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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912771/selection-of-functional-quorum-sensing-systems-by-lysogenic-bacteriophages-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#1
Miguel A Saucedo-Mora, Paulina Castañeda-Tamez, Adrián Cazares, Judith Pérez-Velázquez, Burkhard A Hense, Daniel Cazares, Wendy Figueroa, Marco Carballo, Gabriel Guarneros, Berenice Pérez-Eretza, Nelby Cruz, Yoshito Nishiyama, Toshinari Maeda, Javier A Belmont-Díaz, Thomas K Wood, Rodolfo García-Contreras
Quorum sensing (QS) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa coordinates the expression of virulence factors, some of which are used as public goods. Since their production is a cooperative behavior, it is susceptible to social cheating in which non-cooperative QS deficient mutants use the resources without investing in their production. Nevertheless, functional QS systems are abundant; hence, mechanisms regulating the amount of cheating should exist. Evidence that demonstrates a tight relationship between QS and the susceptibility of bacteria against the attack of lytic phages is increasing; nevertheless, the relationship between temperate phages and QS has been much less explored...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898167/praising-young-children-for-being-smart-promotes-cheating
#2
Li Zhao, Gail D Heyman, Lulu Chen, Kang Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893176/the-path-to-re-evolve-cooperation-is-constrained-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#3
Elisa T Granato, Rolf Kümmerli
BACKGROUND: A common form of cooperation in bacteria is based on the secretion of beneficial metabolites, shareable as public good among cells within a group. Because cooperation can be exploited by "cheating" mutants, which contribute less or nothing to the public good, there has been great interest in understanding the conditions required for cooperation to remain evolutionarily stable. In contrast, much less is known about whether cheats, once fixed in the population, are able to revert back to cooperation when conditions change...
September 11, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893158/academic-ethical-awareness-among-undergraduate-nursing-students
#4
Ok-Hee Cho, Kyung-Hye Hwang
BACKGROUND: Academic ethical awareness is an important aspect especially for nursing students who will provide ethical nursing care to patients in future or try to tread the path of learning toward professional acknowledgement in nursing scholarship. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore academic ethical awareness and its related characteristics among undergraduate nursing students. METHODS: This study commenced the survey with cross-sectional, descriptive questions and enrolled convenient samples of 581 undergraduate nursing students from three universities in South Korea...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871205/siderophore-cheating-and-cheating-resistance-shape-competition-for-iron-in-soil-and-freshwater-pseudomonas-communities
#5
Elena Butaitė, Michael Baumgartner, Stefan Wyder, Rolf Kümmerli
All social organisms experience dilemmas between cooperators performing group-beneficial actions and cheats selfishly exploiting these actions. Although bacteria have become model organisms to study social dilemmas in laboratory systems, we know little about their relevance in natural communities. Here, we show that social interactions mediated by a single shareable compound necessary for growth (the iron-scavenging pyoverdine) have important consequences for competitive dynamics in soil and pond communities of Pseudomonas bacteria...
September 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856236/overweight-and-body-image-perception-in-adolescents-with-triage-of-eating-disorders
#6
Roberta Stofeles Cecon, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Silvia Eloiza Priore
PURPOSE: To verify the influence of overweight and alteration in the perception of the corporal image during the triage of eating disorders. METHOD: A food disorder triage was performed in adolescents with 10 to 19 years of age using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT), and Bulimic Investigatory Test Edinburgh (BITE), as well as a nutritional status evaluation. The perception of body image was evaluated in a subsample of adolescents with 10 to 14 years of age, using the Brazilian Silhouette Scale...
2017: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855369/social-transmission-of-information-about-a-mutualist-via-trophallaxis-in-ant-colonies
#7
Masayuki Hayashi, Masaru K Hojo, Masashi Nomura, Kazuki Tsuji
Partner discrimination is crucial in mutualistic interactions between organisms to counteract cheating by the partner. Trophobiosis between ants and aphids is a model system of such mutualistic interaction. To establish and maintain the mutualistic association, ants need to correctly discriminate mutualistic aphids. However, the mechanism by which ants recognize aphids as their partners is poorly understood, despite its ecological and evolutionary importance. Here, we show for the first time the evidence that interaction with nest-mates that have tended aphids (Aphis craccivora) allows ants (Tetramorium tsushimae) to learn to recognize the aphid species as their partner...
