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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926942/actin-related-protein-2-arp2-and-virus-induced-filopodia-facilitate-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-spread
#1
Masfique Mehedi, Thomas McCarty, Scott E Martin, Cyril Le Nouën, Eugen Buehler, Yu-Chi Chen, Margery Smelkinson, Sundar Ganesan, Elizabeth R Fischer, Linda G Brock, Bo Liang, Shirin Munir, Peter L Collins, Ursula J Buchholz
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an enveloped RNA virus that is the most important viral cause of acute pediatric lower respiratory tract illness worldwide, and lacks a vaccine or effective antiviral drug. The involvement of host factors in the RSV replicative cycle remains poorly characterized. A genome-wide siRNA screen in human lung epithelial A549 cells identified actin-related protein 2 (ARP2) as a host factor involved in RSV infection. ARP2 knockdown did not reduce RSV entry, and did not markedly reduce gene expression during the first 24 hr of infection, but decreased viral gene expression thereafter, an effect that appeared to be due to inhibition of viral spread to neighboring cells...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926583/evaluation-of-the-financial-and-health-burden-of-infants-at-risk-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#2
Stephanie McCallum Blake, David Tanaka, Lisa M Bendz, Suzanne Staebler, Debra Brandon
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading viral cause of death in infants younger than 1 year. In July 2014, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Committee on Infectious Diseases concluded that the "limited clinical benefit" for infants born at more than 29 weeks' gestation, together with the associated high cost of the immunoprophylaxis, no longer supported the routine use of palivizumab (Synagis). PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of the newly adopted AAP palivizumab prophylaxis administration on health and subsequent hospital costs of infants born between 29 and less than 32 weeks' gestation...
December 6, 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925622/relation-between-amniotic-fluid-infection-or-cytokine-levels-and-hearing-screen-failure-in-infants-at-32-wk-gestation-or-less
#3
Eun Young Jung, Byung Yoon Choi, Jihye Rhee, Jaehong Park, Soo-Hyun Cho, Kyo Hoon Park
BACKGROUND: To determine whether the presence of intra-amniotic infection and elevated proinflammatory cytokine levels in amniotic fluid (AF) are associated with failure in the newborn hearing screen (NHS) test in very preterm neonates. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of 112 premature singleton neonates born to women with preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes at ≤32 wk. AF obtained through amniocentesis was cultured, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 levels were determined...
December 7, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925621/presepsin-for-the-detection-of-early-onset-sepsis-in-preterm-newborns
#4
Paolo Montaldo, Roberto Rosso, Alfredo Santantonio, Giovanni Chello, Paolo Giliberti
BACKGROUND: Early-onset sepsis (EOS) is responsible for an important fraction of neonatal morbidity and mortality all over the world. The aim of this study was to assess whether presepsin (P-SEP) can be a more accurate biomarker of EOS compared with pro-calcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP). STUDY DESIGN: Consecutive preterm neonates (<34 wk gestational age, admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit by 6 h of age and undergoing sepsis evaluation) were recruited as part of a case-matched control study...
December 7, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923222/pediatric-primary-diffuse-leptomeningeal-primitive-neuroectodermal-tumor-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#5
Jesna Mathew Sublett, Caitlin Davenport, Howard Eisenbrock, Shamsher Dalal, Syed A Jaffar Kazmi, Amir Kershenovich
BACKGROUND: Primary diffuse leptomeningeal primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PDL PNET) is extremely rare, with only 19 cases reported in the literature to date. We present a case of a child with rapidly progressive PDL PNET and a literature review. A 10-year-old boy presented with mood lability, hallucinations, generalized pain, enuresis, and headaches. Initial investigation failed to produce a diagnosis. The symptoms progressed to seizure, back pain, and papilledema. Imaging showed acute hydrocephalus and mild diffuse leptomeningeal enhancement without an identifiable primary lesion...
December 7, 2016: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921164/m-type-phospholipase-a2-receptor-pla2r-glomerular-staining-in-pediatric-idiopathic-membranous-nephropathy
#6
Shoichiro Kanda, Shigeru Horita, Takeshi Yanagihara, Akira Shimizu, Motoshi Hattori
BACKGROUND: Identifying M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) is a landmark breakthrough for understanding adult idiopathic membranous nephropathy (iMN). However, potential roles for PLA2R in pediatric iMN have not been well investigated. METHODS: A total of 34 pediatric iMN patients who underwent kidney biopsy between 1972 and 2015 were enrolled in this study. The study cohort consisted of 15 children aged from 3 to 9 years and 19 aged from 10 to 15 years...
