorus uptake and storage in changing phosphorus (P) conditions as would occur in lakes. We hypothesized that Microcystis growth and nutrient uptake would fit classic models by Monod, Droop, and Michaelis-Menten in these changing conditions. Microcystis grown in luxury nutrient concentrations was transferred to treatments with phosphorus concentrations ranging from 0-256 μg P∙L-1 and luxury nitrogen...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328191/enhancing-tumor-penetration-of-nanomedicines
#17
Qingxue Sun, Tarun Ojha, Fabian Kiessling, Twan Lammers, Yang Shi
Tumor-targeted nanomedicines have been extensively applied to alter the drawbacks and enhance the efficacy of chemotherapeutics. Despite the large number of preclinical nanomedicine studies showing initial success, their therapeutic benefit in the clinic has been rather modest, which is partially due to the inefficient tumor penetration caused by tumor microenvironment (high density of cells and extracellular matrix, increased interstitial fluid pressure). Furthermore, tumor penetration of nanomedicines is significantly influenced by physicochemical characteristics such as size, surface chemistry and shape...
March 22, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327722/impact-of-surface-defects-on-the-surface-charge-of-gibbsite-nanoparticles
#18
Aram Klaassen, Fei Liu, Dirk van den Ende, Frieder Mugele, Igor Siretanu
We use high resolution Atomic Force Microscopy to study the surface charge of the basal plane of gibbsite nanoparticles, with a lateral resolution of approximately 5 nm, in ambient electrolyte of variable pH and salt content. Our measurements reveal surface charge variations on the basal planes that correlate with the presence of topographic defects such as atomic steps. This surface charge heterogeneity, which increases with increasing pH, suggests that for a pH between 6 and 9 the defect sites display a stronger chemical activity than adjacent, apparently atomically smooth regions of the basal plane...
March 22, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327181/soluble-oligomeric-amyloid-%C3%AE-induces-calcium-dyshomeostasis-that-precedes-synapse-loss-in-the-living-mouse-brain
#19
Michal Arbel-Ornath, Eloise Hudry, Josiah R Boivin, Tadafumi Hashimoto, Shuko Takeda, Kishore V Kuchibhotla, Steven Hou, Carli R Lattarulo, Arianna M Belcher, Naomi Shakerdge, Pariss B Trujillo, Alona Muzikansky, Rebecca A Betensky, Bradley T Hyman, Brian J Bacskai
BACKGROUND: Amyloid-β oligomers (oAβ) are thought to mediate neurotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and previous studies in AD transgenic mice suggest that calcium dysregulation may contribute to these pathological effects. Even though AD mouse models remain a valuable resource to investigate amyloid neurotoxicity, the concomitant presence of soluble Aβ species, fibrillar Aβ, and fragments of amyloid precursor protein (APP) complicate the interpretation of the phenotypes. METHOD: To explore the specific contribution of soluble oligomeric Aβ (oAβ) to calcium dyshomeostasis and synaptic morphological changes, we acutely exposed the healthy mouse brain, at 3 to 6 months of age, to naturally occurring soluble oligomers and investigated their effect on calcium levels using in vivo multiphoton imaging...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326600/prognostic-significance-of-tumour-infiltrating-b-lymphocytes-in-breast-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ
#20
I Miligy, P Mohan, A Gaber, M A Aleskandarany, C C Nolan, M Diez-Rodriguez, A Mukherjee, C Chapman, I O Ellis, A R Green, E A Rakha
BACKGROUND: Tumour infiltrating lymphocytes are an important component of the immune response to cancer and have a prognostic value in breast cancer. Although several studies have investigated the role of T-lymphocytes in breast cancer, the role of B lymphocytes (TIL-Bs) in Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), remains uncertain. This study aimed to assess the role of TIL-Bs in DCIS. METHODS: 80 DCIS cases (36 pure DCIS and 44 mixed with invasive cancer) were immunohistochemically stained for B lineage markers CD19, CD20 and the plasma cell marker CD138...
March 22, 2017: Histopathology
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