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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773007/cell-proliferation-and-dna-repair-ability-of-ganoderma-neo-japonicum-agaricomycetes-an-indigenous-medicinal-mushroom-from-malaysia
#1
Wee Cheat Tan, Umah Rani Kuppusamy, Chia Wei Phan, Vikineswary Sabaratnam
Ganoderma neo-japonicum is an annual polypore that grows on decaying bamboo in the forests of Malaysia. The indigenous Temuan tribe uses this species as a medicinal mushroom to cure fever and epilepsy and to improve body strength. The potential use of G. neo-japonicum in genoprotection and DNA repair was established using a single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay. The effects of the ethanol and hot aqueous extracts from wild and cultivated basidiocarps, solid substrate-fermented (SSF) wheat grains, and mycelia via submerged culture on H2O2-damaged murine RAW264...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745213/-bacterial-quorum-sensing-cooperation-and-cheating
#2
Bai Min Lai, Mei Zhen Wang, Dong Sheng Shen
Quorum sensing (QS), a cell-to-cell communication, regulates a variety of social beha-viors, such as biofilm formation, public goods produce and gene horizontal transfer of bacteria. In the process of quorum sensing, public goods could be utilized by any members in the population, which was termed as cooperation. Notably, public goods also could be shared by the individuals who could not produce them, which was termed as cheating. Once cheaters come up, they possibly maintain equilibrium with cooperators, meanwhile they also possibly induce the collapse of population due to their rapid growth and shortage of public goods...
May 18, 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735672/strategic-investment-explains-patterns-of-cooperation-and-cheating-in-a-microbe
#3
Philip G Madgwick, Balint Stewart, Laurence J Belcher, Christopher R L Thompson, Jason B Wolf
Contributing to cooperation is typically costly, while its rewards are often available to all members of a social group. So why should individuals be willing to pay these costs, especially if they could cheat by exploiting the investments of others? Kin selection theory broadly predicts that individuals should invest more into cooperation if their relatedness to group members is high (assuming they can discriminate kin from nonkin). To better understand how relatedness affects cooperation, we derived the ‟Collective Investment" game, which provides quantitative predictions for patterns of strategic investment depending on the level of relatedness...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728393/maximizing-growth-yield-and-dispersal-via-quorum-sensing-promotes-cooperation-in-vibrio-bacteria
#4
Eric L Bruger, Christopher M Waters
Quorum sensing (QS) is a form of bacterial chemical communication that regulates cellular phenotypes, including certain cooperative behaviors, in response to environmental and demographic changes. Despite the existence of proposed mechanisms that stabilize QS against defector exploitation, it is unclear if or how QS-cooperators can proliferate in populations of mostly defectors in some model systems. We predicted that growth in fragmented subpopulations could allow QS-cooperators to invade a QS-defector population...
May 4, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717227/children-passively-allow-other-s-rule-violations-in-cooperative-situations
#5
Ayaka Ikeda, Yuko Okumura, Tessei Kobayashi, Shoji Itakura
Recent studies in developmental psychology have revealed the developmental origins of cooperation. Although such studies regard cooperation as a pro-social behavior, studies on adults have found a negative aspect: cooperation sometimes promotes unethical behavior. Adults also exhibit altruistic cheating, even though their cheating might not actually benefit them. However, the development of negative aspects of cooperation remains unclear. Our study examined whether 7-year-old children engage in negative aspects of cooperation from two aspects using a peeking paradigm...
May 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703897/the-signalling-game-between-plants-and-pollinators
#6
Shan Sun, Michael I Leshowitz, Jan Rychtář
Plants can send floral signals to advertise their reward for pollinators. Based on the presence or absents of such signals, pollinators can determine whether to visit plants. Plants can send dishonest signals but foraging behaviours of pollinators can limit the cheating strategies of plants. We model the plant-pollinator interactions by the two-type Spence signalling game and investigate the conditions under which honest signalling can be established. In our model, plants either send costly signal or they do not...
April 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675935/cheating-facilitation-and-cooperation-regulate-the-effectiveness-of-phage-encoded-exotoxins-as-antipredator-molecules
#7
Iqbal Aijaz, Gerald B Koudelka
Temperate phage encoded Shiga toxin (Stx) kills the bacterivorous predator, Tetrahymena thermophila, providing Stx+ Escherichia coli with a survival advantage over Stx- cells. Although bacterial death accompanies Stx release, since bacteria grow clonally the fitness benefits of predator killing accrue to the kin of the sacrificed organism, meaning Stx-mediated protist killing is a form of self-destructive cooperation. We show here that the fitness benefits of Stx production are not restricted to the kin of the phage-encoding bacteria...