December 5, 2016: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921149/a-case-of-urticarial-vasculitis-in-a-female-patient-with-lupus-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection-or-lupus-reactivation
#7
Mario Diplomatico, Maria Francesca Gicchino, Orsola Ametrano, Pierluigi Marzuillo, Alma Nunzia Olivieri
A 17-year-old female patient affected by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (who had been taking 300 mg/die of hydroxychloroquine for 3 years), Graves' disease (treated with 10 mg/die of tapazole), and celiac disease came to our attention for urticarial vasculitis. She had been taking prednisone (25 mg/die) for 3 days, and her blood tests showed high levels of Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM and IgG antibodies. The association between urticaria and M. pneumoniae infections can be present in up to 7% of the cases and, to the best of our knowledge, only two reports of urticarial vasculitis and M...
December 5, 2016: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920580/positive-clinical-outcomes-derived-from-using-streptococcus-salivarius-k12-to-prevent-streptococcal-pharyngotonsillitis-in-children-a-pilot-investigation
#8
Francesco Di Pierro, Maria Colombo, Alberto Zanvit, Amilcare S Rottoli
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus salivarius K12 (BLIS K12(®)) is a probiotic strain producing the bacteriocins salivaricin A2 and salivaricin B, both of which strongly antagonize the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes, the most important bacterial cause of pharyngeal infections in humans. It successfully colonizes and exhibits persistence in the oral cavity and is endowed with an excellent safety profile. Previous observations of a small group of children indicated that the use of BLIS K12 could also reduce the occurrence of viral pharyngitis...
2016: Drug, Healthcare and Patient Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919877/pharmacist-driven-respiratory-syncytial-virus-prophylaxis-stewardship-service-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#9
Sara E Rostas, Christopher McPherson
PURPOSE: The development and implementation of a pharmacist-driven respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) prophylaxis stewardship program in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are described. SUMMARY: An RSV prophylaxis stewardship service was created in the NICU at Brigham and Women's Hospital to align with the newly updated 2014 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommendations for palivizumab. The service comprised two NICU clinical pharmacists with oversight from the NICU medical director and the chair of the NICU infection control committee...
December 15, 2016: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917737/a-pediatric-approach-to-ventilator-associated-events-surveillance
#10
Noelle M Cocoros, Gregory P Priebe, Latania K Logan, Susan Coffin, Gitte Larsen, Philip Toltzis, Thomas J Sandora, Marvin Harper, Julia S Sammons, James E Gray, Donald Goldmann, Kelly Horan, Michael Burton, Paul A Checchia, Matthew Lakoma, Shannon Sims, Michael Klompas, Grace M Lee
OBJECTIVE Adult ventilator-associated event (VAE) definitions include ventilator-associated conditions (VAC) and subcategories for infection-related ventilator-associated complications (IVAC) and possible ventilator-associated pneumonia (PVAP). We explored these definitions for children. DESIGN Retrospective cohort SETTING Pediatric, cardiac, or neonatal intensive care units (ICUs) in 6 US hospitals PATIENTS Patients ≤18 years old ventilated for ≥1 day METHODS We identified patients with pediatric VAC based on previously proposed criteria...
December 5, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917707/management-of-pneumonia-in-the-pediatric-critical-care-unit-an-area-for-antimicrobial-stewardship
#11
Aimee M Dassner, David P Nicolau, Jennifer E Girotto
Pediatric pneumonia is one of the most common causes of childhood infection requiring hospitalization and is a substantial driver of antimicrobial use among hospitalized children. About 12-20% of pediatric patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) require critical care. Additionally, nosocomial pneumonias (i.e. hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonias) are responsible for 15-53% of hospital-associated infections and are the most common indication for empiric antibiotics in the pediatric intensive care unit...
December 4, 2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915986/molecular-analysis-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-metallo-beta-lactamase-a-first-report-of-an-iranian-referral-pediatric-hospital
#12
Shima Mahmoudi, Babak Pourakbari, Mansoure Hosseini, Amir Esmaeil Alyari, Mohammad Taghi Haghi Ashtiani, Setareh Mamishi
INTRODUCTION: Pseudomonas aerouginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen causes clinical infections among ill patients. Metallo- Beta- lactamases (MBLs) are important mechanisms of carbapenem (drug of choice) resistance among Pseudomonas aerouginosa isolates. The aim of this study was to determine B- lactamases genes (bla-genes) in P. aerouginosa isolates and to detect percentage of MBLs among P. aerouginosa isolates in different wards. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clinical isolates of P...
December 2, 2016: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908954/chlorhexidine-impregnated-dressings-and-prevention-of-catheter-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-a-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#13
Duygu Sönmez Düzkaya, Nejla Canbulat Sahiner, Gülzade Uysal, Tülay Yakut, Agop Çitak
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections related to use of catheters are associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates, prolonged hospital lengths of stay, and increased medical costs. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness of chlorhexidine-impregnated dressings with that of standard dressings in preventing catheter-related bloodstream infections. METHODS: A total of 100 children were randomly divided into 2 groups of 50 each: a chlorhexidine group and a standard group...