August 30, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846438/my-secret-life
#8
Mary-Dell Chilton
In my early childhood, my parents gave me to my maternal grandparents for a "visit" that extended over a period of nine years. I seemed to be a fairly ordinary student in primary grades, and had to take a remedial general science class upon entering high school, my first exposure to science. It was the teacher of that class, Mr. Auer, who told me that I had scored amazingly high on a science aptitude test given to all freshmen. The people who administered the testing were convinced that I must have cheated somehow...
August 28, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846002/stressful-family-environments-and-children-s-behavioral-control-a-multimethod-test-and-replication-study-with-twins
#9
Claudia I Vrijhof, Anja van der Voort, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Saskia Euser
Young children's behavioral control predicts a broad range of developmental outcomes in child- and adulthood. It is therefore important to study how individual differences in behavioral control arise. Previous studies suggest that there are both genetic and environmental influences, which were estimated in the current study using a sample of mono- and dizygotic same-sex twins. Furthermore, we examined the associations between indicators of a stressful family environment like household chaos, parenting daily hassles, and parental depressive symptoms and children's behavioral control in 2 samples...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840246/cell-biology-of-cheating-transmission-of-centromeres-and-other-selfish-elements-through-asymmetric-meiosis
#10
Lukáš Chmátal, Richard M Schultz, Ben E Black, Michael A Lampson
Mendel's First Law of Genetics states that a pair of alleles segregates randomly during meiosis so that one copy of each is represented equally in gametes. Whereas male meiosis produces four equal sperm, in female meiosis only one cell, the egg, survives, and the others degenerate. Meiotic drive is a process in which a selfish DNA element exploits female meiotic asymmetry and segregates preferentially to the egg in violation of Mendel's First Law, thereby increasing its transmission to the offspring and frequency in a population...
2017: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833073/cheating-and-resistance-to-cheating-in-natural-populations-of-the-bacterium-pseudomonas-fluorescens
#11
John B Bruce, Guy A Cooper, Hélène Chabas, Stuart A West, Ashleigh S Griffin
Bacteria perform cooperative behaviors that are exploitable by noncooperative cheats, and cheats frequently arise and coexist with cooperators in laboratory microcosms. However, evidence of competitive dynamics between cooperators and cheats in nature remains limited. Using the production of pyoverdine, an iron-scavenging molecule, and natural soil populations of Pseudomonas fluorescens, we found that (1) nonproducers are present in the population; (2) they co-occur (<1cm(3) ) with pyoverdine producers; (3) they retain functional pyoverdine receptors; and (4) they can use the pyoverdine of on average 52% of producers...
August 21, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829287/correction-%C3%A2-heredity-the-gene-family-that-cheats-mendel
#12
J Dylan Shropshire, Antonis Rokas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 22, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827634/reputation-management-promotes-strategic-adjustment-of-service-quality-in-cleaner-wrasse
#13
Sandra A Binning, Olivia Rey, Sharon Wismer, Zegni Triki, Gaétan Glauser, Marta C Soares, Redouan Bshary
Adjusting one's behaviour in response to eavesdropping bystanders is considered a sophisticated social strategy, yet the underlying mechanisms are not well studied. Cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus, cooperate by eating ectoparasites off "client" fishes, or cheat (i.e. bite) and eat client mucus. Image scoring by bystander clients generally causes cleaners from socially-complex (i.e. high cleaner and client abundance; high client species richness) habitats to increase levels of cooperation. However, some individuals may periodically provide tactile stimulation to small resident clients, which attract bystanders close that are bitten, a form of tactical deception...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805425/cheating-under-pressure-a-self-protection-model-of-workplace-cheating-behavior
#14
Marie S Mitchell, Michael D Baer, Maureen L Ambrose, Robert Folger, Noel F Palmer
Workplace cheating behavior is unethical behavior that seeks to create an unfair advantage and enhance benefits for the actor. Although cheating is clearly unwanted behavior within organizations, organizations may unknowingly increase cheating as a byproduct of their pursuit of high performance. We theorize that as organizations place a strong emphasis on high levels of performance, they may also enhance employees' self-interested motives and need for self-protection. We suggest that demands for high performance may elicit performance pressure-the subjective experience that employees must raise their performance efforts or face significant consequences...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794499/nutrient-limitation-determines-the-fitness-of-cheaters-in-bacterial-siderophore-cooperation
#15
D Joseph Sexton, Martin Schuster
Cooperative behaviors provide a collective benefit, but are considered costly for the individual. Here, we report that these costs vary dramatically in different contexts and have opposing effects on the selection for non-cooperating cheaters. We investigate a prominent example of bacterial cooperation, the secretion of the peptide siderophore pyoverdine by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, under different nutrient-limiting conditions. Using metabolic modeling, we show that pyoverdine incurs a fitness cost only when its building blocks carbon or nitrogen are growth-limiting and are diverted from cellular biomass production...
