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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211207/social-amoebae-mating-types-do-not-invest-unequally-in-sexual-offspring
#1
Tracy E Douglas, David C Queller, Joan E Strassmann
Unequal investment by different sexes in their progeny is common and includes differential investment in the zygote and differential care of the young. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum has a sexual stage in which isogamous cells of any two of the three mating types fuse to form a zygote which then attracts hundreds of other cells to the macrocyst. The latter cells are cannibalized and so make no genetic contribution to reproduction. Previous literature suggests that this sacrifice may be induced in cells of one mating type by cells of another, resulting in a higher than expected production of macrocysts when the inducing type is rare and a giving a reproductive advantage to this social cheat...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178993/perspectives-of-urban-ghanaian-women-on-vasectomy
#2
Ofeibea Asare, Easmon Otupiri, Joana Apenkwa, Rose Odotei-Adjei
BACKGROUND: Advocacy for male involvement in family planning has been championed over the years after the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). There are a few contraceptive methods for men, and vasectomy uptake has been identified as one of the indicators of male involvement in family planning. Vasectomy also known as male sterilization is a permanent form of contraception. It is a generally safe, quick, easy, effective surgical operation with rare complications to prevent release of sperm...
February 8, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163396/schumpeter-s-picture-of-economic-and-political-institutions-in-the-light-of-a-cognitive-approach-to-human-behavior
#3
Massimo Egidi
Schumpeter's theory of democracy can be read through the lens of the cognitive approach to rationality. Schumpeter himself constructed his theory on the basis of his (neglected) conception of conscious rationality, which considers the process of thinking as composed of conscious/deliberate and unconscious/automatic components. The prevalence of the deliberate over the automatic component can occur in different degrees; as a consequence, individuals exhibit different levels of conscious rationality. Schumpeter makes clear that an essential attribute of democracy is its being a system of government capable of working notwithstanding a low degree of conscious rationality among its citizens...
2017: J Evol Econ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151017/an-examination-of-how-people-who-have-lost-weight-communicatively-negotiate-interpersonal-challenges-to-weight-management
#4
Lynsey K Romo
The vast majority of Americans are overweight, and those who are able to lose weight typically regain at least the amount they lost. Some people are confronted with sabotage, criticism, and declines in social support during and following weight loss. However, how individuals negotiate these interpersonal barriers is not very well understood. Such an understanding could help individuals maintain their weight loss while minimizing the risk of adverse health or relational consequences. Thus, through a thematic analysis of 40 interviews of people who were identified as previously overweight or obese and a facework lens (Cupach & Metts, 1994; Goffman, 1967), this study examined how people were communicatively able to sustain their weight loss in the face of challenges from friends, family, and colleagues...
February 2, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141838/when-it-pays-to-cheat-examining-how-generalized-food-deception-increases-male-and-female-fitness-in-a-terrestrial-orchid
#5
Ryan P Walsh, Helen J Michaels
BACKGROUND: Experimental manipulations of floral nectar in food deceptive species can reveal insights into the evolutionary consequences of the deceptive strategy. When coupled to pollen tracking, the effects of the deceptive pollination syndrome on both male and female reproductive success may be quantified. Attraction of pollinators in deceit-pollinated species often relies on producing a conspicuous floral display which may increase visibility to pollinators, but in-turn may increase within plant selfing...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113949/the-impact-of-social-behavior-on-the-attenuation-and-delay-of-bacterial-nanonetworks
#6
Bige Deniz Unluturk, Sasitharan Balasubramaniam, Ian Akyildiz
Molecular communication (MC) is a new paradigm for developing communication systems that exchanges information through the transmission and reception of molecules. One proposed model for MC is using bacteria to carry information encoded into DNA plasmids, and this is termed bacterial nanonetworks. However, a limiting factor in the models that have been studied so far is the environment considered only in ideal conditions with a single population. This is far from realistic in natural environments, where bacteria co-exist in multiple populations of same and different species, resulting in a very complex social community...
