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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907190/are-exam-questions-known-in-advance-using-local-dependence-to-detect-cheating
#1
Stefan Zimmermann, Dietrich Klusmann, Wolfgang Hampe
Cheating is a common phenomenon in high stakes admission, licensing and university exams and threatens their validity. To detect if some exam questions had been affected by cheating, we simulated how data would look like if some test takers possessed item preknowledge: Responses to a small number of items were set to correct for 1-10% of test takers. Item difficulty, item discrimination, item fit, and local dependence were computed using an IRT 2PL model. Then changes in these item properties from the non-compromised to the compromised dataset were scrutinized for their sensitivity to item preknowledge...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899829/motivations-and-predictors-of-cheating-in-pharmacy-school
#2
Eric J Ip, Kathy Nguyen, Bijal M Shah, Shadi Doroudgar, Monica K Bidwal
Objective. To assess the prevalence, methods, and motivations for didactic cheating among pharmacy students and to determine predictive factors for cheating in pharmacy colleges and schools. Methods. A 45-item cross-sectional survey was conducted at all four doctor of pharmacy programs in Northern California. For data analysis, t test, Fisher exact test, and logistic regression were used. Results. Overall, 11.8% of students admitted to cheating in pharmacy school. Primary motivations for cheating included fear of failure, procrastination, and stress...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897751/plagiarism-among-nursing-students-a-growing-concern
#3
Stephanie Jones-Berry
Thousands of nursing students in the UK have been involved in cases of academic misconduct such as plagiarism, forging signatures and cheating in exams, a Nursing Standard investigation has revealed.
November 16, 2016: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897748/cheating-is-never-okay-but-we-shouldn-t-be-too-quick-to-judge
#4
(no author information available yet)
It is easy to rush to judgement about students who cheat in their exams or buy essays on the internet. Such activities can never be condoned and those who succumb to temptation must suffer the consequences, which can involve being removed from their courses.
November 16, 2016: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881620/catching-fakes-new-markers-of-urine-sample-validity-and-invalidity
#5
Melissa M Goggin, Cheng-Min Tann, Anna Miller, An Nguyen, Gregory C Janis
Urine drug testing is common for workplace drug testing, prescription management, emergency medicine and the criminal justice system. Unsurprisingly, with the significant consequences based upon the results of urine drug testing, a donor in need of concealing the contents of their sample is highly motivated to cheat the process. Procedures and safeguards ensuring sample validity are well known, and include measuring sample temperature at the time of collection, and laboratory measurements of creatinine, specific gravity and pH...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880826/social-monitoring-matters-for-deterring-social-deviance-in-stable-but-not-mobile-socio-ecological-contexts
#6
Jenny C Su, Chi-Yue Chiu, Wei-Fang Lin, Shigehiro Oishi
Previous research suggests that reputational concerns can incentivize cooperation and deter socially deviant behavior. The current research showed that social monitoring of information that has the potential to damage one's reputation has differential effects on deviant behavior in social-ecological environments that vary in level of mobility. Study 1 showed that residentially stable cities that employed more journalists-who can be regarded as social monitoring agents in a community-tended to have lower rates of violent crime than residentially stable cities that employed fewer journalists; by contrast, in residentially mobile cities, violent crime rates did not vary as a function of the number of journalists employed...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873405/the-10-most-wanted-test-cheaters-in-medical-education
#7
Kenneth Royal, Marian-Wells Hedgpeth, Jamie Mulkey, John Fremer
This paper takes on a list of the 10 most wanted test cheaters comparable with 'most wanted' lists used by law enforcement agencies to bring attention to the issue of test cheating in medical education. The research provides an overview of test cheating in modern medical education, presents a typology of common cheaters, and provides guidelines for the prevention and detection of cheating.
December 2016: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864164/perceptions-toward-a-smoking-cessation-app-targeting-lgbtq-youth-and-young-adults-a-qualitative-framework-analysis-of-focus-groups
#8
N Bruce Baskerville, Darly Dash, Katy Wong, Alanna Shuh, Aneta Abramowicz
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of smoking among lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, queer, and other sexual minority (LGBTQ+) youth and young adults (YYA) is significantly higher compared with that among non-LGBTQ+ persons. However, in the past, interventions were primarily group cessation classes that targeted LGBTQ+ persons of all ages. mHealth interventions offer an alternate and modern intervention platform for this subpopulation and may be of particular interest for young LGBTQ+ persons. OBJECTIVE: This study explored LGBTQ+ YYA (the potential users') perceptions of a culturally tailored mobile app for smoking cessation...