August 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771377/the-missing-thread-how-fiction-cheats-mental-health-nursing
#16
Henry J Bladon
Mental health nursing occupies an important place in mental health care, and nurses perform valuable work, yet fiction writers tend to rely on outdated imagery to portray the profession. This imagery reinforces negative stereotypes of mental health nursing. This article examines the problem and explores the implications for the profession, particularly in relation to stigma and public confidence. It outlines a significant gap in narrative literature, specifically in relation to the therapeutic relationship, and asks what can be done to encourage more realistic portrayals of the role...
August 3, 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767015/dependency-traits-relationship-power-and-health-risks-in-women-receiving-sexually-transmitted-infection-clinic-services
#17
Eric G Benotsch, Ashlee N Sawyer, Aaron M Martin, Elizabeth S Allen, Christopher D Nettles, Doug Richardson, Cornelis A Rietmeijer
In prior research, having traits consistent with a personality disorder has been shown to be related to substance use and high-risk sexual activity; however, few studies have examined relationships between dependency traits and health-jeopardizing behaviors. Individuals with traits consistent with dependent personality disorder may be more likely to be in a primary relationship characterized by unhealthy conditions, including physical abuse from a partner, low assertiveness in sexual situations, and partner infidelity...
July 2017: Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765994/modulation-of-financial-deprivation-on-deception-and-its-neural-correlates
#18
Peng Sun, Xiaoli Ling, Li Zheng, Jia Chen, Lin Li, Zhiyuan Liu, Xuemei Cheng, Xiuyan Guo
Deception is a universal phenomenon in human society and plays an important role in everyday life. Previous studies have revealed that people might have an internalized moral norm of keeping honest and the deceptive behavior was reliably correlated with activation in executive brain regions of prefrontal cortices to over-ride intuitive honest responses. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, this study sought to investigate how financial position modulated the neural responses during deceptive decision...
August 1, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765626/motorboat-noise-disrupts-co-operative-interspecific-interactions
#19
Sophie L Nedelec, Suzanne C Mills, Andrew N Radford, Ricardo Beldade, Stephen D Simpson, Brendan Nedelec, Isabelle M Côté
Human-made noise is contributing increasingly to ocean soundscapes. Its physical, physiological and behavioural effects on marine organisms are potentially widespread, but our understanding remains largely limited to intraspecific impacts. Here, we examine how motorboats affect an interspecific cleaning mutualism critical for coral reef fish health, abundance and diversity. We conducted in situ observations of cleaning interactions between bluestreak cleaner wrasses (Labroides dimidiatus) and their fish clients before, during and after repeated, standardised approaches with motorboats...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761649/discovering-successful-strategies-for-diabetic-self-management-a-qualitative-comparative-study
#20
Susan C Weller, Roberta Baer, Anita Nash, Noe Perez
OBJECTIVE: This project explored lifestyles of patients in good and poor control to identify naturally occurring practices and strategies that result in successful diabetes management. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Semistructured interviews with adult patients with type 2 diabetes explored diet, food preparation, physical activity, medication use and glucose monitoring. Patients (n=56) were classified into good (A1C <7.0%), fair (7.0%<A1C<8.0%) or poor (A1C >8...
2017: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
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