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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430866/maternal-high-sucrose-diets-altered-vascular-large-conductance-ca2-activated-k-channels-via-reactive-oxygen-species-in-offspring-rats%C3%A2
#1
Xueqin Feng, Xiuwen Zhou, Wenna Zhang, Xiang Li, Axin He, Bailin Liu, Ruixiu Shi, Lei Wu, Jue Wu, Di Zhu, Na Li, Miao Sun, Zhice Xu
Overnutrition during pregnancy could increase risks of cardiovascular diseases in late life. This study investigated whether and how reactive oxygen species (ROS) may influence functions of large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (BKCa) in the offspring exposed to prenatal high-sucrose (HS). We found that prenatal high-sucrose diets significantly increased phenylephrine (PE)-induced vessel contractions in mesenteric arteries of the adult offspring. Pretreatment with iberiotoxin (BKCa blocker, IBTX) significantly increased PE-mediated vascular contractions in the control, not in the HS group...
April 18, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429541/toward-practical-high-energy-batteries-a-modular-assembled-oval-like-carbon-microstructure-for-thick-sulfur-electrodes
#2
Yusheng Ye, Feng Wu, Yuting Liu, Teng Zhao, Ji Qian, Yi Xing, Wanlong Li, Jiaqi Huang, Li Li, Qianming Huang, Xuedong Bai, Renjie Chen
The modular assembly of microstructures from simple nanoparticles offers a powerful strategy for creating materials with new functionalities. Such microstructures have unique physicochemical properties originating from confinement effects. Here, the modular assembly of scattered ketjen black nanoparticles into an oval-like microstructure via double "Fischer esterification," which is a form of surface engineering used to fine-tune the materials surface characteristics, is presented. After carbonization, the oval-like carbon microstructure shows promise as a candidate sulfur host for the fabrication of thick sulfur electrodes...
April 21, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429526/sll1783-a-monooxygenase-associated-with-polysaccharide-processing-in-the-unicellular-cyanobacterium-synechocystis-pcc-6803
#3
Hélder Miranda, Peter Immerzeel, Lorenz Gerber, Katarina Hörnaeus, Sara Bergström Lind, Bagmi Pattanaik, Pia Lindberg, Fikret Mamedov, Peter Lindblad
Cyanobacteria play a pivotal role as the primary producer in many aquatic ecosystems. The knowledge on the interacting processes of cyanobacteria with its environment - abiotic and biotic factors - is still very limited. Many potential exocytoplasmic proteins in the model unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 have unknown functions and their study is essential to improve our understanding of this photosynthetic organism and its potential for biotechnology use. Here we characterize a deletion mutant of Synechocystis PCC 6803, ∆sll1783, a strain that showed a remarkably high light resistance which is related with its lower thylakoid membrane formation...
April 21, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429513/distribution-and-hormonal-characterization-of-primary-murine-l-cells-throughout-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#4
Kazuyo Suzuki, Kanako Iwasaki, Yuki Murata, Norio Harada, Shunsuke Yamane, Akihiro Hamasaki, Kimitaka Shibue, Erina Joo, Akiko Sankoda, Yuta Fujiwara, Yoshitaka Hayashi, Nobuya Inagaki
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secreted from enteroendocrine L-cells is an incretin that potentiates insulin secretion and is already applied in therapies for type 2 diabetes. However, detailed examination of L-cells throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract remains unclear, because of difficulties in purifying scattered L-cells from other cells. In the present study, we identified characteristics of L-cells of the upper small intestine (UI), the lower small intestine (LI) and the colon using glucagon (Gcg)-green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing mice that express GFP driven by the proglucagon promoter...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429511/in-situ-construction-of-stable-tissue-directed-reinforced-bifunctional-separator-protection-film-on-lithium-anode-for-lithium-oxygen-batteries
#5
Ji-Jing Xu, Qing-Chao Liu, Yue Yu, Jin Wang, Jun-Min Yan, Xin-Bo Zhang
To achieve a high reversibility and long cycle life for Li-O2 battery system, the stable tissue-directed/reinforced bifunctional separator/protection film (TBF) is in situ fabricated on the surface of metallic lithium anode. It is shown that a Li-O2 cell composed of the TBF-modified lithium anodes exhibits an excellent anodic reversibility (300 cycles) and effectively improved cathodic long lifetime (106 cycles). The improvement is attributed to the ability of the TBF, which has chemical, electrochemical, and mechanical stability, to effectively prevent direct contact between the surface of the lithium anode and the highly reactive reduced oxygen species (Li2 O2 or its intermediate LiO2 ) in cell...