November 18, 2016: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849547/the-impact-of-social-behavior-on-the-attenuation-and-delay-of-bacterial-nanonetworks
#9
Bige Deniz Unluturk, Sasitharan Balasubramaniam, Ian Akyildiz
Molecular communication (MC) is a new paradigm for developing communication systems that exchanges information through the transmission and reception of molecules. One proposed model for MC is using bacteria to carry information encoded into DNA plasmids, and this is termed bacterial nanonetworks. However, a limiting factor in the models that have been studied so far is the environment considered only in ideal conditions with a single population. This is far from realistic in natural environments, where bacteria co-exist in multiple populations of same and different species, resulting in a very complex social community...
November 11, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848191/plagiarism-cheating-and-research-integrity-case-studies-from-a-masters-program-in-peru
#10
Andres M Carnero, Percy Mayta-Tristan, Kelika A Konda, Edward Mezones-Holguin, Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz, German F Alvarado, Carlos Canelo-Aybar, Jorge L Maguiña, Eddy R Segura, Antonio M Quispe, Edward S Smith, Angela M Bayer, Andres G Lescano
Plagiarism is a serious, yet widespread type of research misconduct, and is often neglected in developing countries. Despite its far-reaching implications, plagiarism is poorly acknowledged and discussed in the academic setting, and insufficient evidence exists in Latin America and developing countries to inform the development of preventive strategies. In this context, we present a longitudinal case study of seven instances of plagiarism and cheating arising in four consecutive classes (2011-2014) of an Epidemiology Masters program in Lima, Peru, and describes the implementation and outcomes of a multifaceted, "zero-tolerance" policy aimed at introducing research integrity...
November 15, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830482/changing-the-engineering-student-culture-with-respect-to-academic-integrity-and-ethics
#11
Tammy VanDeGrift, Heather Dillon, Loreal Camp
Engineers create airplanes, buildings, medical devices, and software, amongst many other things. Engineers abide by a professional code of ethics to uphold people's safety and the reputation of the profession. Likewise, students abide by a code of academic integrity while learning the knowledge and necessary skills to prepare them for the engineering and computing professions. This paper reports on studies designed to improve the engineering student culture with respect to academic integrity and ethics. To understand the existing culture at a university in the USA, a survey based on a national survey about cheating was administered to students...
November 9, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796763/a-two-stage-approach-to-differentiating-normal-and-aberrant-behavior-in-computer-based-testing
#12
Chun Wang, Gongjun Xu, Zhuoran Shang
Statistical methods for identifying aberrances on psychological and educational tests are pivotal to detect flaws in the design of a test or irregular behavior of test takers. Two approaches have been taken in the past to address the challenge of aberrant behavior detection, which are (1) modeling aberrant behavior via mixture modeling methods, and (2) flagging aberrant behavior via residual based outlier detection methods. In this paper, we propose a two-stage method that is conceived of as a combination of both approaches...
October 28, 2016: Psychometrika
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786598/intentions-to-cheat-ajzen-s-planned-behavior-and-goal-related-personality-facets
#13
Damian Lonsdale
This study sought to test antecedents to college students' intentions to cheat by utilizing Ajzen's ( 1991 ) theory of planned behavior (TPB), and four goal-related personality facets. Those facets were behavioral approach, behavioral inhibition, need for achievement-hope of success, and need for achievement-fear of failure. As hypothesized, perceived friends' and parents' attitudes toward academic dishonesty (two subjective norms) and perceived ease of cheating (perceived behavioral control) all positively predicted overall intentions to cheat...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765141/stuck-in-limbo-illicit-drug-users-experiences-with-opioid-maintenance-treatment-and-the-relation-to-recovery
#14
Trond Erik Grønnestad, Hildegunn Sagvaag
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to gain insight into how individuals who frequent open illicit drug scenes experience opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) and investigate how this appears to affect their recovery processes. METHOD: By means of the ethnographic method, one of the researchers spent time in an open illicit drug scene over a 1-year span, and gathered data on individuals who frequent the scene on a regular basis, and their experiences with OMT...
