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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739078/mutualisms-are-not-on-the-verge-of-breakdown
#1
REVIEW
Megan E Frederickson
Mutualisms teeter on a knife-edge between conflict and cooperation, or so the conventional wisdom goes. The costs and benefits of mutualism often depend on the abiotic or biotic context in which an interaction occurs, and experimental manipulations can induce shifts in interaction outcomes from mutualism all the way to parasitism. Yet, research suggests that mutualisms rarely turn parasitic in nature. Similarly, despite the potential for 'cheating' to undermine mutualism evolution, empirical evidence for fitness conflicts between partners and, thus, selection for cheating in mutualisms is scant...
July 21, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726268/being-similar-while-judging-right-and-wrong-the-effects-of-personal-and-situational-similarity-on-moral-judgements
#2
Emilia Pascal
This study investigated the effects of similarity with the transgressor and the victim on the perceived immorality of the transgression. Participants read two stories describing a person that cheated on their partner and a police officer that mistreated somebody. In the first story we manipulated participants' personal similarity to the transgressor and in the second their personal similarity to the victim. In each story, participants' past situational similarity to the target character was assessed according to their previous experiences of being in the same position...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711576/explaining-coexistence-of-nitrogen-fixing-and-non-fixing-rhizobia-in-legume-rhizobia-mutualism-using-mathematical-modeling
#3
G Moyano, D Marco, D Knopoff, G Torres, C Turner
In the mutualism established between legumes and soil bacteria known as rhizobia, bacteria from soil infect plants roots and reproduce inside root nodules where they fix atmospheric N2 for plant nutrition, receiving carbohydrates in exchange. Host-plant sanctions against non N2 fixing, cheating bacterial symbionts have been proposed to act in the legume-Rhizobium symbiosis, to preserve the mutualistic relationship. Sanctions include decreased rhizobial survival in nodules occupied by cheating rhizobia. Previously, a simple population model experimentally based showed that the coexistence of fixing and cheating rhizobia strains commonly found in field conditions is possible, and that the inclusion of sanctions leads to the extinction of cheating strains in soil...
July 12, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699275/the-concepts-of-asymmetric-and-symmetric-power-can-help-resolve-the-puzzle-of-altruistic-and-cooperative-behaviour
#4
Tim Phillips
Evolutionary theory predicts competition in nature yet altruistic and cooperative behaviour appears to reduce the ability to compete in order to help others compete better. This evolutionary puzzle is usually explained by kin selection where close relatives perform altruistic and cooperative acts to help each other and by reciprocity theory (i.e. direct, indirect and generalized reciprocity) among non-kin. Here, it is proposed that the concepts of asymmetry and symmetry in power and dominance are critical if we are ever to resolve the puzzle of altruism and cooperation towards non-kin...
July 11, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699183/how-bacterial-cell-division-might-cheat-turgor-pressure-a-unified-mechanism-of-septal-division-in-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-bacteria
#5
REVIEW
Harold P Erickson
An important question for bacterial cell division is how the invaginating septum can overcome the turgor force generated by the high osmolarity of the cytoplasm. I suggest that it may not need to. Several studies in Gram-negative bacteria have shown that the periplasm is isoosmolar with the cytoplasm. Indirect evidence suggests that this is also true for Gram-positive bacteria. In this case the invagination of the septum takes place within the uniformly high osmotic pressure environment, and does not have to fight turgor pressure...
July 12, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696423/optimised-chronic-infection-models-demonstrate-that-siderophore-cheating-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-is-context-specific
#6
Freya Harrison, Alan McNally, Ana C da Silva, Stephan Heeb, Stephen P Diggle
The potential for siderophore mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to attenuate virulence during infection, and the possibility of exploiting this for clinical ends, have attracted much discussion. This has largely been based on the results of in vitro experiments conducted in iron-limited growth medium, in which siderophore mutants act as social 'cheats:' increasing in frequency at the expense of the wild type to result in low-productivity, low-virulence populations dominated by mutants. We show that insights from in vitro experiments cannot necessarily be transferred to infection contexts...
