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Otitis media

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925848/hospitalizations-for-pneumococcal-diseases-in-tuscany-from-2002-to-2014-impact-of-universal-pediatric-vaccination-on-the-population
#1
Sara Boccalini, Ornella Varone, Martina Chellini, Luca Pieri, Antonino Sala, Cesare Berardi, Paolo Bonanni, Angela Bechini
Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main causative organism of acute media otitis in children and meningitis and bacterial pneumonia in the community. Since 2008 in Tuscany, central Italy, the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7-valent vaccine, switched in 13-valent vaccine in 2010) was actively offered free of charge to all newborns. Aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of pneumococcal paediatric vaccination on the Tuscan population on hospitalizations potentially caused by S. pneumoniae, during pre-vaccination (PVP, 2002-2007) and vaccination period (VP, 2009-2014)...
December 7, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920580/positive-clinical-outcomes-derived-from-using-streptococcus-salivarius-k12-to-prevent-streptococcal-pharyngotonsillitis-in-children-a-pilot-investigation
#2
Francesco Di Pierro, Maria Colombo, Alberto Zanvit, Amilcare S Rottoli
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus salivarius K12 (BLIS K12(®)) is a probiotic strain producing the bacteriocins salivaricin A2 and salivaricin B, both of which strongly antagonize the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes, the most important bacterial cause of pharyngeal infections in humans. It successfully colonizes and exhibits persistence in the oral cavity and is endowed with an excellent safety profile. Previous observations of a small group of children indicated that the use of BLIS K12 could also reduce the occurrence of viral pharyngitis...
2016: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919900/n-acetyl-l-cysteine-and-cysteamine-new-strategies-against-mixed-biofilms-of-non-encapsulated-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae
#3
Mirian Domenech, Ernesto García
Acute otitis media, a polymicrobial disease of the middle ear cavity of children, is a significant public health problem worldwide. It is most frequently caused by encapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae, although the widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines is apparently producing an increase in carriage of non-encapsulated S. pneumoniae Frequently, pneumococci and H. influenzae live together in the human nasopharynx forming a self-produced biofilm. Biofilms represent a global medical challenge since the inherent antibiotic resistance of their producers demands the use of high doses of antibiotics over prolonged periods...
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919628/trivalent-pneumococcal-protein-vaccine-protects-against-experimental-acute-otitis-media-caused-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-in-an-infant-murine-model
#4
Qingfu Xu, Karin Pryharski, Michael E Pichichero
BACKGROUND: Currently licensed serotype-based pneumococcal vaccines are effective in preventing invasive pneumococcal diseases, but less effective in preventing non-bacteremic pneumonia and acute otitis media (AOM). We previously reported that a trivalent pneumococcal protein recombinant vaccine (PPrV) protected against pneumonia in a murine model. Here we evaluated PPrV protection against AOM in an infant murine model. METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were intramuscularly vaccinated at 1-3weeks of age with monovalent pneumococcal histidine triad protein D (PhtD), or pneumococcal choline binding protein A (PcpA), or detoxified pneumolysin (PlyD1), or trivalent vaccine, and transtympanically challenged at 7-8weeks of age with 1×10(2)CFU of pneumococcal strain BG7322 (6A) or 1×10(4)CFU of pneumococcal nontypeable strain 0702064MEF...
December 2, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918383/etiology-of-acute-otitis-media-in-children-less-than-5-years-of-age-a-pooled-analysis-of-10-similarly-designed-observational-studies
#5
Melissa K Van Dyke, Jean-Yves Pirçon, Robert Cohen, Shabir A Madhi, Andrés Rosenblüt, Mercedes Macias Parra, Khalid Al-Mazrou, Gerhard Grevers, Pio Lopez, Laura Naranjo, Felix Pumarola, Nuntigar Sonsuwan, William P Hausdorff
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is an important cause of childhood morbidity and antibiotic prescriptions. However, the relative importance of the well-known otopathogens, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) and Haemophilus influenzae (Hflu), remains unclear due to a limited number of tympanocentesis-based studies that vary significantly in populations sampled, case definitions, and heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7-CRM) use. METHODS: We conducted a pooled analysis of results from ten AOM etiology studies of similar design the protocols of which were derived from a common protocol and conducted in children 3 months to 5 years of age in different countries...
November 30, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917456/acute-septic-arthritis-of-the-temporomandibular-joint-derived-from-otitis-media-a-report-and-review-of-the-english-and-japanese-literature
#6
Shigeo Ishikawa, Tomoo Watanabe, Mitsuyoshi Iino
Septic arthritis of the temporomandibular joint (SATMJ) is an extremely rare disease with characteristic features of preauricular pain, swelling, redness, and malocclusion. The present report describes a case of SATMJ derived from otitis media, which resulted in a good outcome. We also reviewed the English and Japanese literature with special interest in etiology. It is generally agreed that contiguous or distant infection and trauma are common etiological factors of SATMJ. So far, these etiological factors are mainly discussed based on hypotheses rather than sufficient evidence...
