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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102751/extracellular-vesicles-from-activated-platelets-a-semiquantitative-cryo-electron-microscopy-and-immuno-gold-labeling-study
#1
Alain R Brisson, Sisareuth Tan, Romain Linares, Céline Gounou, Nicolas Arraud
Cells release membrane vesicles in their surrounding medium either constitutively or in response to activating signals. Two main types of extracellular vesicles (EVs) are commonly distinguished based on their mechanism of formation, membrane composition and size. According to the current model, EVs shed from the plasma membrane, often called microvesicles, expose phosphatidylserine (PS) and range in size from 100 nm to 1 µm, while EVs originating from endosomal multi-vesicular bodies, called exosomes, contain tetraspanin proteins, including CD63, and range in size from 50 to 100 nm...
January 19, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102743/expression-and-alteration-of-bkca-channels-in-the-sphincter-of-oddi-s-from-rabbits-with-hypercholesterolemia
#2
Dan Feng, Haiyan Nan, Wen Wang, Linfeng Yan, Pang Du, Lin Zuo, Kun Zhang, Minggao Zhao, Guangbin Cui
This study aimed to investigate the expression and function of BKCa channels in the Sphincter of Oddi (SO) in a rabbit model of hypercholesterolemia (HC). New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into two groups: the control group was fed standard chow (n = 18) whereas the high-cholesterol group was fed cholesterol-enriched chow containing 1.5% cholesterol (n = 18). The serum cholesterol level was significantly greater in the HC groups than in the control group, but there was no significant difference in body weight between the control and HC groups...
January 19, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102397/highly-exposed-fe-n4-active-sites-in-porous-poly-iron-phthalocyanine-based-oxygen-reduction-electrocatalyst-with-ultrahigh-performance-for-air-cathode
#3
Ganesan Anandhababu, Syed Comail Abbas, Jiangquan Lv, Kui Ding, Qin Liu, Dickson D Babu, Yiyin Huang, Jiafang Xie, Maoxiang Wu, Yaobing Wang
Progress in the development of efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions is imperative for various energy systems such as metal-air batteries and fuel cells. In this paper, an innovative porous two-dimensional (2D) poly-iron-phthalocyanine (PFe-Pc) based oxygen reduction electrocatalyst created with a simple solid-state chemical reaction without pyrolysis is reported. In this strategy, silicon dioxide nanoparticles play a pivotal role in preserving the Fe-N4 structure during the polymerization process and thereby assist in the development of a porous structure...
January 19, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101628/rho-kinase-inhibitor-fasudil-mitigates-high-cholesterol-diet-induced-hypercholesterolemia-and-vascular-damage
#4
Nibrass Taher Abdali, Awny H Yaseen, Eman Said, Tarek M Ibrahim
The current study was designed to investigate the potential beneficial therapeutic outcome of Rho kinase inhibitor (fasudil) against hypercholesterolemia-induced myocardial and vascular injury in rabbits together with diet modification. Sixteen male rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: normal control group which received standard rabbit chow, hypercholesterolemic control group, and treated groups which received cholesterol-rich rabbit chow (1.5% cholesterol) for 8 weeks. Treated groups received either fasudil (100 mg/kg/day) or rosuvastatin (2...
January 18, 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100678/modulation-of-naive-cd8-t-cell-response-features-by-ligand-density-affinity-and-continued-signaling-via-internalized-tcrs
#5
Renu Balyan, Rupali Gund, Chitra Ebenezer, Jasneet Kaur Khalsa, Divya Anna Verghese, Thyagarajan Krishnamurthy, Anna George, Vineeta Bal, Satyajit Rath, Ashutosh Chaudhry
T cell response magnitudes increase with increasing antigenic dosage. However, it is unclear whether ligand density only modulates the proportions of responding ligand-specific T cells or also alters responses at the single cell level. Using brief (3 h) exposure of TCR-transgenic mouse CD8 T cells in vitro to varying densities of cognate peptide-MHC ligand followed by ligand-free culture in IL-2, we found that ligand density determined the frequencies of responding cells but not the expression levels of the early activation marker molecule, CD69...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100648/multi-scale-structural-analysis-of-plant-er-pm-contact-sites
#6
Heather E McFarlane, Eun Kyoung Lee, Laura S van Bezouwen, Bradford Ross, Abel Rosado, A Lacey Samuels
Membrane contact sites (MCS) are recognized across eukaryotic systems as important nanostructures. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-plasma membrane (PM) contact sites (EPCS) are involved in excitation-contraction coupling, signalling, and plant responses to stress. In this report, we perform a multi-scale structural analysis of Arabidopsis EPCS that combine live cell imaging, quantitative transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electron tomography over a developmental gradient. To place EPCS in the context of the entire cortical ER, we examined GFP-HDEL in living cells over a developmental gradient, then SYT1-GFP was used as a specific marker of EPCS...