April 21, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429410/photoelectroreduction-toward-chemical-building-blocks
#6
Fengjiao Chen, Wei Cui, Jie Zhang, Yeyun Wang, Junhua Zhou, Yongpan Hu, Yanguang Li, Shuit-Tong Lee
Conventional photoelectrochemical cells utilize solar energy to drive the chemical conversion of water or CO2 into useful chemical fuels. Such processes are confronted with general challenges, including the low intrinsic activities and inconvenient storage and transportation of their gaseous products. A photoelectrochemical approach is proposed to drive the reductive production of industrial building-block chemicals and demonstrate that succinic acid and glyoxylic acid can be readily synthesized on Si nanowire array photocathodes free of any cocatalyst and at room temperature...
April 21, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429059/a-novel-method-to-recover-inclusion-body-protein-from-recombinant-e-coli-fed-batch-processes-based-on-phage-%C3%AE-x174-derived-lysis-protein-e
#7
Daniela Ehgartner, Patrick Sagmeister, Timo Langemann, Andrea Meitz, Werner Lubitz, Christoph Herwig
Production of recombinant proteins as inclusion bodies is an important strategy in the production of technical enzymes and biopharmaceutical products. So far, protein from inclusion bodies has been recovered from the cell factory through mechanical or chemical disruption methods, requiring additional cost-intensive unit operations. We describe a novel method that is using a bacteriophage-derived lysis protein to directly recover inclusion body protein from Escherichia coli from high cell density fermentation process: The recombinant inclusion body product is expressed by using a mixed feed fed-batch process which allows expression tuning via adjusting the specific uptake rate of the inducing substrate...
April 20, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428973/compression-of-high-density-0-16-pc-electron-bunches-through-high-field-gradients-for-ultrafast-single-shot-electron-diffraction-the-compact-rf-gun
#8
Hazem Daoud, Klaus Floettmann, R J Dwayne Miller
We present an RF gun design for single shot ultrafast electron diffraction experiments that can produce sub-100 fs high-charge electron bunches in the 130 keV energy range. Our simulations show that our proposed half-cell RF cavity is capable of producing 137 keV, 27 fs rms (60 fs FWHM), 10(6) electron bunches with an rms spot size of 276 μm and a transverse coherence length of 2.0 nm. The required operation power is 9.2 kW, significantly lower than conventional rf cavity designs and a key design feature...
July 2017: Structural Dynamics (Melville, N.Y.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428887/differential-intratumoral-distributions-of-cd8-and-cd163-immune-cells-as-prognostic-biomarkers-in-breast-cancer
#9
Sotirios P Fortis, Michael Sofopoulos, Nectaria N Sotiriadou, Christoforos Haritos, Christoforos K Vaxevanis, Eleftheria A Anastasopoulou, Nicole Janssen, Niki Arnogiannaki, Alexandros Ardavanis, Graham Pawelec, Sonia A Perez, Constantin N Baxevanis
BACKGROUND: Tumor immune cell infiltrates are essential in hindering cancer progression and may complement the TNM classification. CD8+ and CD163+ cells have prognostic impact in breast cancer but their spatial heterogeneity has not been extensively explored in this type of cancer. Here, their potential as prognostic biomarkers was evaluated, depending on their combined densities in the tumor center (TC) and the tumor invasive margin (IM). METHODS: CD8+ and CD163+ cells were quantified by immunohistochemistry of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissue samples from a cohort totaling 162 patients with histologically-confirmed primary invasive non-metastatic ductal breast cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2015...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428803/distribution-of-mast-cells-and-locations-depths-and-sizes-of-the-putative-acupoints-cv-8-and-ki-16
#10
Sharon Jiyoon Jung, Haim Song, Yu Yeon Kim, Jungdae Kim, Sungchul Kim, Yoon-Kyu Song, Kwang-Sup Soh
The anatomical locations and sizes of acupuncture points (APs) are identified in traditional Chinese medicine by using the cun measurement method. More precise knowledge of those locations and sizes to submillimeter precision, along with their cytological characterizations, would provide significant contributions both to scientific investigations and to precise control of the practice of acupuncture. Over recent decades, researchers have come to realize that APs in the skin of rats and humans have more mast cells (MCs) than neighboring nonacupoints...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428560/combination-of-high-density-microelectrode-array-and-patch-clamp-recordings-to-enable-studies-of-multisynaptic-integration
#11