2016: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756732/understanding-the-coevolutionary-dynamics-of-mutualism-with-population-genomics
#15
Jeremy B Yoder
Decades of research on the evolution of mutualism has generated a wealth of possible ways whereby mutually beneficial interactions between species persist in spite of the apparent advantages to individuals that accept the benefits of mutualism without reciprocating - but identifying how any particular empirical system is stabilized against cheating remains challenging. Different hypothesized models of mutualism stability predict different forms of coevolutionary selection, and emerging high-throughput sequencing methods allow examination of the selective histories of mutualism genes and, thereby, the form of selection acting on those genes...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753427/video-chat-technology-to-remotely-quantify-dietary-supplement-and-medication-adherence-in-clinical-trials
#16
Courtney M Peterson, John W Apolzan, Courtney Wright, Corby K Martin
We conducted two studies to test the validity, reliability, feasibility and acceptability of using video chat technology to quantify dietary and pill-taking (i.e. supplement and medication) adherence. In study 1, we investigated whether video chat technology can accurately quantify adherence to dietary and pill-taking interventions. Mock study participants ate food items and swallowed pills, while performing randomised scripted 'cheating' behaviours to mimic non-adherence. Monitoring was conducted in a cross-over design, with two monitors watching in-person and two watching remotely by Skype on a smartphone...
October 18, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742733/age-related-preservation-of-trust-following-minor-transgressions
#17
Phoebe E Bailey, Katherine Petridis, Skye N McLennan, Ted Ruffman, Peter G Rendell
OBJECTIVES: This study assesses age-related differences in the weighting and integration of appearance and behavior cues to trustworthiness. The aim is to assess whether it becomes more difficult with age to detect a cheater in disguise. METHOD: Young and older adults invested real money in a repeated trust game with trustees who varied on facial expression (smiling, neutral, angry) and return rate (high, low). Trustees were also rated for trustworthiness pre- and post-trust game...
October 14, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739581/identification-of-risk-for-severe-psychiatric-comorbidity-in-pediatric-epilepsy
#18
Jana E Jones, Prabha Siddarth, Dace Almane, Suresh Gurbani, Bruce P Hermann, Rochelle Caplan
OBJECTIVE: This study identified items on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) that predict those children and adolescents with epilepsy at highest risk for multiple psychiatric diagnoses. METHODS: Three hundred twenty-eight children, ages 5-18 years, and their parents participated in separate structured psychiatric interviews about the children, which yielded Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnoses...
November 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736133/the-order-of-disorder-deconstructing-visual-disorder-and-its-effect-on-rule-breaking
#19
Hiroki P Kotabe, Omid Kardan, Marc G Berman
Disorderly environments are linked to disorderly behaviors. Broken windows theory (Wilson & Kelling, 1982), an influential theory of crime and rule-breaking, assumes that scene-level social disorder cues (e.g., litter, graffiti) cause people to reason that they can get away with breaking rules. But what if part of the story is not about such complex social reasoning? Recent research suggests that basic visual disorder cues may be sufficient to encourage complex rule-breaking behavior. To test this hypothesis, we first conducted a set of experiments (Experiments 1-3) in which we identified basic visual disorder cues that generalize across visual stimuli with a variety of semantic content...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729764/the-effects-of-the-activation-of-money-and-credit-card-vs-that-of-activation-of-spirituality-which-one-prompts-pro-social-behaviours
#20
Jakub Wierzbicki, Anna Maria Zawadzka
Pro-social behaviours may be prompted or inhibited depending on the situation. Numerous experiments show that, when exposed to the idea of money, people are less willing to help, devote their time or share their resources with others (Vohs et al. Science, 314, 1154-1156, 2006, Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17(3), 208-212, 2008). Conversely, when exposed to the idea of spirituality, they often cheat less and are more willing to help others (Mazar and Ariely Journal of Marketing Research, 45, 633-644, 2008; Randolph-Seng and Nielsen The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 17(4), 303-315, 2007)...
2016: Current Psychology
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