January 18, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100346/-impact-of-cd137-cd137l-signaling-mediated-exocytosis-of-autophagosome-within-vascular-smooth-muscle-cells-on-the-formation-of-atherosclerotic-calcification
#7
B Li, X Y Li, W Zhong, C Shao, Z Q Wang, W Yuan, J C Yan
Objective: To explore whether CD137-CD137L signaling mediated exocytosis of autophagosome within vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) could influence the formation of atherosclerotic calcification. Methods: Fifteen 8-week-old male ApoE(-/-)(C57BL/6J-KO) mice fed with high fat diet for 5 weeks were randomly divided into three groups by using stochastic indicator method as follows: control group, n=5; agonist-CD137 group: agonist-CD137 antibody 200 μg/2 weeks for 4 weeks, ip, n=5; anti-CD137 group: 200 μg anti-CD137 antibody+ 200 μg agonist-CD137 antibody/2 weeks for 4 weeks, ip, n=5...
January 25, 2017: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100236/human-%C3%AE-defensin-2-production-from-s-cerevisiae-using-the-repressible-met17-promoter
#8
Thea S B Møller, Joanna Hay, Malcolm J Saxton, Karen Bunting, Evamaria I Petersen, Søren Kjærulff, Christopher J A Finnis
BACKGROUND: Baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a proven host for the commercial production of recombinant biopharmaceutical proteins. For the manufacture of heterologous proteins with activities deleterious to the host it can be desirable to minimise production during the growth phase and induce production late in the exponential phase. Protein expression by regulated promoter systems offers the possibility of improving productivity in this way by separating the recombinant protein production phase from the yeast growth phase...
January 18, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099408/multiphenotype-association-study-of-patients-randomized-to-initiate-antiretroviral-regimens-in-aids-clinical-trials-group-protocol-a5202
#9
Anurag Verma, Yuki Bradford, Shefali S Verma, Sarah A Pendergrass, Eric S Daar, Charles Venuto, Gene D Morse, Marylyn D Ritchie, David W Haas
BACKGROUND: High-throughput approaches are increasingly being used to identify genetic associations across multiple phenotypes simultaneously. Here, we describe a pilot analysis that considered multiple on-treatment laboratory phenotypes from antiretroviral therapy-naive patients who were randomized to initiate antiretroviral regimens in a prospective clinical trial, AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol A5202. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: From among 5 9545 294 polymorphisms imputed genome-wide, we analyzed 2544, including 2124 annotated in the PharmGKB, and 420 previously associated with traits in the GWAS Catalog...
January 5, 2017: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098984/red-emitting-ruthenium-ii-and-iridium-iii-complexes-as-phosphorescent-probes-for-methylglyoxal-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#10
Wenzhu Zhang, Feiyue Zhang, Yong-Lei Wang, Bo Song, Run Zhang, Jingli Yuan
Transition-metal complexes, ruthenium(II) and iridium(III) complexes in particular, with fascinating triplet emissions are rapidly emerging as important phosphorescent dyes for application in the sensing and imaging of biological makers in live cells and organisms. In this contribution, two red-emitting transition-metal complexes, [Ru(bpy)2(DA-phen)](PF6)2 and [Ir(ppy)2(DA-phen)](PF6) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, DA-phen = 4,5-diamino-1,10-phenanthroline, and ppy = 2-phenylpyridine), were designed and synthesized as phosphorescent probes for the highly sensitive and selective detection of methylglyoxal (MGO), an essential biomarker in the etiopathogenesis of several diseases...