David Jäckel, Douglas J Bakkum, Thomas L Russell, Jan Müller, Milos Radivojevic, Urs Frey, Felix Franke, Andreas Hierlemann
We present a novel, all-electric approach to record and to precisely control the activity of tens of individual presynaptic neurons. The method allows for parallel mapping of the efficacy of multiple synapses and of the resulting dynamics of postsynaptic neurons in a cortical culture. For the measurements, we combine an extracellular high-density microelectrode array, featuring 11'000 electrodes for extracellular recording and stimulation, with intracellular patch-clamp recording. We are able to identify the contributions of individual presynaptic neurons - including inhibitory and excitatory synaptic inputs - to postsynaptic potentials, which enables us to study dendritic integration...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428480/exposure-to-high-glucose-concentration-decreases-cell-surface-abca1-and-hdl-biogenesis-in-hepatocytes
#12
Maki Tsujita, Mohammad Anwar Hossain, Rui Lu, Tomoe Tsuboi, Kuniko Okumura-Noji, Shinji Yokoyama
AIM: To study atherosclerosis risk in diabetes, we investigated ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) biogenesis in the liver and hepatocytes under hyperglycemic conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: In streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, plasma HDL decreased while ABCA1 protein increased without changing its mRNA in the liver, only in the animals that responded to the treatment to show hypoinsulinemia and fasting hyperglycemia but not in the poor responders not showing those...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428318/bottom-up-construction-of-a-superstructure-in-a-porous-uranium-organic-crystal
#13
Peng Li, Nicolaas A Vermeulen, Christos D Malliakas, Diego A Gómez-Gualdrón, Ashlee J Howarth, B Layla Mehdi, Alice Dohnalkova, Nigel D Browning, Michael O'Keeffe, Omar K Farha
Bottom-up construction of highly intricate structures from simple building blocks remains one of the most difficult challenges in chemistry. Here, we report a structurally complex, mesoporous uranium-based metal-organic framework (MOF) made from simple starting components. The structure is comprised of 10 uranium nodes and 7 tricarboxylate ligands (both crystallographically non-equivalent); resulting in a 173.3 angstrom cubic unit cell enclosing 816 uranium nodes and 816 organic linkers-the largest unit cell found for any nonbiological material...
April 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428219/deficiency-of-cholesteryl-ester-transfer-protein-protects-against-atherosclerosis-in-rabbits
#14
Jifeng Zhang, Manabu Niimi, Dongshan Yang, Jingyan Liang, Jie Xu, Tokuhide Kimura, Anna V Mattew, Yanhong Guo, Yanbo Fan, Tianqing Zhu, Jun Song, Rose Ackermann, Yui Koike, Anna Schwendeman, Liangxue Lai, Subramaniam Pennathur, Minerva Garcia-Barrio, Jianglin Fan, Y Eugene Chen
OBJECTIVE: CETP (cholesteryl ester transfer protein) plays an important role in lipoprotein metabolism; however, whether inhibition of CETP activity can prevent cardiovascular disease remains controversial. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We generated CETP knockout (KO) rabbits by zinc finger nuclease gene editing and compared their susceptibility to cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis to that of wild-type (WT) rabbits. On a chow diet, KO rabbits showed higher plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol than WT controls, and HDL particles of KO rabbits were essentially rich in apolipoprotein AI and apolipoprotein E contents...
April 20, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427943/high-density-lipoprotein-from-coronary-artery-disease-patients-cause-abnormal-expression-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-vascular-endothelial-cells
#15
Xiang Liu, Tian-Tian Wang, Yan Li, Mao-Mao Shi, Hua-Ming Li, Hao-Xiang Yuan, Zhi-Wei Mo, Jing Chen, Bin Zhang, Yang-Xin Chen, Jing-Feng Wang, Wei-Ping Dai, Ying-Qi Xu, Zhi-Ping Wang, Xi Zhang, Zhi-Jun Ou, Jing-Song Ou
Increased evidence showed that normal high density lipoprotein (HDL) can convert to dysfunction HDL in diseases states including coronary artery disease (CAD), which regulates vascular endothelial cell function differently. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play an extensive role in various important biological processes including endothelial cell function. However, whether lncRNAs involved in the regulation of HDL metabolism and HDL-induced changes of vascular endothelial function remains unclear. Cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with HDL from healthy subjects and patients with CAD and hypercholesterolemia for 24 h, then the cells were collected for lncRNA-Seq and the expressions of lncRNAs, genes and mRNAs were identified...
