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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533460/what-maintains-signal-honesty-in-animal-colour-displays-used-in-mate-choice
#1
REVIEW
Ryan J Weaver, Rebecca E Koch, Geoffrey E Hill
Many of the colour displays of animals are proposed to have evolved in response to female mate choice for honest signals of quality, but such honest signalling requires mechanisms to prevent cheating. The most widely accepted and cited mechanisms for ensuring signal honesty are based on the costly signalling hypothesis, which posits that costs associated with ornamentation prevent low-quality males from being highly ornamented. Alternatively, by the index hypothesis, honesty can be achieved via cost-free mechanisms if ornament production is causally linked to core physiological pathways...
July 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468313/a-novel-certificateless-signature-scheme-for-smart-objects-in-the-internet-of-things
#2
Kuo-Hui Yeh, Chunhua Su, Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo, Wayne Chiu
Rapid advances in wireless communications and pervasive computing technologies have resulted in increasing interest and popularity of Internet-of-Things (IoT) architecture, ubiquitously providing intelligence and convenience to our daily life. In IoT-based network environments, smart objects are embedded everywhere as ubiquitous things connected in a pervasive manner. Ensuring security for interactions between these smart things is significantly more important, and a topic of ongoing interest. In this paper, we present a certificateless signature scheme for smart objects in IoT-based pervasive computing environments...
May 1, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465424/the-fitness-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-quorum-sensing-signal-cheats-is-influenced-by-the-diffusivity-of-the-environment
#3
Anne Mund, Stephen P Diggle, Freya Harrison
Experiments examining the social dynamics of bacterial quorum sensing (QS) have focused on mutants which do not respond to signals and the role of QS-regulated exoproducts as public goods. The potential for QS signal molecules to themselves be social public goods has received much less attention. Here, we analyze how signal-deficient (lasI) mutants of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa interact with wild-type cells in an environment where QS is required for growth. We show that when growth requires a "private" intracellular metabolic mechanism activated by the presence of QS signal, lasI mutants act as social cheats and outcompete signal-producing wild-type bacteria in mixed cultures, because they can exploit the signals produced by wild-type cells...
May 2, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461827/how-can-we-cheat-arterial-atherosclerosis
#4
EDITORIAL
Cinteza Mircea
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Mædica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447371/cooperation-in-microbial-communities-and-their-biotechnological-applications
#5
REVIEW
Matteo Cavaliere, Song Feng, Orkun Soyer, Jose I Jimenez
Microbial communities are increasingly utilised in biotechnology. Efficiency and productivity in many of these applications depends on the presence of cooperative interactions between members of the community. Two key processes underlying these interactions are the production of public goods and metabolic crossfeeding, which can be understood in the general framework of ecological and evolutionary (eco-evo) dynamics. In this review we illustrate the relevance of cooperative interactions in microbial biotechnological processes, discuss their mechanistic origins, and analyse their evolutionary resilience...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446891/moral-attitudes-predict-cheating-and-gamesmanship-behaviors-among-competitive-tennis-players
#6
Fabio Lucidi, Arnaldo Zelli, Luca Mallia, Giampaolo Nicolais, Lambros Lazuras, Martin S Hagger
Background: The present study tested Lee et al.'s (2008) model of moral attitudes and cheating behavior in sports in an Italian sample of young tennis players and extended it to predict behavior in actual match play. In the first phase of the study we proposed that moral, competence and status values would predict prosocial and antisocial moral attitudes directly, and indirectly through athletes' goal orientations. In the second phase, we hypothesized that moral attitudes would directly predict actual cheating behavior observed during match play...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429996/are-athletes-doping-related-attitudes-predicted-by-their-perceptions-of-coaches-confrontation-efficacy
#7
Philip Sullivan, Parmida Razavi
BACKGROUND: The coaching process is complex and dynamic. Coaches are known to affect athlete attitudes indirectly, through athletes' perceptions and interpretations. This process has been verified with a variety of ethical behaviors. OBJECTIVES: The current study investigated the relationships between athletes' perceived doping confrontation efficacy of their coaches and athlete's anti-doping attitudes. METHODS: A sample of athletes (N = 96) completed a version of the Doping Confrontation Efficacy Scale that was modified to assess their perception of their coaches' anti-doping confrontation efficacy, and the PEAS (Performance Enhancing Attitude Scale), which assessed their performance-enhancing attitudes...