January 18, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098977/lamellar-metal-organic-framework-derived-fe-n-c-non-noble-electrocatalysts-with-bimodal-porosity-for-efficient-oxygen-reduction
#11
Zhongtao Li, Hongdi Sun, Liangqin Wei, Wen-Jie Jiang, Mingbo Wu, Jin-Song Hu
Developing highly efficient and stable non-Pt electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to replace the state-of-the-art noble metal is essential for the commercialization of fuel cells. Fe-N-C based electrocatalysts are considered as one of promising alternatives to commercial Pt/C. An efficient electrocatalyst commonly requires large density of active site, high surface area, and desirable porosity, especially multi-modal porosity with both large pores for efficient mass transfer and small pores for exposing as much active sites as possible...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098975/development-of-spiro-cyclopenta-1-2-b-5-4-b-dithiophene-4-9-fluorene-based-a-%C3%AF-d-%C3%AF-a-small-molecules-with-different-acceptor-units-for-efficient-organic-solar-cells
#12
Wengong Wang, Ping Shen, Xinning Dong, Chao Weng, Guo Wang, Haijun Bin, Jing Zhang, Zhi-Guo Zhang, Yongfang Li
Three acceptor-π-donor-π-acceptor (A-π-D-π-A) small molecules (STFYT, STFRDN, and STFRCN) with spiro[cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b']dithiophene-4,9'-fluorene] (STF) as the central donor unit, terthiophene as the π-conjugated bridge, indenedione, 3-ethylrhodanine, or 2-(1,1-dicyanomethylene)rhodanine as the acceptor unit are designed, synthesized and characterized as electron donor materials in solution-processing organic solar cells (OSCs). The effects of the spiro STF-based central core and different acceptors on the molecular configuration, absorption properties, electronic energy levels, carrier transport properties, the morphology of active layers, and photovoltaic properties are investigated in detail...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098961/angiogenic-and-osteogenic-regeneration-in-rats-via-calcium-phosphate-scaffold-and-endothelial-cell-coculture-with-hbmscs-hucmscs-hipsc-mscs-and-hesc-mscs
#13
Wenchuan Chen, Xian Liu, Qianmin Chen, Chongyun Bao, Liang Zhao, Zhimin Zhu, Hockin H K Xu
Angiogenesis is a limiting factor in regenerating large bone defects. The objective of this study was to investigate angiogenic and osteogenic effects of coculture on calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffold using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (hUVECs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from different origins for the first time. hUVECs were cocultured with four types of cells: human umbilical cord MSCs (hUCMSCs), human bone marrow MSCs (hBMSCs), and MSCs from induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-MSCs) and embryonic stem cells (hESC-MSCs)...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098517/antiobesity-effects-of-sansa-crataegi-fructus-on-3t3-l1-cells-and-on-high-fat-high-cholesterol-diet-induced-obese-rats
#14
Jae-Joon Lee, Hyun-Joo Lee, Seon-Woo Oh
This study was performed to investigate the effects of Crataegi fructus ethanol extracts (CFEEs) on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, and to evaluate the effects of C. fructus powder (CFP) on lipid metabolism and its antiobesity effect in rats fed a high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFC) diet. Both in vitro and in vivo studies were performed for physiological activity and antiobesity effects on the serum, liver, and adipose tissues in obesity-induced rats. CFEEs showed significant inhibitory action on differentiation and triglyceride (TG) accumulation in 3T3-L1 mature cells in a dose-dependent manner...