November 11, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094487/blood-doping-at-the-olympic-games
#7
Kenneth D Fitch
BACKGROUND: The objective of this paper was to review our knowledge of athletes who have, are believed to have or have attempted to engage in blood doping to enhance their performance at an Olympic Games. METHOD: The paper focused on the Games from Munich 1972 to London 2012 and the author had a medical role at each of the Olympics that is discussed. RESULTS: The study revealed that Olympic athletes have benefitted from manipulating their blood by re--infusion of autologous or infusion of homologous blood and by administering erythropoiesis stimulating agents, notably the three generations of erythropoietins...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075492/a-thematic-content-analysis-of-cheatmeal-images-on-social-media-characterizing-an-emerging-dietary-trend
#8
Eva Pila, Jonathan M Mond, Scott Griffiths, Deborah Mitchison, Stuart B Murray
Despite the pervasive social endorsement of "cheat meals" within pro-muscularity online communities, there is an absence of empirical work examining this dietary phenomenon. The present study aimed to characterize cheat meals, and explore the meaning ascribed to engagement in this practice. Thematic content analysis was employed to code the photographic and textual elements of a sample (n = 600) that was extracted from over 1.6 million images marked with the #cheatmeal tag on the social networking site, Instagram...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060362/cheating-fosters-species-co-existence-in-well-mixed-bacterial-communities
#9
Anne Leinweber, R Fredrik Inglis, Rolf Kümmerli
Explaining the enormous biodiversity observed in bacterial communities is challenging because ecological theory predicts that competition between species occupying the same niche should lead to the exclusion of less competitive community members. Competitive exclusion should be particularly strong when species compete for a single limiting resource or live in unstructured habitats that offer no refuge for weaker competitors. Here, we describe the 'cheating effect', a form of intra-specific competition that can counterbalance between-species competition, thereby fostering biodiversity in unstructured habitats...
January 6, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049833/antibiotic-stress-selects-against-cooperation-in-the-pathogenic-bacterium-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#10
Marie Vasse, Robert J Noble, Andrei R Akhmetzhanov, Clara Torres-Barceló, James Gurney, Simon Benateau, Claire Gougat-Barbera, Oliver Kaltz, Michael E Hochberg
Cheats are a pervasive threat to public goods production in natural and human communities, as they benefit from the commons without contributing to it. Although ecological antagonisms such as predation, parasitism, competition, and abiotic environmental stress play key roles in shaping population biology, it is unknown how such stresses generally affect the ability of cheats to undermine cooperation. We used theory and experiments to address this question in the pathogenic bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa Although public goods producers were selected against in all populations, our competition experiments showed that antibiotics significantly increased the advantage of nonproducers...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012980/academic-dishonesty-among-italian-nursing-students-a-longitudinal-study
#11
Loreana Macale, Valerio Ghezzi, Gennaro Rocco, Roberta Fida, Ercole Vellone, Rosaria Alvaro
Considering the ethical issues related to nursing and that Ethics is an integral part of the nursing education in the degree course, one would suppose that academic dishonesty might be less frequent in nursing students than in students of other disciplines. However, several studies show that this trend of deceitful behaviour seems to be similar among the university nursing students and those of other disciplines. The aim of this study is to investigate the phenomenon of academic dishonesty in the classroom from a longitudinal perspective within a cohort of Italian nursing students...
December 18, 2016: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002982/dangerous-girls-and-cheating-boys-zulu-speaking-disabled-young-peoples-constructs-of-heterosexual-relationships-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#12
Paul Chappell
Across South Africa there is a growing body of work that explores gender dynamics in heterosexual relationships between young people aged 15-24 years. This is mainly influenced by the high prevalence of HIV and the incidence of intimate partner violence in this age group. Most studies to date have been based upon non-disabled young people, with limited focus on young disabled people. In an attempt to address this gap, this paper describes findings from a study conducted with 22 Zulu-speaking young people with visual and physical disabilities in KwaZulu-Natal...
December 22, 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977362/using-online-essay-mills-may-put-patients-at-risk
#13
Stephanie Jones-Berry
Patient safety could be at risk if nursing students cheat by passing off as their own work essays bought online, a higher education watchdog has warned.
