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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121671/separating-conditional-and-unconditional-cooperation-in-a-sequential-prisoner-s-dilemma-game
#1
Raoul Bell, Laura Mieth, Axel Buchner
Most theories of social exchange distinguish between two different types of cooperation, depending on whether or not cooperation occurs conditional upon the partner's previous behaviors. Here, we used a multinomial processing tree model to distinguish between positive and negative reciprocity and cooperation bias in a sequential Prisoner's Dilemma game. In Experiments 1 and 2, the facial expressions of the partners were varied to manipulate cooperation bias. In Experiment 3, an extinction instruction was used to manipulate reciprocity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117784/lucky-competent-or-a-just-a-cheat-interactive-effects-of-honesty-humility-and-moral-cues-on-cheating-behavior
#2
Emmanuelle P Kleinlogel, Joerg Dietz, John Antonakis
Despite substantial research on cheating, how and when individual predispositions figure into cheating behavior remains unclear. In Study 1, we investigated to what extent Honesty-Humility predicted cheating behavior. As expected, individuals high on Honesty-Humility were less likely to cheat than were individuals low on this trait. In Study 2, integrating arguments from personality research about traits with arguments from behavioral ethics about moral primes, we examined how Honesty-Humility and situational primes interacted to affect cheating...
November 1, 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082830/hackers-against-technology-critique-and-recuperation-in-technological-cycles
#3
Maxigas
I offer an interpretation of hackers' technological choices through a theoretical framework of critique and recuperation in technological cycles, building on prior research that brings the pragmatic sociology of Boltanski and Chiapello to bear on matters in Science and Technology Studies. I argue that contextualizing technology choices in the development of capitalism through innovation illuminates their political significance. I start with the counterintuitive observation that some browser extensions popular with hackers, like RequestPolicy, make it considerably harder for them to look at websites...
October 1, 2017: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073226/behavioral-correlates-of-cheating-environmental-specificity-and-reward-expectation
#4
Michael Isakov, Arnav Tripathy
Academic dishonesty has been and continues to be a major problem in America's schools and universities. Such dishonesty is especially important in high schools, where grades earned directly impact the academic careers of students for many years to come. The rising pressure to get the best grades in school, get into the best college, and land the best paying job is a cycle that has made academic dishonesty increase exponentially. Thus, finding the widespread roots of cheating is more important now than ever...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061894/cooperation-and-cheating-as-innovation-insights-from-cellular-societies
#5
REVIEW
Athena Aktipis, Carlo C Maley
The capacity to innovate is often considered a defining feature of human societies, but it is not a capacity that is unique to human societies: innovation occurs in cellular societies as well. Cellular societies such as multicellular bodies and microbial communities, including the human microbiome, are capable of innovation in response to novel opportunities and threats. Multicellularity represents a suite of innovations for cellular cooperation, but multicellularity also opened up novel opportunities for cells to cheat, exploiting the infrastructure and resources of the body...
December 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026880/adaptive-social-strategies-in-a-solitary-carnivore
#6
L Mark Elbroch, Michael Levy, Mark Lubell, Howard Quigley, Anthony Caragiulo
Cost-benefit trade-offs for individuals participating in social behaviors are the basis for current theories on the evolution of social behaviors and societies. However, research on social strategies has largely ignored solitary animals, in which we assume that rare interactions are explained by courtship or territoriality or, in special circumstances, resource distributions or kinship. We used directed network analysis of conspecific tolerance at food sources to provide evidence that a solitary carnivore, the puma (Puma concolor), exhibited adaptive social strategies similar to more social animals...
October 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991940/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-often-missed-in-primary-care
#7
Adrienne A Williams
DeSean W, a 47-year-old man, returned to his primary care clinic with a new complaint of epigastric burning that had been bothering him for the past 4 months. He had tried several over-the-counter remedies, which provided no relief. He also remained concerned--despite assurances to the contrary at previous clinic visits--that he had contracted a sexually-transmitted disease (STD) after going to a bar one night 4 to 5 months ago. At 2 other clinic visits since that time, STD test results were negative. At this current visit, symptoms and details of sexual history were unchanged since the last visit, with the exception of the epigastric pain...