January 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098453/surface-engineered-multifunctional-eu-gd2o3-nanoplates-for-targeted-and-ph-responsive-drug-delivery-and-imaging-applications
#15
Arindam Saha, Subas Chandra Mohanta, Kashmiri Deka, Pritam Deb, Parukuttyamma Sujatha Devi
In this paper, we report the synthesis of surface-engineered multifunctional Eu:Gd2O3 triangular nanoplates with small size and uniform shape via a high-temperature solvothermal technique. Surface engineering has been performed by a one-step polyacrylate coating, followed by controlled conjugation chemistry. This creates the desired number of surface functional groups that can be used to attach folic acid as a targeting ligand on the nanoparticle surface. To specifically deliver the drug molecules in the nucleus, the folate density on the nanoparticle surface has been kept low...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098443/fe-cluster-pushing-electrons-to-n-doped-graphitic-layers-with-fe3c-fe-hybrid-nanostructure-to-enhance-o2-reduction-catalysis-of-zn-air-batteries
#16
Jie Yang, Jiangtao Hu, Mouyi Weng, Rui Tan, Lei-Lei Tian, Jinlong Yang, Joseph Amine, Jia-Xin Zheng, Haibiao Chen, Feng Pan
Non-noble metal catalysts with oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) performance comparable or even superior to that of Pt are extremely important for metal-air batteries and fuel cells. Here we report a simple and controllable strategy to synthesize Fe-cluster embedded in Fe3C nanoparticles (designated as Fe3C(Fe)) encased in nitrogen-doped Graphitic Layers (NDGL) with graphitic shells as a novel hybrid nanostructure as an effective ORR catalyst by directly pyrolyzing a mixture of Prussian blue (PB) and glucose...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098441/ultrasmooth-perovskite-film-via-mixed-anti-solvent-strategy-with-improved-efficiency
#17
Yu Yu, Songwang Yang, Lei Lei, Qipeng Cao, Jun Shao, Sheng Zhang, Yan Liu
Most antisolvents employed in previous research were miscible with perovskite precursor solution. They always led to fast formation of perovskite even if the intermediate stage existed, which was not beneficial to obtain high quality perovskite films and made the formation process less controllable. In this work, a novel ethyl ether/n-hexane mixed antisolvent (MAS) was used to achieve high nucleation density and slow down the formation process of perovskite, producing films with improved orientation of grains and ultrasmooth surfaces...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097654/melanopsin-expressing-ganglion-cells-in-human-retina-morphology-distribution-and-synaptic-connections
#18
Subha Nasir-Ahmad, Sammy C S Lee, Paul R Martin, Ulrike Grünert
Melanopsin-expressing retinal ganglion cells are intrinsically photosensitive cells that are involved in non-image forming visual processes such as the pupillary light reflex and circadian entrainment but also contribute to visual perception. Here we used immunohistochemistry to study the morphology, density, distribution and synaptic connectivity of melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells in four post mortem human donor retinas. Two types of melanopsin-expressing ganglion cells were distinguished based on their dendritic stratification near either the outer or the inner border of the inner plexiform layer...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097218/energy-penetration-into-arrays-of-aligned-nanowires-irradiated-with-relativistic-intensities-scaling-to-terabar-pressures
#19
Clayton Bargsten, Reed Hollinger, Maria Gabriela Capeluto, Vural Kaymak, Alexander Pukhov, Shoujun Wang, Alex Rockwood, Yong Wang, David Keiss, Riccardo Tommasini, Richard London, Jaebum Park, Michel Busquet, Marcel Klapisch, Vyacheslav N Shlyaptsev, Jorge J Rocca
Ultrahigh-energy density (UHED) matter, characterized by energy densities >1 × 10(8) J cm(-3) and pressures greater than a gigabar, is encountered in the center of stars and inertial confinement fusion capsules driven by the world's largest lasers. Similar conditions can be obtained with compact, ultrahigh contrast, femtosecond lasers focused to relativistic intensities onto targets composed of aligned nanowire arrays. We report the measurement of the key physical process in determining the energy density deposited in high-aspect-ratio nanowire array plasmas: the energy penetration...
January 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096412/transmembrane-protein-108-is-required-for-glutamatergic-transmission-in-dentate-gyrus
#20
Hui-Feng Jiao, Xiang-Dong Sun, Ryan Bates, Lei Xiong, Lei Zhang, Fang Liu, Lei Li, Hong-Sheng Zhang, Shun-Qi Wang, Ming-Tao Xiong, Mihir Patel, Alexis M Stranahan, Wen-Cheng Xiong, Bao-Ming Li, Lin Mei
Neurotransmission in dentate gyrus (DG) is critical for spatial coding, learning memory, and emotion processing. Although DG dysfunction is implicated in psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, underlying pathological mechanisms remain unclear. Here we report that transmembrane protein 108 (Tmem108), a novel schizophrenia susceptibility gene, is highly enriched in DG granule neurons and its expression increased at the postnatal period critical for DG development. Tmem108 is specifically expressed in the nervous system and enriched in the postsynaptic density fraction...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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