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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338674/would-you-be-willing-to-zap-your-child-s-brain-public-perspectives-on-parental-responsibilities-and-the-ethics-of-enhancing-children-with-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation
#1
Katy Wagner, Hannah Maslen, Justin Oakley, Julian Savulescu
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an experimental brain stimulation technology that may one day be used to enhance the cognitive capacities of children. Discussion about the ethical issues that this would raise has rarely moved beyond expert circles. However, the opinions of the wider public can lead to more democratic policy decisions and broaden academic discussion of this issue. METHODS: We performed a quantitative survey of members of the US public...
January 17, 2018: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330534/when-increasing-population-density-can-promote-the-evolution-of-metabolic-cooperation
#2
Richard J Lindsay, Bogna J Pawlowska, Ivana Gudelj
Microbial cooperation drives ecological and epidemiological processes and is affected by the ecology and demography of populations. Population density influences the selection for cooperation, with spatial structure and the type of social dilemma, namely public-goods production or self-restraint, shaping the outcome. While existing theories predict that in spatially structured environments increasing population density can select either for or against cooperation, experimental studies with both public-goods production and self-restraint systems have only ever shown that increasing population density favours cheats...
January 12, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323525/embitterment-and-bereavement-the-sewol-ferry-accident-example
#3
Jeong-Ho Chae, Hyu Jung Huh, Won Joon Choi
OBJECTIVE: On Wednesday, April 16, 2014, 261 high school students on a field trip died in the sinking of the Sewol ferry. The bereaved family of the Sewol ferry accident experienced one of the most painful traumatic losses such as the sudden death of one's child through an accident. This article reviewed and discussed embitterment related to traumatic loss through the example of the Sewol ferry accident. METHOD: Embitterment-related issues and problems in coping with the accident that is caused by societal factors were described...
January 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316498/the-relation-between-having-siblings-and-children-s-cheating-and-lie-telling-behaviors
#4
Alison M O'Connor, Angela D Evans
The current study investigated how having at least one child sibling influenced children's dishonest behaviors. Furthermore, for those children with a sibling, we examined whether having a younger or older sibling and the age difference between siblings influenced deceptive acts. Children between 3 and 8 years of age (N = 130) completed the temptation resistance paradigm, where they played a guessing game and were asked not to peek at a toy in the experimenter's absence. Children's peeking behavior was used as a measure of cheating, and children's responses when asked whether they had peeked were used as measures of lie-telling...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308381/research-misconduct-a-report-from-a-developing-country
#5
Majid Khadem-Rezaiyan, Maliheh Dadgarmoghaddam
Background: Cheating rate is rising and engages newer methods. This study performed to estimate the rate of research misconduct in the thesis of undergraduate and postgraduate medical students in 2015. Methods: In this cross sectional study, all undergraduate and postgraduate medical students graduated during the study period in 2015, from the School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran were asked to fill a small checklist anonymously...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294935/intervening-in-a-sketchy-situation-exploring-the-moral-motivations-of-college-bystanders-of-sexual-assault
#6
Samuel C Gable, Sharon Lamb, Madeline Brodt, Leah Atwell
This mixed-methods research explored the moral motivations of undergraduates who identified as bystanders in a situation of potential sexual assault. In the quantitative analysis, we examined the difference between interveners and noninterveners with regard to their scores on the Moral Foundations Questionnaire-30 Item (MFQ-30), which considers five moral foundations from Moral Foundations Theory (MFT) of care/harm, fairness/cheating, loyalty/betrayal, authority/subversion, and sanctity/degradation, as well as measures of bystander attitudes (BAS-R) and rape-myth acceptance (IRMA, modified)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281957/when-honesty-and-cheating-pay-off-the-evolution-of-honest-and-dishonest-equilibria-in-a-conventional-signalling-game
#7
Szabolcs Számadó
BACKGROUND: The reliability of signals is a key issue in the study of animal communication. Both empirical work and theoretical models show that communication need not be entirely honest, and thus signals can be deceitful. Aggressive communication appears to be a prime candidate for such deceitful communication, because bluffing has been described in several species. Bluffing in these situations are supposed to be maintained by frequency dependent selection where the fitness of a given type depends on the frequencies of the other types in the population...