December 14, 2016: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974308/prospective-associations-between-problematic-eating-attitudes-in-midchildhood-and-the-future-onset-of-adolescent-obesity-and-high-blood-pressure
#14
Kaitlin H Wade, Michael S Kramer, Emily Oken, Nicholas J Timpson, Oleg Skugarevsky, Rita Patel, Natalia Bogdanovich, Konstantin Vilchuck, George Davey Smith, Jennifer Thompson, Richard M Martin
BACKGROUND: Clinically diagnosed eating disorders may have adverse cardiometabolic consequences, including overweight or obesity and high blood pressure. However, the link between problematic eating attitudes in early adolescence, which can lead to disordered eating behaviors, and future cardiometabolic health is, to our knowledge, unknown. OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether variations in midchildhood eating attitudes influence the future development of overweight or obesity and high blood pressure...
February 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942577/laboratory-notes-from-behavioral-pharmacologists-and-trainees-considerations-for-the-discipline
#15
Rick A Bevins, Scott T Barrett, Brady M Thompson, Steven T Pittenger
In several laboratory meetings, we discussed the challenges that face trainees in behavioral pharmacology. Major concerns, such as a difficult funding climate and limited academic job prospects were discussed at first. However, we decided to concentrate on ways to meet these challenges; versus focusing on negatives and listing gripes. Within this more constructive framework, we identified the importance of broadening training to aligned areas to enhance the capacity of behavioral pharmacologists to collaborate in multidisciplinary teams...
November 2016: Behav Anal (Wash D C)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907190/are-exam-questions-known-in-advance-using-local-dependence-to-detect-cheating
#16
Stefan Zimmermann, Dietrich Klusmann, Wolfgang Hampe
Cheating is a common phenomenon in high stakes admission, licensing and university exams and threatens their validity. To detect if some exam questions had been affected by cheating, we simulated how data would look like if some test takers possessed item preknowledge: Responses to a small number of items were set to correct for 1-10% of test takers. Item difficulty, item discrimination, item fit, and local dependence were computed using an IRT 2PL model. Then changes in these item properties from the non-compromised to the compromised dataset were scrutinized for their sensitivity to item preknowledge...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899829/motivations-and-predictors-of-cheating-in-pharmacy-school
#17
Eric J Ip, Kathy Nguyen, Bijal M Shah, Shadi Doroudgar, Monica K Bidwal
Objective. To assess the prevalence, methods, and motivations for didactic cheating among pharmacy students and to determine predictive factors for cheating in pharmacy colleges and schools. Methods. A 45-item cross-sectional survey was conducted at all four doctor of pharmacy programs in Northern California. For data analysis, t test, Fisher exact test, and logistic regression were used. Results. Overall, 11.8% of students admitted to cheating in pharmacy school. Primary motivations for cheating included fear of failure, procrastination, and stress...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897751/plagiarism-among-nursing-students-a-growing-concern
#18
Stephanie Jones-Berry
Thousands of nursing students in the UK have been involved in cases of academic misconduct such as plagiarism, forging signatures and cheating in exams, a Nursing Standard investigation has revealed.
November 16, 2016: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897748/cheating-is-never-okay-but-we-shouldn-t-be-too-quick-to-judge
#19
(no author information available yet)
It is easy to rush to judgement about students who cheat in their exams or buy essays on the internet. Such activities can never be condoned and those who succumb to temptation must suffer the consequences, which can involve being removed from their courses.
November 16, 2016: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881620/catching-fakes-new-markers-of-urine-sample-validity-and-invalidity
#20
Melissa M Goggin, Cheng-Min Tann, Anna Miller, An Nguyen, Gregory C Janis
Urine drug testing is common for workplace drug testing, prescription management, emergency medicine and the criminal justice system. Unsurprisingly, with the significant consequences based upon the results of urine drug testing, a donor in need of concealing the contents of their sample is highly motivated to cheat the process. Procedures and safeguards ensuring sample validity are well known, and include measuring sample temperature at the time of collection, and laboratory measurements of creatinine, specific gravity and pH...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
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