April 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427568/inter-and-intra-specific-growth-and-domoic-acid-production-in-relation-to-nutrient-ratios-and-concentrations-in-pseudo-nitzschia-phosphate-an-important-factor
#16
Kimberley A Lema, Marie Latimier, Élisabeth Nézan, Juliette Fauchot, Mickael Le Gac
The factors responsible for inducing the synthesis of toxins and responses from toxic phytoplankton blooms remain unclear. In this study we compare the influence of genotypic (at both the intra and interspecific levels) and environmental factors (nutrient concentration and ratio) on growth (in terms of cell densities) and domoic acid (DA) production in three Pseudo-nitzschia species: P. australis, P.pungens and P.fradulenta. A strong phosphate effect was detected. More precisely, a low initial concentration in phosphate, even at high initial nitrogen and silicate concentrations, induced the highest DA concentrations and the lowest cell densities in all strains/species studied...
April 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427319/mechanobiological-modelling-of-tendons-review-and-future-opportunities
#17
Mark S Thompson, M Nazri Bajuri, Hanifeh Khayyeri, Hanna Isaksson
Tendons are adapted to carry large, repeated loads and are clinically important for the maintenance of musculoskeletal health in an increasing, actively ageing population, as well as in elite athletes. Tendons are known to adapt to mechanical loading. Also, their healing and disease processes are highly sensitive to mechanical load. Computational modelling approaches developed to capture this mechanobiological adaptation in tendons and other tissues have successfully addressed many important scientific and clinical issues...
May 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426727/cd4-t-cell-expression-of-ifn-%C3%AE-and-il-17-in-pediatric-malarial-anemia
#18
Evans Raballah, Prakasha Kempaiah, Zachary Karim, George O Orinda, Michael F Otieno, Douglas J Perkins, John Michael Ong'echa
In Plasmodium falciparum holoendemic transmission regions of western Kenya, life-threatening pediatric malaria manifests primarily as severe malarial anemia (SMA, Hb≤6.0 g/dL with any density parasitemia). To determine the role that CD4+ T-cell-driven inflammatory responses have in the pathogenesis of SMA, peripheral CD4+ T-cell populations and their intracellular production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-17) were characterized in children aged 12-36 months of age stratified into two groups: non-severe malarial anemia (non-SMA, Hb≥6...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426049/a-pt-co3o4-cd-electrocatalyst-with-enhanced-electrocatalytic-performance-and-resistance-to-co-poisoning-achieved-by-carbon-dots-and-co3o4-for-direct-methanol-fuel-cells
#19
Yue Sun, Yunjie Zhou, Cheng Zhu, Lulu Hu, Mumei Han, Aoqi Wang, Hui Huang, Yang Liu, Zhenhui Kang
Highly efficient electrocatalysts remain huge challenges in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Here, a Pt-Co3O4-CDs/C composite was fabricated as an anode electrocatalyst with low Pt content (12 wt%) by using carbon dots (CDs) and Co3O4 nanoparticles as building blocks. The Pt-Co3O4-CDs/C composite catalyst shows a significantly enhanced electrocatalytic activity (1393.3 mA mg(-1) Pt), durability (over 4000 s) and CO-poisoning tolerance. The superior catalytic activity should be attributed to the synergistic effect of CDs, Pt and Co3O4...
April 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425488/an-analytic-approach-for-optimal-geometrical-design-of-gaas-nanowires-for-maximal-light-harvesting-in-photovoltaic-cells
#20
Dan Wu, Xiaohong Tang, Kai Wang, Xianqiang Li
Semiconductor nanowires(NWs) with subwavelength scale diameters have demonstrated superior light trapping features, which unravel a new pathway for low cost and high efficiency future generation solar cells. Unlike other published work, a fully analytic design is for the first time proposed for optimal geometrical parameters of vertically-aligned GaAs NW arrays for maximal energy harvesting. Using photocurrent density as the light absorbing evaluation standard, 2 μm length NW arrays whose multiple diameters and periodicity are quantitatively identified achieving the maximal value of 29...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
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