April 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424344/mutualistic-cleaner-fish-maintains-high-escape-performance-despite-privileged-relationship-with-predators
#8
Simon Gingins, Dominique G Roche, Redouan Bshary
Predatory reef fishes regularly visit mutualistic cleaner fish (Labroides dimidiatus) to get their ectoparasites removed but show no interest in eating them. The concept of compensated trait loss posits that characters can be lost if a mutualistic relationship reduces the need for a given trait. Thus, selective pressures on escape performance might have relaxed in L. dimidiatus due to its privileged relationship with predators. However, the cost of failing to escape a predatory strike is extreme even if predation events on cleaners are exceptionally rare...
April 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409438/emotional-intelligence-buffers-the-effect-of-physiological-arousal-on-dishonesty
#9
Andrea Pittarello, Beatrice Conte, Marta Caserotti, Sara Scrimin, Enrico Rubaltelli
We studied the emotional processes that allow people to balance two competing desires: benefitting from dishonesty and keeping a positive self-image. We recorded physiological arousal (skin conductance and heart rate) during a computer card game in which participants could cheat and fail to report a certain card when presented on the screen to avoid losing their money. We found that higher skin conductance corresponded to lower cheating rates. Importantly, emotional intelligence regulated this effect; participants with high emotional intelligence were less affected by their physiological reactions than those with low emotional intelligence...
April 13, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404780/environmental-modification-via-a-quorum-sensing-molecule-influences-the-social-landscape-of-siderophore-production
#10
Roman Popat, Freya Harrison, Ana C da Silva, Scott A S Easton, Luke McNally, Paul Williams, Stephen P Diggle
Bacteria produce a wide variety of exoproducts that favourably modify their environment and increase their fitness. These are often termed 'public goods' because they are costly for individuals to produce and can be exploited by non-producers (cheats). The outcome of conflict over public goods is dependent upon the prevailing environment and the phenotype of the individuals in competition. Many bacterial species use quorum sensing (QS) signalling molecules to regulate the production of public goods. QS, therefore, determines the cooperative phenotype of individuals, and influences conflict over public goods...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396395/increasing-honesty-in-humans-with-noninvasive-brain-stimulation
#11
Michel André Maréchal, Alain Cohn, Giuseppe Ugazio, Christian C Ruff
Honesty plays a key role in social and economic interactions and is crucial for societal functioning. However, breaches of honesty are pervasive and cause significant societal and economic problems that can affect entire nations. Despite its importance, remarkably little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms supporting honest behavior. We demonstrate that honesty can be increased in humans with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Participants (n = 145) completed a die-rolling task where they could misreport their outcomes to increase their earnings, thereby pitting honest behavior against personal financial gain...
April 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385668/cooperation-induces-other-cooperation-fruiting-bodies-promote-the-evolution-of-macrocysts-in-dictyostelium-discoideum
#12
Shota Shibasaki, Yuka Shirokawa, Masakazu Shimada
Biological studies of the evolution of cooperation are challenging because this process is vulnerable to cheating. Many mechanisms, including kin discrimination, spatial structure, or by-products of self-interested behaviors, can explain this evolution. Here we propose that the evolution of cooperation can be induced by other cooperation. To test this idea, we used a model organism Dictyostelium discoideum because it exhibits two cooperative dormant phases, the fruiting body and the macrocyst. In both phases, the same chemoattractant, cyclic AMP (cAMP), is used to collect cells...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383983/for-whom-does-deterrence-affect-behavior-identifying-key-individual-differences
#13
Adam Fine, Benjamin van Rooij
Deterrence threats are essential mechanisms for affecting behavior, yet they are often ineffective. The literature is beginning to consider individual differences underlying differential susceptibility to deterrence. The present study sampled 223 adults from Amazon Mechanical Turk and used an experimental cheating paradigm to examine the role of 3 individual differences, including morality, self-control, and rule orientation, underlying differential susceptibility to deterrence. The results indicate that deterrence threats may be more influential for people who have low moral disengagement, who possess more self-control, or who are more rule oriented...