December 5, 2016: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917157/otopathogenic-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-enters-and-survives-inside-macrophages
#7
Rahul Mittal, Christopher V Lisi, Hansi Kumari, M'hamed Grati, Patricia Blackwelder, Denise Yan, Chaitanya Jain, Kalai Mathee, Paulo H Weckwerth, Xue Z Liu
Otitis media (OM) is a broad term describing a group of infectious and inflammatory disorders of the middle ear. Despite antibiotic therapy, acute OM can progress to chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) characterized by ear drum perforation and purulent discharge. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common pathogen associated with CSOM. Although, macrophages play an important role in innate immune responses but their role in the pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa-induced CSOM is not known. The objective of this study is to examine the interaction of P...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916211/a-32-year-study-of-the-effect-of-pneumococcal-vaccines-on-invasive-streptococcus-pneumoniae-disease
#8
Ronald J Stanek, Nancy B Norton, Maurice A Mufson
BACKGROUND: Worldwide, Streptococcus pneumoniae commonly causes community-acquired pneumonia, meningitis, septicemia and otitis media. Invasive pneumococcal infection (IPD) represents the most serious presentation, occurs in approximately 1 in 4 cases and engenders case fatality rates (CFR) in pneumonia of 20-25% and meningitis of 35-40%. We investigated IPD for 32 years in an American city to assess the effect of differing pneumococcal vaccines on serotype occurrence and CFR among children and adults...
December 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916013/effectiveness-of-transperforation-myringoplasty-in-bilateral-chronic-otitis-media-patients-undergoing-contralateral-tympanoplasty
#9
A T Ihsan, K Ranjana
OBJECTIVES: Bilateral tympanic membrane perforation closure is usually performed by otosurgeons in two sittings. However, in this study, transperforation myringoplasty was performed alongside contralateral tympanoplasty in a single sitting. The effectiveness of transperforation myringoplasty procedure and the benefits of single sitting bilateral surgery were evaluated. METHODS: A prospective study of 50 selected patients with mucosal-type bilateral chronic otitis media was conducted...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914182/positive-feelings-during-pregnancy-early-feeding-practices-and-infant-health
#10
Melissa A McManus, Ali A Khalessi, Joyce Lin, Jahanzeb Ashraf, Stephanie M Reich
BACKGROUND: Early parenting practices, like infant feeding, can impact children's physical health. Additionally, negative prenatal maternal affect can influence feeding choices, like breastfeeding, and can have a detrimental effect on children's health. However, little is known about the contribution of positive maternal affect during pregnancy on feeding practices and children's health. METHOD: This study explored whether positive prenatal feelings influenced children's health during the first 18 months, and whether early feeding practices mediated the relationship between these two variables...
December 3, 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913087/a-case-of-multiple-empyema-caused-by-streptococcus-intermedius
#11
Akihito Kaga, Ryuzaburo Higo, Hiroshi Yoshikawa, Naoko Yokoi, Takuo Haruyama, Hiroaki Komatsu, Ayumi Yabe, Takeshi Kusunoki, Katsuhisa Ikeda
We report the case of a patient with multiple empyema present throughout his body, including chronic sinusitis and chronic suppurative otitis media, as well as subsequent epidural empyema, all caused by Streptococcus intermedius. A 38-year-old man presented with chief complaints of headache, left ear discharge, and nasal congestion. Imaging studies revealed pansinusitis, soft tissue signs in the mastoid cells, and otitis media. The patient was treated with meropenem hydrate, 6g/day. While clinical findings indicated improvement of the sinusitis, his headache did not improve...
November 29, 2016: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909996/modelling-the-cost-effectiveness-of-human-milk-and-breastfeeding-in-preterm-infants-in-the-united-kingdom
#12
James Mahon, Lindsay Claxton, Hannah Wood
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the cost savings and health benefits in the UK NHS that could be achieved if human milk usage in the NICU was increased. METHODS: A systematic review established the disease areas with the strong sources of evidence of the short, medium and long-term benefits of human milk for preterm infants as opposed to the use of formula milk. The analysis assessed the economic impact of reducing rates of necrotising enterocolitis, sepsis, sudden infant death syndrome, leukaemia, otitis media, obesity and neurodevelopmental impairment...