July 11, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696178/a-cheat-sheet-to-navigate-the-complex-maze-of-pharmaceutical-exclusivities-in-europe
#7
Marta Cavero Tomas, Bo Peng
As the two leading markets for pharmaceutical and biotech companies, the USA and Europe offer incentives to stimulate drug innovation, including patent and regulatory exclusivities. These exclusivities extend periods during which companies can market their products free of generic or other competition and recoup their investment. Pharmaceutical and biotech companies should carefully assess the different types of exclusivities available when developing regulatory submissions, patent filing strategies. The authors have previously summarized the USA exclusivities in an earlier publication...
July 11, 2017: Pharmaceutical Patent Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679574/cheating-after-the-test-who-does-it-and-how-often
#8
Kristine Ottaway, Coral Murrant, Kerry Ritchie
Self-reports suggest >50% of university students cheat at some point in their academic career (Christensen Hughes JM, McCabe DL. Can J High Educ 36: 49-63, 2006), although objective values of academic misconduct (AM) are difficult to obtain. In a physiology-based department, we had a concern that students were altering written tests and resubmitting them for higher grades; thereby compromising the integrity of our primary assessment style. Therefore, we directly quantified the prevalence of AM on written tests in 11 courses across the department...
September 1, 2017: Advances in Physiology Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668551/crossing-the-line-college-students-and-academic-integrity-in-nursing
#9
Margaret W Bultas, Ashley D Schmuke, Renée L Davis, Janice L Palmer
BACKGROUND: Researchers have shown a relationship between academic integrity in the classroom and acts of dishonest behavior in the clinical setting which is concerning for nursing faculty and the health care field. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare the attitudes toward academic integrity and the frequency of behaviors related to academic dishonesty in nursing and non-nursing students at a religiously affiliated institution. DESIGN: A cross-sectional, descriptive design was used to collect data regarding the knowledge, behavior, perceptions, and attitudes related to academic integrity via an online survey...
June 23, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661835/orphan-drug-debate-a-cheat-sheet
#10
Krishna R Patel
In some respects, the 1983 Orphan Drug Act is a success story. But high prices and allegations that some drug companies have twisted the law to their advantage have made it controversial. Here are some of the main points in the debate.
June 2017: Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660855/ultra-rapid-direct-heating-synthesis-of-zno-nanorods-with-improved-light-trapping-from-stacked-photoanodes-for-high-efficiency-photocatalytic-water-splitting
#11
Wei Cheat Lee, Yuanxing Fang, Daniel Commandeur, Rong Qian, Zainab Al-Abdulla, Qiao Chen
An ultra rapid growth method for vertically aligned ZnO nanorod (NR) thin films on metal meshes is developed using a direct heating synthesis (DHS) technique. A typical nanorod growth rate of 10 µm/hr was achieved. The effects of the applied heating powers and growth durations on the morphologies of ZnO nanostructures were examined. High density surface defects were formed on the ZnO NRs, which is responsible for slow charge recombination and high efficiency in the photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting process...
June 29, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644568/treatment-of-avoidant-restrictive-food-intake-disorder-in-a-cohort-of-young-patients-in-a-partial-hospitalization-program-for-eating-disorders
#12
Rollyn M Ornstein, Jamal H Essayli, Terri A Nicely, Emily Masciulli, Susan Lane-Loney
OBJECTIVE: Avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) is a recently named condition to classify patients who present with restricted nutritional intake without body image distortion or fear of weight gain. We sought to compare treatment outcomes of patients with ARFID in a family-centered partial hospital program (PHP) to those with other eating disorders (ED). METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 130 patients 7 to 17 years of age admitted to the program from 2008 to 2012 was performed...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635087/eat-to-cheat-dementia-n-hobbins-self-published-book-hobart-2016-isbn-9780994344014-paperback-paperback-a-19-20-kindle-a-9-12
#13
Ralph Hampson, Yvonne Wells
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Australasian Journal on Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634237/the-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-psl-polysaccharide-is-a-social-but-noncheatable-trait-in-biofilms
#14
Yasuhiko Irie, Aled E L Roberts, Kasper N Kragh, Vernita D Gordon, Jaime Hutchison, Rosalind J Allen, Gavin Melaugh, Thomas Bjarnsholt, Stuart A West, Stephen P Diggle
Extracellular polysaccharides are compounds secreted by microorganisms into the surrounding environment, and they are important for surface attachment and maintaining structural integrity within biofilms. The social nature of many extracellular polysaccharides remains unclear, and it has been suggested that they could function as either cooperative public goods or as traits that provide a competitive advantage. Here, we empirically tested the cooperative nature of the PSL polysaccharide, which is crucial for the formation of biofilms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa We show that (i) PSL is not metabolically costly to produce; (ii) PSL provides population-level benefits in biofilms, for both growth and antibiotic tolerance; (iii) the benefits of PSL production are social and are shared with other cells; (iv) the benefits of PSL production appear to be preferentially directed toward cells which produce PSL; (v) cells which do not produce PSL are unable to successfully exploit cells which produce PSL...