April 6, 2017: Law and Human Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303111/episodic-future-thinking-about-the-ideal-self-induces-lower-discounting-leading-to-a-decreased-tendency-toward-cheating
#14
Wen-Hsiung Wu, Wen Cheng, Wen-Bin Chiou
Delay discounting refers to a pervasive tendency toward preferring smaller immediate gains over larger future gains. Recent empirical research has shown that episodic future thinking (EFT; i.e., projecting oneself into the future to pre-experience forthcoming events) can reduce the tendency toward discounting. A common tenet of psychological theories of crime is that delinquency results from focusing on short-term gains while failing to consider adequately the longer-term consequences of delinquent behavior...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302574/the-arginine-vasotocin-and-serotonergic-systems-affect-interspecific-social-behaviour-of-client-fish-in-marine-cleaning-mutualism
#15
Zegni Triki, Redouan Bshary, Alexandra S Grutter, Albert F H Ros
Many species engage in mutualistic relationships with other species. The physiological mechanisms that affect the course of such social interactions are little understood. In the cleaning mutualism, cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus do not always act cooperatively by eating ectoparasites, but sometimes cheat by taking bites of mucus from so-called "client" reef fish. The physiological mechanisms in these interspecific interactions, however, are little studied. Here, we focussed on three neuromodulator systems known to play important roles in intraspecific social behaviour of vertebrates to examine their role in clients' interspecific behaviour...
March 14, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294448/does-high-relatedness-promote-cheater-free-multicellularity-in-synthetic-lifecycles
#16
R F Inglis, E Ryu, O Asikhia, J E Strassmann, D C Queller
The evolution of multicellularity is one of the key transitions in evolution and requires extreme levels of cooperation between cells. However, even when cells are genetically identical, noncooperative cheating mutants can arise that cause a breakdown in cooperation. How then, do multicellular organisms maintain cooperation between cells? A number of mechanisms that increase relatedness amongst cooperative cells have been implicated in the maintenance of cooperative multicellularity including single-cell bottlenecks and kin recognition...
May 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292205/not-taking-the-easy-way-out-reframing-bariatric-surgery-from-low-effort-weight-loss-to-hard-work
#17
Sarah Trainer, Alexandra Brewis, Amber Wutich
Cultural notions equating greater morality and virtue with hard work and productive output are deeply embedded in American value systems. This is exemplified in how people understand and execute personal body projects, including efforts to become slim. Bariatric surgery is commonly viewed as a 'low-effort' means of losing weight, and individuals who opt for this surgery are often perceived to be 'cheating.' This extended ethnographic study within one bariatric program in the Southwestern United States shows how patients conscientiously perform this productivity...
April 2017: Anthropology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287911/inter-instrument-comparison-of-remote-sensing-devices-and-a-new-method-for-calculating-on-road-nox-emissions-and-validation-of-vehicle-specific-power
#18
Christopher E Rushton, James E Tate, Simon P Shepherd, David C Carslaw
Emissions of NOX by vehicles in real driving environments are only partially understood. This has been brought to the attention of the world with recent revelations of the cheating of the type approval tests exposed in the dieselgate scandal. Remote sensing devices offer investigators an opportunity to directly measure in-situ real driving emissions of tens of thousands of vehicles. The availability of remote sensing NO2 measurements are not as widely available as would be desirable. The aim of this study is to improve the ability of investigators to estimate the NO2 emissions and to improve the confidence of the total NOX results calculated from standard RSD measurements...
March 13, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273518/does-everyone-have-a-price-on-the-role-of-payoff-magnitude-for-ethical-decision-making
#19
Benjamin E Hilbig, Isabel Thielmann
Most approaches to dishonest behavior emphasize the importance of corresponding payoffs, typically implying that dishonesty might increase with increasing incentives. However, prior evidence does not appear to confirm this intuition. However, extant findings are based on relatively small payoffs, the potential effects of which are solely analyzed across participants. In two experiments, we used different multi-trial die-rolling paradigms designed to investigate dishonesty at the individual level (i.e., within participants) and as a function of the payoffs at stake - implementing substantial incentives exceeding 100€...
March 5, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271776/nursingstandard-com
#20
(no author information available yet)
1 Tougher penalties have been proposed to remove the temptation for nursing students to use essay mills to cheat on their coursework. The Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education will publish new guidance later this year. Read more: rcni.com/cheat-penalty.
March 8, 2017: Nursing Standard
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