December 2016: Health Economics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909101/changes-in-properties-of-auditory-nerve-synapses-following-conductive-hearing-loss
#13
Xiaowen Zhuang, Wei Sun, Matthew A Xu-Friedman
: Auditory activity plays an important role in the development of the auditory system. Decreased activity can result from conductive hearing loss (CHL) associated with otitis media, which may lead to long-term perceptual deficits. The effects of CHL have been mainly studied at later stages of the auditory pathway, but early stages remain less examined. However, changes in early stages could be important, because they would affect how information about sounds is conveyed to higher order areas for further processing and localization...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906149/ciprofloxacin-fluocinolone-otovel-for-otitis-media-with-tympanostomy-tubes
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2016: Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904919/-seasonal-differences-of-tympanogram-and-middle-ear-findings-in-children-german-version
#15
S Knopke, A Böttcher, P Chadha, H Olze, F Bast
BACKGROUND: It is a known fact that bacterial or viral acute otitis media occurs more frequently in the winter months. Only a few older studies on seasonal differences in middle ear findings are available. These studies are based solely on tympanography, without correlation to intraoperative middle ear findings. This study addresses the question of whether seasonal differences can be found in the preoperative tympanogram and in the corresponding intraoperative findings in children with chronic middle ear problems...
November 30, 2016: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903558/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-routine-pneumococcal-vaccination-in-the-uk-a-comparison-of-the-phid-cv-vaccine-and-the-pcv-13-vaccine-using-a-markov-model
#16
Emmanuelle Delgleize, Oscar Leeuwenkamp, Eleni Theodorou, Nicolas Van de Velde
OBJECTIVES: In 2010, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-13) replaced the 7-valent vaccine (introduced in 2006) for vaccination against invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs), pneumonia and acute otitis media (AOM) in the UK. Using recent evidence on the impact of PCVs and epidemiological changes in the UK, we performed a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) to compare the pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) with PCV-13 in the ongoing national vaccination programme...
November 30, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895351/frequency-of-sensorineural-hearing-loss-in-chronic-suppurative-otitis-media
#17
Syed Sajjad Ali Zaidi, Hamdan Ahmed Pasha, Anwar Suhail, Talha Ahmed Qureshi
Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is defined as chronic otorrhea (i.e., lasting > 6-12 weeks) through a perforated tympanic membrane. It is generally associated with some degree of conductive hearing loss. However, recurrent ear infections due to perforated eardrum result in absorption of toxins and macromolecules into the cochlea leading to sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). We planned to determine the frequency of sensorineural hearing loss in chronic suppurative otitis media. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at Aga Kgan University Hospital, Karachi, from October 2013 to March 2014...
October 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895000/severe-acute-otitis-media-and-acute-mastoiditis-in-adults
#18
Anu Laulajainen Hongisto, Jussi Jero, Antti Markkola, Riste Saat, Antti A Aarnisalo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare clinical and microbiological findings in adults hospitalized for acute otitis media (AOM) or mastoid infections (acute or latent). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all adults (≥17 years old) hospitalized (between 2003 and 2012) at a tertiary referral center for acute mastoid infections or AOM not responding to outpatient medical treatment. RESULTS: Of the 160 patients in the study sample, 19% had an infection caused by S...
November 28, 2016: Journal of International Advanced Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889249/analysis-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-haemophilus-influenzae-isolated-from-middle-ear-fluid-before-and-after-the-introduction-of-government-subsidies-for-pneumococcal-and-h-%C3%A2-influenzae-type-b-vaccines-in-japan
#19
Tadashi Hoshino, Noriko Takeuchi, Chie Fukasawa, Shoko Hirose, Hideyuki Okui, Hiroko Sato, Mari Sato, Yukiko Arimoto, Atsuko Nakano, Naruhiko Ishiwada
This study aimed to identify trends in frequency, serotype, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae isolated from middle ear fluid specimens of children aged≤15 years (mean, 2 years), before and after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and the H. influenzae type b vaccine, at a pediatric facility in Japan. Sixty-six S. pneumoniae and 88 H. influenzae strains were isolated from 820 middle ear fluid samples. Serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888477/impact-of-pediatric-acute-otitis-media-on-child-and-parental-quality-of-life-and-associated-productivity-loss-in-malaysia-a-prospective-observational-study
#20
Bruce Crawford, Siti Sabzah Mohd Hashim, Narayanan Prepageran, Goh Bee See, Genevieve Meier, Keiko Wada, Cheryl Coon, Emmanuelle Delgleize, Michael DeRosa
BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) affects both child and parental quality of life (QoL). Data on QoL associated with AOM in Malaysia is sparse, and the burden of indirect costs have not been previously reported. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of pediatric AOM on child and parental QoL in Malaysia and its economic impact (indirect costs). METHODS: We utilized a set of QoL questionnaires (PAR-AOM-QOL, OM-6, and EQ-5D) combined with questions addressing work/productivity loss and financial costs associated with caring for a child during his or her illness in an observational, multicenter, prospective study...
November 25, 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
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