April 19, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669445/-the-biggest-legal-battle-in-uk-casino-history-processes-and-politics-of-cheating-in-sociotechnical-networks
#8
Mark R Johnson
Previous literature on cheating has focused on defining the concept, assigning responsibility to individual players, collaborative social processes or technical faults in a game's rules. By contrast, this paper applies an actor-network perspective to understanding 'cheating' in games, and explores how the concept is rhetorically effective in sociotechnical controversies. The article identifies human and nonhuman actors whose interests and properties were translated in a case study of 'edge sorting' - identifying minor but crucial differences in tessellated patterns on the backs of playing cards, and using these to estimate their values...
April 1, 2018: Social Studies of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655614/a-brief-validated-screen-to-identify-boys-and-girls-at-risk-for-early-marijuana-use
#9
Rolf Loeber, Duncan B Clark, Lia Ahonen, Douglas FitzGerald, Elisa M Trucco, Robert A Zucker
To guide recruitment, the ABCD Study requires a method for identifying children at high risk for early-onset substance use that may be utilized during the recruitment process. This study was undertaken to inform the development of a brief screen for identifying youths' risk of early-onset substance use and other adverse outcomes. To be acceptable by participants in this context, consideration of potential items was limited to child characteristics previously determined to be potentially pertinent and parental cigarette smoking...
April 7, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650359/asymmetric-tyrosination-of-spindle-microtubules-facilitates-selfish-inheritance
#10
Shikha Laloraya
Meiotic drive is an enigmatic process that results from biased segregation of selfish genetic elements that enhance their own transmission and drive evolution. During asymmetric female meiotic divisions, selfish elements segregate preferentially towards the egg rather than polar bodies. Recent findings demonstrate that asymmetric spindle tyrosination helps selfish elements to cheat.
April 10, 2018: Trends in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596538/self-reported-cheating-among-medical-students-an-alarming-finding-in-a-cross-sectional-study-from-saudi-arabia
#11
Hamza Mohammad Abdulghani, Shafiul Haque, Yousef Abdullah Almusalam, Saleh Lafi Alanezi, Yazeed Abdulaziz Alsulaiman, Mohammad Irshad, Shaffi Ahmed Shaik, Nehal Khamis
Academic misconduct/dishonesty has become widespread behavior among many university students across the globe, and medical education is not an exception. Until recently, few efforts have been made to study the dishonest behavior in Middle-Eastern universities. This study examined the prevalence and predisposing factors of cheating among medical students in Saudi Arabia and suggests suitable preventive measures. A cross-sectional survey-based study was conducted at a government medical college during the 2014-2015 academic year...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589998/trends-in-onroad-transportation-energy-and-emissions
#12
H Christopher Frey
Globally, 1.3 billion onroad vehicles consume 79 quadrillion BTU of energy, mostly gasoline and diesel fuels, emit 5.7 gigatonnes of CO2 , and emit other pollutants to which approximately 200,000 annual premature deaths are attributed. Improved vehicle energy efficiency and emission controls have helped offset growth in vehicle activity. New technologies are diffusing into the vehicle fleet in response to fuel efficiency and emission standards. Empirical assessment of vehicle emissions is challenging because of myriad fuels and technologies, inter-vehicle variability, multiple emission processes, variability in operating conditions, and varying capabilities of measurement methods...
March 28, 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563243/local-interactions-and-self-organized-spatial-patterns-stabilize-microbial-cross-feeding-against-cheaters
#13
Simon Maccracken Stump, Evan Curtis Johnson, Christopher A Klausmeier
Mutualisms are ubiquitous, but models predict they should be susceptible to cheating. Resolving this paradox has become relevant to synthetic ecology: cooperative cross-feeding, a nutrient-exchange mutualism, has been proposed to stabilize microbial consortia. Previous attempts to understand how cross-feeders remain robust to non-producing cheaters have relied on complex behaviour (e.g. cheater punishment) or group selection. Using a stochastic spatial model, we demonstrate two novel mechanisms that can allow cross-feeders to outcompete cheaters, rather than just escape from them...