October 2017: Journal of Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967764/correction-to-mitchel-et-al-2017
#8
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Cheating Under Pressure: A Self-Protection Model of Workplace Cheating Behavior" by Marie S. Mitchell, Michael D. Baer, Maureen L. Ambrose, Robert Folger and Noel F. Palmer (Journal of Applied Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Aug 14, 2017, np). In the original article, the fit statistics in Study 3 were reported in error. The fit of the measurement model is: χ²(362) = 563.66, p < .001; CFI = .94; SRMR = .05; RMSEA = .04. The fit of the SEM model is: χ²(362) = 563.66, p < ...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966038/depletion-moral-identity-and-unethical-behavior-why-people-behave-unethically-after-self-control-exertion
#9
Yan Wang, Guosen Wang, Qiuju Chen, Lin Li
Self-control enables people to resist short-term temptations in the service of long-term goals. Previous exertion of self-control leads to a state of ego depletion. Three studies demonstrated that ego depletion leads to a high level of unethical behavior. These studies also hypothesized and confirmed that depleted individuals behave unethically because of low moral identity. Study 1 found that depleted participants were more likely to over-report their performance than non-depleted participants. Study 2 revealed that depletion reduced people's moral identity, which in turn increased their propensity to engage in unethical behavior...
September 28, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955279/a-perspective-on-research-on-dishonesty-limited-external-validity-due-to-the-lack-of-possibility-of-self-selection-in-experimental-designs
#10
Petr Houdek
The aim of this perspective article is to show that current experimental evidence on factors influencing dishonesty has limited external validity. Most of experimental studies is built on random assignments, in which control/experimental groups of subjects face varied sizes of the expected reward for behaving dishonestly, opportunities for cheating, means of rationalizing dishonest behavior etc., and mean groups' reactions are observed. The studies have internal validity in assessing the causal influence of these and other factors, but they lack external validity in organizational, market and other environments...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943276/detection-of-anabolic-androgenic-steroid-use-by-elite-athletes-and-by-members-of-the-general-public
#11
REVIEW
Bradley D Anawalt
Because national and international sports competitions are sources of community pride and financial revenue, there have been great efforts to prevent and detect the use of performance-enhancing drugs such as anabolic androgenic steroids by elite athletes. The World Anti-Doping Agency and its national affiliate anti-doping agencies have created sophisticated monitoring systems and advanced testing techniques to detect the use of banned substances including anabolic androgenic steroids by participants in international and national athletic competitions...
September 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912771/selection-of-functional-quorum-sensing-systems-by-lysogenic-bacteriophages-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#12
Miguel A Saucedo-Mora, Paulina Castañeda-Tamez, Adrián Cazares, Judith Pérez-Velázquez, Burkhard A Hense, Daniel Cazares, Wendy Figueroa, Marco Carballo, Gabriel Guarneros, Berenice Pérez-Eretza, Nelby Cruz, Yoshito Nishiyama, Toshinari Maeda, Javier A Belmont-Díaz, Thomas K Wood, Rodolfo García-Contreras
Quorum sensing (QS) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa coordinates the expression of virulence factors, some of which are used as public goods. Since their production is a cooperative behavior, it is susceptible to social cheating in which non-cooperative QS deficient mutants use the resources without investing in their production. Nevertheless, functional QS systems are abundant; hence, mechanisms regulating the amount of cheating should exist. Evidence that demonstrates a tight relationship between QS and the susceptibility of bacteria against the attack of lytic phages is increasing; nevertheless, the relationship between temperate phages and QS has been much less explored...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898167/praising-young-children-for-being-smart-promotes-cheating
#13
Li Zhao, Gail D Heyman, Lulu Chen, Kang Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893176/the-path-to-re-evolve-cooperation-is-constrained-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#14
Elisa T Granato, Rolf Kümmerli
BACKGROUND: A common form of cooperation in bacteria is based on the secretion of beneficial metabolites, shareable as public good among cells within a group. Because cooperation can be exploited by "cheating" mutants, which contribute less or nothing to the public good, there has been great interest in understanding the conditions required for cooperation to remain evolutionarily stable. In contrast, much less is known about whether cheats, once fixed in the population, are able to revert back to cooperation when conditions change...