December 28, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281152/selfish-x-chromosomes-and-speciation
#8
Manus M Patten
In two papers published at about the same time almost thirty years ago, Frank (1991a) and Hurst and Pomiankowski (1991) independently suggested that divergence of meiotic drive systems-comprising genes that cheat meiosis and genes that suppress this cheating-might provide a general explanation for Haldane's rule and the large X-effect in interspecific hybrids. Although at the time the idea was met with skepticism and a conspicuous absence of empirical support, the tide has since turned. Some of the clearest mechanistic explanations we have for hybrid male sterility involve meiotic drive systems, and several other cases of hybrid sterility are suggestive of a role for meiotic drive...
December 27, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237298/passion-relational-mobility-and-proof-of-commitment-a-comparative-socio-ecological-analysis-of-an-adaptive-emotion-in-a-sexual-market
#9
Junko Yamada, Mie Kito, Masaki Yuki
Although monogamy, the exclusive bonding with a specific partner, is one characteristic of modern human mating, long-term romantic relationships inherently possess the commitment problem, which is the conflict between maintaining a relationship with a certain partner and seeking attractive alternatives. Frank has argued that love and passion help solve this problem because they make individuals commit voluntarily to the relationship, leading the other party to also be committed with less concern over being cheated on or rejected...
October 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195112/promoting-honesty-in-young-children-through-observational-learning
#10
Fengling Ma, Gail D Heyman, Chunyan Jing, Ying Fu, Brian J Compton, Fen Xu, Kang Lee
The observational learning approach, developed more than a half century ago, suggests that it is possible to promote desirable social behaviors through peer observation. However, this idea has yet to be put to a rigorous empirical test. The current research sought to fill this gap by examining whether honesty can be promoted in children by allowing them to observe a peer's display of honest behavior. The dependent measure was whether 5-year-old children who had cheated by peeking in a guessing game would confess to it...
March 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121671/separating-conditional-and-unconditional-cooperation-in-a-sequential-prisoner-s-dilemma-game
#11
Raoul Bell, Laura Mieth, Axel Buchner
Most theories of social exchange distinguish between two different types of cooperation, depending on whether or not cooperation occurs conditional upon the partner's previous behaviors. Here, we used a multinomial processing tree model to distinguish between positive and negative reciprocity and cooperation bias in a sequential Prisoner's Dilemma game. In Experiments 1 and 2, the facial expressions of the partners were varied to manipulate cooperation bias. In Experiment 3, an extinction instruction was used to manipulate reciprocity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117784/lucky-competent-or-a-just-a-cheat-interactive-effects-of-honesty-humility-and-moral-cues-on-cheating-behavior
#12
Emmanuelle P Kleinlogel, Joerg Dietz, John Antonakis
Despite substantial research on cheating, how and when individual predispositions figure into cheating behavior remains unclear. In Study 1, we investigated to what extent Honesty-Humility predicted cheating behavior. As expected, individuals high on Honesty-Humility were less likely to cheat than were individuals low on this trait. In Study 2, integrating arguments from personality research about traits with arguments from behavioral ethics about moral primes, we examined how Honesty-Humility and situational primes interacted to affect cheating...
November 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082830/hackers-against-technology-critique-and-recuperation-in-technological-cycles
#13
Maxigas
I offer an interpretation of hackers' technological choices through a theoretical framework of critique and recuperation in technological cycles, building on prior research that brings the pragmatic sociology of Boltanski and Chiapello to bear on matters in Science and Technology Studies. I argue that contextualizing technology choices in the development of capitalism through innovation illuminates their political significance. I start with the counterintuitive observation that some browser extensions popular with hackers, like RequestPolicy, make it considerably harder for them to look at websites...
