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Melanie Birks, John Smithson, Janene Antney, Lin Zhao, Camilla Burkot
BACKGROUND: Universities' responsibility to ensure academic integrity is frustrated by software and communication tools that facilitate content reuse coupled with a growing international essay writing economy. A wide range of behaviours constitute academic dishonesty and while a complex phenomenon to examine, existing evidence suggests that there is sufficient proliferation (both in volume and variety) of these behaviours among Australian university students to warrant concern. This proliferation presents faculty and staff with new challenges in ensuring academic integrity...
March 2, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Jason M Stephens
There is often a divide between moral judgment and moral action; between what we believe we ought to do (or not do) and what we do. Knowledge of this divide is not new, and numerous theories have attempted to offer more robust accounts of ethical decision-making and moral functioning. Knowledge of widespread academic dishonesty among students is also not new, and several studies have revealed that many students report cheating despite believing it is wrong. The present study, involving cross-sectional survey data from a sample of secondary students ( N = 380) in the United States, contributes to the literature on this important area of theory and research by fulfilling three broad purposes...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Suegene Noh, Katherine S Geist, Xiangjun Tian, Joan E Strassmann, David C Queller
Many microbes engage in social interactions. Some of these have come to play an important role in the study of cooperation and conflict, largely because, unlike most animals, they can be genetically manipulated and experimentally evolved. However, whereas animal social behavior can be observed and assessed in natural environments, microbes usually cannot, so we know little about microbial social adaptations in nature. This has led to some difficult-to-resolve controversies about social adaptation even for well-studied traits such as bacterial quorum sensing, siderophore production, and biofilms...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
David K Marcus, Samantha L Robinson, Alexander E Eichenbaum
Most conceptualizations of psychopathy emphasize its interpersonal consequences, yet most research on psychopathy has been conducted at the individual level. In small groups, well-acquainted members of sororities and fraternities (N = 111) rated one another and themselves on a variety of externalizing behaviors (e.g., cheating, risky sex), and completed a self-report measure of psychopathy. There was consensus about the extent to which members of the groups engaged in these behaviors. The associations between these target effects and respondents' self-reports suggest that these consensual judgments were reasonably accurate...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
Amanda E Bryson, Anna M Scipioni, Jamal H Essayli, Johnna R Mahoney, Rollyn M Ornstein
OBJECTIVE: To assess long-term outcomes of patients with avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) treated in a partial hospitalization program (PHP) for eating disorders (ED). METHOD: A cross-sectional study comparing patients with ARFID to those with anorexia nervosa (AN) who had been discharged from a PHP for at least 12 months was performed. Percent median body mass index (%MBMI), scores on the Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT), and treatment utilization were assessed, with intake and discharge data collected via retrospective chart review...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Gerard Saucier
Major routes to identifying individual differences (in diverse species) include studies of behaviour patterns as represented in language and neurophysiology. But results from these approaches appear not to converge on some major dimensions. Identifying dimensions of human variation least applicable to non-human species may help to partition human-specific individual differences of recent evolutionary origin from those shared across species. Human culture includes learned, enforced social-norm systems that are symbolically reinforced and referenced in displays signalling adherence...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Scott Sinnett, Cj Maglinti, Alan Kingstone
BACKGROUND: Grunting is pervasive in many athletic contests, and empirical evidence suggests that it may result in one exerting more physical force. It may also distract one's opponent. That grunts can distract was supported by a study showing that it led to an opponent being slower and more error prone when viewing tennis shots. An alternative explanation was that grunting masks the sound of a ball being hit. The present study provides evidence against this alternative explanation by testing the effect of grunting in a sport-mixed martial arts-where distraction, rather than masking, is the most likely mechanism...
2018: PloS One
Joshua M Stewart, William Douglas Woody, Steven Pulos
We assessed experimental false confession studies using a meta-analysis to evaluate the prevalence of false confessions across methodologies and several moderator variables. False confessions were more likely in typing task studies than in collaborative or individual cheating studies. In typing studies, speed of typing did not affect false confession rates, but placement of the forbidden key in locations that rendered errors less plausible lowered the false confession rates. False-evidence ploys increased the likelihood of false confessions...
January 2018: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Michael A Lampson, Ben E Black
The asymmetric outcome of female meiosis I, whereby an entire set of chromosomes are discarded into a polar body, presents an opportunity for selfish genetic elements to cheat the process and disproportionately segregate to the egg. Centromeres, the chromosomal loci that connect to spindle microtubules, could potentially act as selfish elements and "drive" in meiosis. We review the current understanding of the genetic and epigenetic contributions to centromere identity and describe recent progress in a powerful model system to study centromere drive in mice...
February 12, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
Bai-Min Lai, Hui-Cong Yan, Mei-Zhen Wang, Na Li, Dong-Sheng Shen
In the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the synthesis and secretion of extracellular protease is a typical cooperative behavior regulated by quorum sensing. However, this type of cooperative behavior is easily exploited by other individuals who do not synthesize public goods, which is known as the "tragedy of the commons". Here P. aeruginosa was inoculated into casein media with different nitrogen salts added. In casein broth, protease (a type of public good) is necessary for bacterial growth. After 30 days of sequential transfer, some groups propagated stably and avoided "tragedy of the commons"...