June 20, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631611/the-gene-family-that-cheats-mendel
#15
J Dylan Shropshire, Antonis Rokas
Some alleles of the wtf gene family can increase their chances of spreading by using poisons to kill other alleles, and antidotes to save themselves.
June 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618472/cyclic-public-goods-games-compensated-coexistence-among-mutual-cheaters-stabilized-by-optimized-penalty-taxation
#16
Christopher Griffin, Andrew Belmonte
We study the problem of stabilized coexistence in a three-species public goods game in which each species simultaneously contributes to one public good while freeloading off another public good ("cheating"). The proportional population growth is governed by an appropriately modified replicator equation, depending on the returns from the public goods and the cost. We show that the replicator dynamic has at most one interior unstable fixed point and that the population becomes dominated by a single species. We then show that by applying an externally imposed penalty, or "tax" on success can stabilize the interior fixed point, allowing for the symbiotic coexistence of all species...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611251/erratum-for-mund-et-al-the-fitness-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-quorum-sensing-signal-cheats-is-influenced-by-the-diffusivity-of-the-environment
#17
Anne Mund, Stephen P Diggle, Freya Harrison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604018/resisting-temptation-for-the-good-of-the-group-binding-moral-values-and-the-moralization-of-self-control
#18
Marlon Mooijman, Peter Meindl, Daphna Oyserman, John Monterosso, Morteza Dehghani, John M Doris, Jesse Graham
When do people see self-control as a moral issue? We hypothesize that the group-focused "binding" moral values of Loyalty/betrayal, Authority/subversion, and Purity/degradation play a particularly important role in this moralization process. Nine studies provide support for this prediction. First, moralization of self-control goals (e.g., losing weight, saving money) is more strongly associated with endorsing binding moral values than with endorsing individualizing moral values (Care/harm, Fairness/cheating)...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588278/associations-among-adhd-abnormal-eating-and-overweight-in-a-non-clinical-sample-of-asian-children
#19
Lian Tong, Huijing Shi, Xiaoru Li
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been found to be comorbid with obesity in adults, but the association in children is uncertain. Because the underlying mechanism of comorbidity in children has not been researched sufficiently, this study aims to explore the associations among ADHD, abnormal eating, and body mass index (BMI), as well as the mediating effect of depression in children. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 785 primary students in China. The parent-report version of ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHDRS-IV), the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) and the Children's Eating Attitude Test (ChEAT) were used to identify ADHD symptoms and abnormal eating...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580806/your-cheatin-voice-will-tell-on-you-detection-of-past-infidelity-from-voice
#20
Susan M Hughes, Marissa A Harrison
Evidence suggests that many physical, behavioral, and trait qualities can be detected solely from the sound of a person's voice, irrespective of the semantic information conveyed through speech. This study examined whether raters could accurately assess the likelihood that a person has cheated on committed, romantic partners simply by hearing the speaker's voice. Independent raters heard voice samples of individuals who self-reported that they either cheated or had never cheated on their romantic partners. To control for aspects that may clue a listener to the speaker's mate value, we used voice samples that did not differ between these groups for voice attractiveness, age, voice pitch, and other acoustic measures...
April 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
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