December 2016: Critical Care Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908797/molecular-detection-and-characterization-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-b-genotypes-circulating-in-pakistani-children
#14
Uzma Bashir, Nadia Nisar, Nayab Mahmood, Muhammad Masroor Alam, Hajra Sadia, Syed Sohail Zahoor Zaidi
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections in young children, but very little is known about its epidemiology and circulating genotypes in Pakistan. This study analyzed the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of RSV B genotypes in Pakistani children below 5years with acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) during three consecutive winter seasons from 2010 to 2013. A total of 1941 samples were analyzed for RSV infection by real time PCR and 24% (472/1941) samples were found positive out of which 22...
November 28, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907953/management-of-the-pediatric-neurocritical-care-patient
#15
Christopher M Horvat, Haifa Mtaweh, Michael J Bell
Pediatric neurocritical care is a growing subspecialty of pediatric intensive care that focuses on the management of acute neurological diseases in children. A brief history of the field of pediatric neurocritical care is provided. Neuromonitoring strategies for children are reviewed. Management of major categories of acute childhood central neurologic diseases are reviewed, including treatment of diseases associated with intracranial hypertension, seizures and status epilepticus, stroke, central nervous system infection and inflammation, and hypoxic-ischemic injury...
December 2016: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907198/a-molecular-approach-applied-to-enteroviruses-surveillance-in-northern-taiwan-2008-2012
#16
Wan-Yu Chung, Pai-Shan Chiang, Shu-Ting Luo, Tzou-Yien Lin, Kuo-Chien Tsao, Min-Shi Lee
Traditional methods for detection and serotyping of enterovirus infections are virus isolation and immunofluorescence assay (VI-IFA), which are labor-intensive and time-consuming. Recently, VP1 gene has been targeted to develop a CODEHOP-based RT-PCR (VP1-CODEHOP) for the same purpose. In this study, we conducted a 5-year enterovirus surveillance comparing the VI-IFA and VP1-CODEHOP tests. Throat swabs were collected from 431 pediatric patients and 208(48%) and 250(58%) were tested positive by the VI-IFA and VP1-CODEHOP tests, respectively...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907076/clinical-determinants-of-hiv-1b-between-host-evolution-and-their-association-with-drug-resistance-in-pediatric-patients
#17
Israel Pagán, Patricia Rojas, José Tomás Ramos, África Holguín
Understanding the factors that modulate the evolution of virus populations is essential to design efficient control strategies. Mathematical models predict that factors affecting viral within-host evolution may also determine that at the between-host level. Although HIV-1 within-host evolution has been associated with clinical factors used to monitor AIDS progression, such as patient age, CD4 cells count, viral load, and antiretroviral experience, little is known about the role of these clinical factors in determining between-host HIV-1 evolution...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905620/-the-water-supply-of-a-pediatric-hospital-as-a-possible-source-of-an-outbreak-of-diarrhea-due-to-microsporidium-spp-in-immunocompromised-patients
#18
Paulina Coria, Claudia Urízar, Andrea Alba, Isabel Noemí, Anita Pino, José Luis Cerva
INTRODUCTION: The hospital water supply is a reservoir of a variety of potentially pathogenic microorganisms that can particularly affect children and immunocompromised patients. Potentially pathogenic Microsporidium spp. have been identified in water. Microsporidiosis is an emerging parasitic and opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: to describe an outbreak of nosocomial diarrhea due to Microsporidium, species Encephalitozoon intestinalis...
August 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903852/topical-honey-in-the-management-of-pediatric-peritoneal-dialysis-exit-sites
#19
Thomas A Forbes, Loren Shaw, Catherine Quinlan
International guidelines in peritoneal dialysis (PD) advocate for regular application of topical mupirocin in chronic PD exit-site care. A strong evidence base links this treatment to reduced rates of exit-site infections and peritonitis. However, emerging reports of increasing mupirocin resistance and gram-negative infections are threatening the long-term viability of topical antibiotic ointments as a prophylactic treatment. Medical grade honey has multiple proven antibacterial and wound healing properties...
November 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903240/central-line-associated-bloodstream-infections-in-a-tertiary-care-children-s-university-hospital-a-prospective-study
#20
Elisabetta Venturini, Carlotta Montagnani, Alessandra Benni, Sabrina Becciani, Klaus Peter Biermann, Salvatore De Masi, Elena Chiappini, Maurizio de Martino, Luisa Galli
BACKGROUND: The central-line associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) are the most common healthcare-associated infections in childhood. Despite the international data available on healthcare-associated infections in selected groups of patients, there is a lack of large and good quality studies. The present survey is the first prospective study monitoring for 6 months the occurrence of central-line associated bloodstream infections in all departments of an Italian tertiary care children's university hospital...
December 1, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
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