October 1, 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073226/behavioral-correlates-of-cheating-environmental-specificity-and-reward-expectation
#14
Michael Isakov, Arnav Tripathy
Academic dishonesty has been and continues to be a major problem in America's schools and universities. Such dishonesty is especially important in high schools, where grades earned directly impact the academic careers of students for many years to come. The rising pressure to get the best grades in school, get into the best college, and land the best paying job is a cycle that has made academic dishonesty increase exponentially. Thus, finding the widespread roots of cheating is more important now than ever...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061894/cooperation-and-cheating-as-innovation-insights-from-cellular-societies
#15
REVIEW
Athena Aktipis, Carlo C Maley
The capacity to innovate is often considered a defining feature of human societies, but it is not a capacity that is unique to human societies: innovation occurs in cellular societies as well. Cellular societies such as multicellular bodies and microbial communities, including the human microbiome, are capable of innovation in response to novel opportunities and threats. Multicellularity represents a suite of innovations for cellular cooperation, but multicellularity also opened up novel opportunities for cells to cheat, exploiting the infrastructure and resources of the body...
December 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026880/adaptive-social-strategies-in-a-solitary-carnivore
#16
L Mark Elbroch, Michael Levy, Mark Lubell, Howard Quigley, Anthony Caragiulo
Cost-benefit trade-offs for individuals participating in social behaviors are the basis for current theories on the evolution of social behaviors and societies. However, research on social strategies has largely ignored solitary animals, in which we assume that rare interactions are explained by courtship or territoriality or, in special circumstances, resource distributions or kinship. We used directed network analysis of conspecific tolerance at food sources to provide evidence that a solitary carnivore, the puma (Puma concolor), exhibited adaptive social strategies similar to more social animals...
October 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991940/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-often-missed-in-primary-care
#17
Adrienne A Williams
DeSean W, a 47-year-old man, returned to his primary care clinic with a new complaint of epigastric burning that had been bothering him for the past 4 months. He had tried several over-the-counter remedies, which provided no relief. He also remained concerned--despite assurances to the contrary at previous clinic visits--that he had contracted a sexually-transmitted disease (STD) after going to a bar one night 4 to 5 months ago. At 2 other clinic visits since that time, STD test results were negative. At this current visit, symptoms and details of sexual history were unchanged since the last visit, with the exception of the epigastric pain...
October 2017: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967764/correction-to-mitchel-et-al-2017
#18
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Cheating Under Pressure: A Self-Protection Model of Workplace Cheating Behavior" by Marie S. Mitchell, Michael D. Baer, Maureen L. Ambrose, Robert Folger and Noel F. Palmer (Journal of Applied Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Aug 14, 2017, np). In the original article, the fit statistics in Study 3 were reported in error. The fit of the measurement model is: χ²(362) = 563.66, p < .001; CFI = .94; SRMR = .05; RMSEA = .04. The fit of the SEM model is: χ²(362) = 563.66, p < ...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966038/depletion-moral-identity-and-unethical-behavior-why-people-behave-unethically-after-self-control-exertion
#19
Yan Wang, Guosen Wang, Qiuju Chen, Lin Li
Self-control enables people to resist short-term temptations in the service of long-term goals. Previous exertion of self-control leads to a state of ego depletion. Three studies demonstrated that ego depletion leads to a high level of unethical behavior. These studies also hypothesized and confirmed that depleted individuals behave unethically because of low moral identity. Study 1 found that depleted participants were more likely to over-report their performance than non-depleted participants. Study 2 revealed that depletion reduced people's moral identity, which in turn increased their propensity to engage in unethical behavior...
September 28, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955279/a-perspective-on-research-on-dishonesty-limited-external-validity-due-to-the-lack-of-possibility-of-self-selection-in-experimental-designs
#20
Petr Houdek
The aim of this perspective article is to show that current experimental evidence on factors influencing dishonesty has limited external validity. Most of experimental studies is built on random assignments, in which control/experimental groups of subjects face varied sizes of the expected reward for behaving dishonestly, opportunities for cheating, means of rationalizing dishonest behavior etc., and mean groups' reactions are observed. The studies have internal validity in assessing the causal influence of these and other factors, but they lack external validity in organizational, market and other environments...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
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