February 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Charles Negy, Diego Plaza, Abilio Reig-Ferrer, Maria Dolores Fernandez-Pascual
This cross-sectional study examined whether university students from the U.S. (n = 392) and Spain (n = 200) considered the viewing of sexually explicit material (SEM) to be tantamount to committing infidelity. Participants' ages ranged from 18 to 36 (U.S. sample) and 18 to 35 (Spain sample), respectively. At both universities, the study was made available to students via a computer program that allows recruitment and completion of the questionnaires online. It was found that the majority of U.S. and Spanish participants (73 and 77%, respectively) indicated that they did not consider viewing SEM as an act of infidelity...
February 1, 2018: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Jennifer E Stellar, Robb Willer
While moral character heavily influences global evaluations of others (Goodwin, Piazza, & Rozin, 2014), its causal effect on perceptions of others' competence (i.e., one's knowledge, skills, and abilities) is less clear. We found that people readily use information about another's morality when judging their competence, despite holding folk intuitions that these domains are independent. Across 6 studies (n = 1,567), including 2 preregistered experiments, participants judged targets who committed hypothetical transgressions (Studies 1 and 3), cheated on lab tasks (Study 2), acted selfishly in economic games (Study 4), and received low morality ratings from coworkers (Study 5 and 6) as less competent than control or moral targets...
February 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Kevin F Boehnke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 26, 2018: Science
Nathalie Aelterman, Maarten Vansteenkiste, Leen Haerens
BACKGROUND: It is generally accepted that well-established classroom rules prevent problem behaviour, while also supporting students' achievement gains. Yet, there might be considerable variability in students' underlying motives to comply or refrain from complying with classroom rules, with some students adhering to them because they fully accept them as their own, and others feeling compelled by external or internal demands to do so or even defying the rules altogether. AIMS: Grounded in self-determination theory, this study aimed to examine whether students' reasons for following (i...
January 23, 2018: British Journal of Educational Psychology
Katy Wagner, Hannah Maslen, Justin Oakley, Julian Savulescu
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is an experimental brain stimulation technology that may one day be used to enhance the cognitive capacities of children. Discussion about the ethical issues that this would raise has rarely moved beyond expert circles. However, the opinions of the wider public can lead to more democratic policy decisions and broaden academic discussion of this issue. METHODS: We performed a quantitative survey of members of the US public...
January 17, 2018: AJOB Empirical Bioethics
Richard J Lindsay, Bogna J Pawlowska, Ivana Gudelj
Microbial cooperation drives ecological and epidemiological processes and is affected by the ecology and demography of populations. Population density influences the selection for cooperation, with spatial structure and the type of social dilemma, namely public-goods production or self-restraint, shaping the outcome. While existing theories predict that in spatially structured environments increasing population density can select either for or against cooperation, experimental studies with both public-goods production and self-restraint systems have only ever shown that increasing population density favours cheats...
January 12, 2018: ISME Journal
Jeong-Ho Chae, Hyu Jung Huh, Won Joon Choi
OBJECTIVE: On Wednesday, April 16, 2014, 261 high school students on a field trip died in the sinking of the Sewol ferry. The bereaved family of the Sewol ferry accident experienced one of the most painful traumatic losses such as the sudden death of one's child through an accident. This article reviewed and discussed embitterment related to traumatic loss through the example of the Sewol ferry accident. METHOD: Embitterment-related issues and problems in coping with the accident that is caused by societal factors were described...
January 2018: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
Alison M O'Connor, Angela D Evans
The current study investigated how having at least one child sibling influenced children's dishonest behaviors. Furthermore, for those children with a sibling, we examined whether having a younger or older sibling and the age difference between siblings influenced deceptive acts. Children between 3 and 8 years of age (N = 130) completed the temptation resistance paradigm, where they played a guessing game and were asked not to peek at a toy in the experimenter's absence. Children's peeking behavior was used as a measure of cheating, and children's responses when asked whether they had peeked were used as measures of lie-telling...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Majid Khadem-Rezaiyan, Maliheh Dadgarmoghaddam
Background: Cheating rate is rising and engages newer methods. This study performed to estimate the rate of research misconduct in the thesis of undergraduate and postgraduate medical students in 2015. Methods: In this cross sectional study, all undergraduate and postgraduate medical students graduated during the study period in 2015, from the School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran were asked to fill a small checklist anonymously...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Samuel C Gable, Sharon Lamb, Madeline Brodt, Leah Atwell
This mixed-methods research explored the moral motivations of undergraduates who identified as bystanders in a situation of potential sexual assault. In the quantitative analysis, we examined the difference between interveners and noninterveners with regard to their scores on the Moral Foundations Questionnaire-30 Item (MFQ-30), which considers five moral foundations from Moral Foundations Theory (MFT) of care/harm, fairness/cheating, loyalty/betrayal, authority/subversion, and sanctity/degradation, as well as measures of bystander attitudes (BAS-R) and rape-myth acceptance (IRMA, modified)...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
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