September 11, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893158/academic-ethical-awareness-among-undergraduate-nursing-students
#15
Ok-Hee Cho, Kyung-Hye Hwang
BACKGROUND: Academic ethical awareness is an important aspect especially for nursing students who will provide ethical nursing care to patients in future or try to tread the path of learning toward professional acknowledgement in nursing scholarship. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore academic ethical awareness and its related characteristics among undergraduate nursing students. METHODS: This study commenced the survey with cross-sectional, descriptive questions and enrolled convenient samples of 581 undergraduate nursing students from three universities in South Korea...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871205/siderophore-cheating-and-cheating-resistance-shape-competition-for-iron-in-soil-and-freshwater-pseudomonas-communities
#16
Elena Butaitė, Michael Baumgartner, Stefan Wyder, Rolf Kümmerli
All social organisms experience dilemmas between cooperators performing group-beneficial actions and cheats selfishly exploiting these actions. Although bacteria have become model organisms to study social dilemmas in laboratory systems, we know little about their relevance in natural communities. Here, we show that social interactions mediated by a single shareable compound necessary for growth (the iron-scavenging pyoverdine) have important consequences for competitive dynamics in soil and pond communities of Pseudomonas bacteria...
September 4, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856236/overweight-and-body-image-perception-in-adolescents-with-triage-of-eating-disorders
#17
Roberta Stofeles Cecon, Sylvia do Carmo Castro Franceschini, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Peluzio, Helen Hermana Miranda Hermsdorff, Silvia Eloiza Priore
PURPOSE: To verify the influence of overweight and alteration in the perception of the corporal image during the triage of eating disorders. METHOD: A food disorder triage was performed in adolescents with 10 to 19 years of age using the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26), Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT), and Bulimic Investigatory Test Edinburgh (BITE), as well as a nutritional status evaluation. The perception of body image was evaluated in a subsample of adolescents with 10 to 14 years of age, using the Brazilian Silhouette Scale...
2017: TheScientificWorldJournal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855369/social-transmission-of-information-about-a-mutualist-via-trophallaxis-in-ant-colonies
#18
Masayuki Hayashi, Masaru K Hojo, Masashi Nomura, Kazuki Tsuji
Partner discrimination is crucial in mutualistic interactions between organisms to counteract cheating by the partner. Trophobiosis between ants and aphids is a model system of such mutualistic interaction. To establish and maintain the mutualistic association, ants need to correctly discriminate mutualistic aphids. However, the mechanism by which ants recognize aphids as their partners is poorly understood, despite its ecological and evolutionary importance. Here, we show for the first time the evidence that interaction with nest-mates that have tended aphids (Aphis craccivora) allows ants (Tetramorium tsushimae) to learn to recognize the aphid species as their partner...
August 30, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846438/my-secret-life
#19
Mary-Dell Chilton
In my early childhood, my parents gave me to my maternal grandparents for a "visit" that extended over a period of nine years. I seemed to be a fairly ordinary student in primary grades, and had to take a remedial general science class upon entering high school, my first exposure to science. It was the teacher of that class, Mr. Auer, who told me that I had scored amazingly high on a science aptitude test given to all freshmen. The people who administered the testing were convinced that I must have cheated somehow...
August 28, 2017: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846002/stressful-family-environments-and-children-s-behavioral-control-a-multimethod-test-and-replication-study-with-twins
#20
Claudia I Vrijhof, Anja van der Voort, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Saskia Euser
Young children's behavioral control predicts a broad range of developmental outcomes in child- and adulthood. It is therefore important to study how individual differences in behavioral control arise. Previous studies suggest that there are both genetic and environmental influences, which were estimated in the current study using a sample of mono- and dizygotic same-sex twins. Furthermore, we examined the associations between indicators of a stressful family environment like household chaos, parenting daily hassles, and parental depressive symptoms and children's behavioral control in 2 samples...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Family Psychology: JFP
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