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Vegan diets

Seunghyeon Kim, Michael F Fenech, Pan-Jun Kim
Diet design for vegetarian health is challenging due to the limited food repertoire of vegetarians. This challenge can be partially overcome by quantitative, data-driven approaches that utilise massive nutritional information collected for many different foods. Based on large-scale data of foods' nutrient compositions, the recent concept of nutritional fitness helps quantify a nutrient balance within each food with regard to satisfying daily nutritional requirements. Nutritional fitness offers prioritisation of recommended foods using the foods' occurrence in nutritionally adequate food combinations...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Humeira Badsha
Background: Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) frequently ask their doctors about which diets to follow, and even in the absence of advice from their physicians, many patients are undertaking various dietary interventions. Discussion: However, the role of dietary modifications in RA is not well understood. Several studies have tried to address these gaps in our understanding. Intestinal microbial modifications are being studied for the prevention and management of RA...
2018: Open Rheumatology Journal
Derrick D Brown
Vegetarianism provides a catchall term for a variety of diets that exclude the consumption of some or all animal products. Contrary to popular claims, appropriately designed and managed vegetarian diets contain foods nutritionally sufficient for health, well-being, and physical performance. Vegetarian dancers can meet their protein needs from primarily or exclusively (vegan) plant-based sources when a variety of these foods are consumed daily and energy intake is adequate. However, the quality and timing of dietary intake is of key importance to meet the physical demands typical of high intensity, intermittent types of dance styles...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Dance Medicine & Science
Malgorzata A Desmond, Jakub Sobiecki, Mary Fewtrell, Jonathan C K Wells
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the largest contributor to global mortality, and this trend is expected to continue. Although mortality rates have been falling, adverse developments in obesity and diabetes threaten to reverse this. It has been estimated that the only viable strategy to reduce the epidemic is to focus on population-wide risk factor reduction. Primordial prevention, a strategy aimed at avoiding the development of risk factors before the disease onset, has been shown to reduce the CVD epidemic substantially...
March 1, 2018: Nutrition Reviews
Frédéric Leroy, Malaika Brengman, Wouter Ryckbosch, Peter Scholliers
The debate on meat's role in health and disease is a rowdy and dissonant one. This study uses the health section of the online version of The Daily Mail as a case study to carry out a quantitative and qualitative reflection on the related discourses in mass media during the first fifteen years of the 21st century. This period ranged from the fall-out of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis and its associated food safety anxieties, over the Atkins diet-craze in 2003 and the avian flu episode in 2007, to the highly influential publication of the report on colon cancer by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2015...
February 24, 2018: Appetite
C Tuck, E Ly, A Bogatyrev, I Costetsou, P Gibson, J Barrett, J Muir
BACKGROUND: The low FODMAP (fermentable, oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols) diet is an effective strategy to improve symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. However, combining the low FODMAP diet with another dietary restriction such as vegetarianism/veganism is challenging. Greater knowledge about the FODMAP composition of plant-based foods and food processing practices common to vegetarian/vegan eating patterns would assist in the implementation of the diet in this patient population...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
Mathilde Kersting, Hermann Kalhoff, Michael Melter, Thomas Lücke
In Germany, the "Dietary Schedule for the 1st year of life" and the "Optimised Mixed Diet" for children and adolescents serve as scientifically based and generally applicable dietary concepts throughout the period of growth and development. Vegetarian diets as the lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet (exclusion of meat, fish) and the vegan diet (exclusion of all food groups of animal origin) need to be evaluated for their potential to safely meet the high and specific requirements for growth and development...
February 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
Alexander Ströhle, Christian Löser, Isabel Behrendt, Claus Leitzmann, Andreas Hahn
Alternative diets (AD) differ from the current common mixed diet; AD are recommended as a permanent diet. These diets are based on ethical, philosophical and health promoting principles and lead to very different recommendations for food selection. Even within a particular AD there is usually a broad spectrum of versions, so that a general evaluation is only possible to a limited extent. This is also true for single AD. Vegetarian diets and partly paleo-diets have been investigated to a reasonable extent. Plant based diets are appropriate as permanent diets and offer health benefits as compared with currently practiced diets (risk reduction of cancers by 10-18% and of heart diseases by 30%; favorable effect on blood pressure and lipid profile; no risk reduction on cancer and total mortality)...