March 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561742/validation-of-response-similarity-analysis-for-the-detection-of-academic-cheating-an-experimental-study
#14
Georgios D Sideridis, Cengiz Zopluoglu
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate various analytical means to detect academic cheating in an experimental setting. The omega index was compared and contrasted given a gold criterion of academic cheating which entailed a discrepant score between two administrations using an experimental study with real test takers. Participants were 164 elementary school students who were administered a mathematics exam followed by an equivalent mock exam under conditions of strict and relaxed, invigilation, respectively...
2018: Journal of Applied Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547814/exploring-the-paradox-a-cross-sectional-study-of-academic-dishonesty-among-australian-nursing-students
#15
Melanie Birks, John Smithson, Janene Antney, Lin Zhao, Camilla Burkot
BACKGROUND: Universities' responsibility to ensure academic integrity is frustrated by software and communication tools that facilitate content reuse coupled with a growing international essay writing economy. A wide range of behaviours constitute academic dishonesty and while a complex phenomenon to examine, existing evidence suggests that there is sufficient proliferation (both in volume and variety) of these behaviours among Australian university students to warrant concern. This proliferation presents faculty and staff with new challenges in ensuring academic integrity...
March 2, 2018: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545762/bridging-the-divide-the-role-of-motivation-and-self-regulation-in-explaining-the-judgment-action-gap-related-to-academic-dishonesty
#16
Jason M Stephens
There is often a divide between moral judgment and moral action; between what we believe we ought to do (or not do) and what we do. Knowledge of this divide is not new, and numerous theories have attempted to offer more robust accounts of ethical decision-making and moral functioning. Knowledge of widespread academic dishonesty among students is also not new, and several studies have revealed that many students report cheating despite believing it is wrong. The present study, involving cross-sectional survey data from a sample of secondary students ( N = 380) in the United States, contributes to the literature on this important area of theory and research by fulfilling three broad purposes...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507206/genetic-signatures-of-microbial-altruism-and-cheating-in-social-amoebas-in-the-wild
#17
Suegene Noh, Katherine S Geist, Xiangjun Tian, Joan E Strassmann, David C Queller
Many microbes engage in social interactions. Some of these have come to play an important role in the study of cooperation and conflict, largely because, unlike most animals, they can be genetically manipulated and experimentally evolved. However, whereas animal social behavior can be observed and assessed in natural environments, microbes usually cannot, so we know little about microbial social adaptations in nature. This has led to some difficult-to-resolve controversies about social adaptation even for well-studied traits such as bacterial quorum sensing, siderophore production, and biofilms...
March 20, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505388/externalizing-behavior-and-psychopathy-a-social-relations-analysis
#18
David K Marcus, Samantha L Robinson, Alexander E Eichenbaum
Most conceptualizations of psychopathy emphasize its interpersonal consequences, yet most research on psychopathy has been conducted at the individual level. In small groups, well-acquainted members of sororities and fraternities (N = 111) rated one another and themselves on a variety of externalizing behaviors (e.g., cheating, risky sex), and completed a self-report measure of psychopathy. There was consensus about the extent to which members of the groups engaged in these behaviors. The associations between these target effects and respondents' self-reports suggest that these consensual judgments were reasonably accurate...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493804/outcomes-of-low-weight-patients-with-avoidant-restrictive-food-intake-disorder-and-anorexia-nervosa-at-long-term-follow-up-after-treatment-in-a-partial-hospitalization-program-for-eating-disorders
#19
Amanda E Bryson, Anna M Scipioni, Jamal H Essayli, Johnna R Mahoney, Rollyn M Ornstein
OBJECTIVE: To assess long-term outcomes of patients with avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) treated in a partial hospitalization program (PHP) for eating disorders (ED). METHOD: A cross-sectional study comparing patients with ARFID to those with anorexia nervosa (AN) who had been discharged from a PHP for at least 12 months was performed. Percent median body mass index (%MBMI), scores on the Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT), and treatment utilization were assessed, with intake and discharge data collected via retrospective chart review...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483353/culture-morality-and-individual-differences-comparability-and-incomparability-across-species
#20
REVIEW
Gerard Saucier
Major routes to identifying individual differences (in diverse species) include studies of behaviour patterns as represented in language and neurophysiology. But results from these approaches appear not to converge on some major dimensions. Identifying dimensions of human variation least applicable to non-human species may help to partition human-specific individual differences of recent evolutionary origin from those shared across species. Human culture includes learned, enforced social-norm systems that are symbolically reinforced and referenced in displays signalling adherence...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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