February 2018: Die Rehabilitation
Giulia Tabanelli, Federica Pasini, Ylenia Riciputi, Lucia Vannini, Giorgia Gozzi, Federica Balestra, Maria Fiorenza Caboni, Fausto Gardini, Chiara Montanari
Because of the impossibility to consume food of animal origin, vegan consumers are looking for substitutes that could enrich their diet. Among many substitutes, fermented nut products are made from different nut types and obtained after soaking, grinding, and fermentation. Although other fermented vegetable products have been deeply investigated, there are few data about the fermentative processes of nut-based products and the microbial consortia able to colonize these products are not yet studied. This study characterized a hand-made vegan product obtained from cashew nut...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Anna Dittfeld, Katarzyna Gwizdek, Paweł Jagielski, Joanna Brzęk, Katarzyna Ziora
OBJECTIVES: The following article presents the relationship between vegetarianism and orthorexia nervosa (ON). Vegetarianism is an ideology and a way of life that aims at minimizing animal exploitation. A vegetarian diet excludes the consumption of meat together with other animal derived products. According to scientists, orthorexia nervosa is considered to be a new, yet unclassified eating disorder. It involves introducing dietary restrictions by individuals who feel a desire to improve their health status by healthy eating...
December 30, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
Dieter Lütjohann, Sven Meyer, Klaus von Bergmann, Frans Stellaard
SCOPE: Vegetarian diets are considered health promoting, however, a plasma cholesterol lowering effect is not always observed. We investigated the link between vegetarian diet-induced alterations in cholesterol metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied male and female omnivores, lacto-ovo vegetarians, lacto vegetarians and vegans. Cholesterol intake, absorption and fecal sterol excretion were measured as well as plasma concentrations of cholesterol and non-cholesterol sterols...
February 10, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Friederike Barthels, Frank Meyer, Reinhard Pietrowsky
PURPOSE: Orthorexic eating behaviour, restrained eating, and veganism/vegetarianism are food selection strategies sharing several characteristics. Since there are no studies investigating their interrelationships, aim of the present study was to analyse orthorexic and restrained eating behaviour in (1) a sample of vegans and vegetarians and (2) a sample of individuals on a diet to lose weight. METHOD: Division of samples according to pre-defined criteria in (1) vegans (n = 114), vegetarians (n = 63), individuals with rare meat consumption (n = 83) and individuals with frequent meat consumption (n = 91) and in (2) participants on a diet with dietary change (n = 104), without dietary change (n = 37) and a control group of individuals not on a diet (n = 258)...
February 3, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Tue H Hansen, Marie T B Madsen, Niklas R Jørgensen, Arieh S Cohen, Torben Hansen, Henrik Vestergaard, Oluf Pedersen, Kristine H Allin
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: A vegan diet has been associated with increased bone fracture risk, but the physiology linking nutritional exposure to bone metabolism has only been partially elucidated. This study investigated whether a vegan diet is associated with increased bone turnover and altered calcium homeostasis due to insufficient intake of calcium and vitamin D. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Fractionated and total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)-D), parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, and four bone turnover markers (osteocalcin, N-terminal propeptide of type I procollagen (PINP), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX)) were measured in serum from 78 vegans and 77 omnivores...
January 23, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Matthew G Engel, Hua J Kern, J Thomas Brenna, Susan H Mitmesser
Weight-loss diets restrict intakes of energy and macronutrients but overlook micronutrient profiles. Commercial diet plans may provide insufficient micronutrients. We analyzed nutrient profiles of three plans and compared their micronutrient sufficiency to Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for male U.S. adults. Hypocaloric vegan (Eat to Live-Vegan, Aggressive Weight Loss; ETL-VAWL), high-animal-protein low-carbohydrate (Fast Metabolism Diet; FMD) and weight maintenance (Eat, Drink and Be Healthy; EDH) diets were evaluated...
January 20, 2018: Nutrients
Binita Shah, Lisa Ganguzza, James Slater, Jonathan D Newman, Nicole Allen, Edward Fisher, John Larigakis, Francisco Ujueta, Eugenia Gianos, Yu Guo, Kathleen Woolf
Background: Multiple studies demonstrate the benefit of a vegan diet on cardiovascular risk factors when compared to no intervention or usual dietary patterns. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of a vegan diet versus the American Heart Association (AHA)-recommended diet on inflammatory and glucometabolic profiles in patients with angiographically defined coronary artery disease (CAD). Study Design: This study is a randomized, open label, blinded end-point trial of 100 patients with CAD as defined by ≥50% diameter stenosis in a coronary artery ≥2 mm in diameter on invasive angiography...
December 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
D Vanacore, G Messina, S Lama, G Bitti, P Ambrosio, G C Tenore, A Messina, V Monda, S Zappavigna, M Boccellino, E Novellino, M Monda, P Stiuso
This study was conceived to evaluate the effects of three different diets on body composition, metabolic parameters and serum oxidative status. We enrolled three groups of healthy men (omnivores, vegetarians and vegans) with similar age, weight and BMI and we observed a significant decrease in muscle mass index and lean body mass in vegan compared to vegetarian and omnivore groups, and higher serum homocysteine levels in vegetarians and vegans compared to omnivores. We studied whether serum from omnivore, vegetarian and vegan subjects affected oxidative stress, growth and differentiation of both cardiomyoblast cell line H9c2 and H-H9c2 (H9c2 treated with H2 O2 to induce oxidative damage)...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Olga Yeliosof, Lawrence A Silverman
BACKGROUND: Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of acquired hypothyroidism worldwide. Although uncommon in the Western world, the incidence of iodine deficiency may be rising due to the increased use of restrictive diets. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a 23-month-old boy diagnosed with iodine deficiency hypothyroidism, induced by a vegan diet. CONCLUSIONS: This case highlights the risk for iodine deficiency in children on a vegan diet after discontinuation of breast/formula feeding that could lead to acquired hypothyroidism...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Philippe Chauveau, Catherine Lasseur, Céline Nodimar, Mathilde Prezelin-Reydit, Stanislas Trolonge, Christian Combe, Michel Aparicio
The acid production of endogenous origin depends mainly on the metabolism of the food and varies with the nature of these. Of the order of 1mEq/kg/day for contemporary food in industrialized countries, it is reduced by more than one third among vegetarians and close to neutrality among vegans. The dietary acid load is eliminated by the normal kidneys, thus maintaining the acid-base equilibrium. In the setting of CKD, it will overflow the capacities of the nephrons, generating a retention of H+ ions, promoting subclinical acidosis...
December 27, 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
Tammy Y N Tong, Paul N Appleby, Kathryn E Bradbury, Timothy J Key
OBJECTIVES: To examine differences in health-related behaviours such as screening or testing for cancer, use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and use of other medications in different diet groups. DESIGN: We studied 31 260 participants across four diet groups (18 155 meat eaters, 5012 fish eaters, 7179 vegetarians, 914 vegans) in the UK EPIC-Oxford cohort. Information was collected in 5-year (around 2000-2003) or 10-year (around 2007) follow-up questionnaires regarding participation in breast screening, cervical screening, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, use of HRT and use of medications for the past 4 weeks...
December 27, 2017: BMJ Open
Dudley W Lamming, Emma L Baar, Sebastian I Arriola Apelo, Valeria Tosti, Luigi Fontana
Recently, it has become apparent that dietary macronutrient composition has a profound impact on metabolism, health and even lifespan. Work from many laboratories now suggest that dietary protein quality - the precise amino acid composition of the diet, as well as possibly the source of dietary protein - may also be critical in regulating the impact of diet on health. Perhaps in part due to the naturally low methionine content of plants, vegan diets are associated with a decreased risk of diabetes and improved insulin sensitivity, but this association is confounded by the lower overall protein intake of vegans...
December 7, 2017: Nutrition and Healthy Aging
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