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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750497/news-and-views-on-in-vivo-imaging-of-neurotransmission-using-pet-and-mri
#1
Christin Y Sander, Swen Hesse
Molecular neuroimaging with PET is an integrated tool in psychiatry research and drug-development for as long as this modality has been available, in particular for studying neurotransmission and endogenous neurotransmitter release. Pharmacologic probes but also behavioral challenges are currently applied to induce changes in neurochemical levels that can be inferred through their effects on changes in receptor binding and related outcome measures. Based on the availability of tracers that are sensitive for measuring neurotransmitter release these experiments have focused on the brain's dopamine system, while recent developments have extended those studies to other targets such as the serotonin or choline system...
July 27, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750495/imaging-biomarkers-in-alzheimer-s-disease-added-value-in-the-clinical-setting
#2
Silvia Morbelli, Matteo Bauckneht, Philip Scheltens
Over the last 20 years the availability of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) technologies as well as of CerebroSpinal Fluid (CSF) biomarkers has allowed research and clinical approach to Alzheimer's Disease (AD) to move towards the earliest manifestations of the disease. This new approach resulted in an increasing knowledge about in vivo biological and neuropathological processes of each phase of the AD-related damage from preclinical, to mild cognitive impairment, and finally to dementia due to AD...
July 27, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750482/infrared-ion-spectroscopy-inside-a-mass-selective-cryogenic-2d-linear-ion-trap
#3
Adam P Cismesia, Larry F Tesler, Matthew R Bell, Laura S Bailey, Nicolas C Polfer
We demonstrate operation of the first cryogenic 2D linear ion trap (LIT) with mass-selective capabilities. This trap presents a number of advantages for infrared ion "action" spectroscopy studies, particularly those employing the "tagging/messenger" spectroscopy approach. The high trapping efficiencies, trapping capacities, and low detection limits make 2D LITs a highly suitable choice for low-concentration analytes from scarce biological samples. In our trap, ions can be cooled down to cryogenic temperatures to achieve higher-resolution infrared spectra, and individual ions can be mass selected prior to irradiation for a background-free photodissociation scheme...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750446/-modern-endoscopic-imaging-tools-for-urothelial-carcinoma-of-the-urinary-bladder
#4
M C Kriegmair, M Ritter, M S Michel, C Bolenz
Cystoscopy is the gold standard for the initial diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma in the urinary bladder (UCB). White light exhibits significant limitations in its ability to detect flat lesions or carcinoma in situ. Photodynamic Diagnosis (PDD) and Narrow Band Imaging (NBI) are established techniques which may improve the detection rates of UCB and reduce the risk of recurrence. Multiple novel tools have been developed in order to improve the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic procedures, including Digital Contrast Enhancement Technology, Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy (CLE) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)...
August 2017: Aktuelle Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750336/recent-advances-in-biosensor-technology-in-assessment-of-early-diabetes-biomarkers
#5
REVIEW
Armin Salek-Maghsoudi, Faezeh Vakhshiteh, Raheleh Torabi, Shokoufeh Hassani, Mohammad Reza Ganjali, Parviz Norouzi, Morteza Hosseini, Mohammad Abdollahi
Discovery of biosensors has acquired utmost importance in the field of healthcare. Recent advances in biological techniques and instrumentation involving nanomaterials, surface plasmon resonance, and aptasensors have developed innovative biosensors over classical methods. Integrated approaches provided a better perspective for developing specific and sensitive devices with wide potential applications. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex disease affecting almost every tissue and organ system, with metabolic complications extending far beyond impaired glucose metabolism...
July 19, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750331/the-study-of-protein-biomarkers-to-understand-the-biochemical-processes-underlying-beef-color-development-in-young-bulls
#6
Mohammed Gagaoua, E M Claudia Terlouw, Brigitte Picard
This study investigates relationships between 21 biomarkers and meat color traits of Longissimus thoracis muscles of young Aberdeen Angus and Limousin bulls. The relationships found allowed to propose metabolic processes underlying meat color. The color coordinates were related with several biomarkers. The relationships were in some cases breed-dependent and the variability explained in the regression models varied between 31 and 56%. The correlations between biomarkers and color parameters were sometimes opposite between breeds...
July 18, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750307/resilient-protein-co-expression-network-in-male-orbitofrontal-cortex-layer-2-3-during-human-aging
#7
Mohan Pabba, Enzo Scifo, Fenika Kapadia, Yuliya S Nikolova, Tianzhou Ma, Naguib Mechawar, George C Tseng, Etienne Sibille
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is vulnerable to normal and pathologic aging. Currently, layer resolution large-scale proteomic studies describing "normal" age-related alterations at OFC are not available. Here, we performed a large-scale exploratory high-throughput mass spectrometry-based protein analysis on OFC layer 2/3 from 15 "young" (15-43 years) and 18 "old" (62-88 years) human male subjects. We detected 4193 proteins and identified 127 differentially expressed (DE) proteins (p-value ≤0.05; effect size >20%), including 65 up- and 62 downregulated proteins (e...
July 5, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750234/identification-of-a-novel-component-leading-to-anti-tumor-activity-besides-the-major-ingredient-cordycepin-in-cordyceps-militaris-extract
#8
Takeharu Wada, I Wayan Sumardika, Shingo Saito, I Made Winarsa Ruma, Eisaku Kondo, Masami Shibukawa, Masakiyo Sakaguchi
In accordance with our previous study that was carried out to identify novel anti-tumor ingredients, chromatographic separation in combination with an anti-tumor activity assay was used for analysis of Cordyceps militaris extract in this study. Various modes of chromatography including reversed-phase, cation-exchange and anion-exchange were used to separate components of Cordyceps militaris, which showed various chemical properties. Anti-tumor activity of each fraction was assessed by a Hoechst staining-based apoptosis assay using malignant melanoma MeWo cells...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750229/improving-assessment-accuracy-for-lake-biological-condition-by-classifying-lakes-with-diatom-typology-varying-metrics-and-modeling-multimetric-indices
#9
Bo Liu, R Jan Stevenson
Site grouping by regions or typologies, site-specific modeling and varying metrics among site groups are four approaches that account for natural variation, which can be a major source of error in ecological assessments. Using a data set from the 2007 National Lakes Assessment project of the USEPA, we compared performances of multimetric indices (MMI) of biological condition that were developed: (1) with different lake grouping methods, ecoregions or diatom typologies; (2) by varying or not varying metrics among site groups; and (3) with different statistical techniques for modeling diatom metric values expected for minimally disturbed condition for each lake...
July 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750201/advancing-therapeutic-applications-of-synthetic-gene-circuits
#10
REVIEW
Yasutomi Higashikuni, William Cw Chen, Timothy K Lu
Synthetic biology aims to introduce new sense-and-respond capabilities into living cells, which would enable novel therapeutic strategies. The development of regulatory elements, molecular computing devices, and effector screening technologies has enabled researchers to design synthetic gene circuits in many organisms, including mammalian cells. Engineered gene networks, such as closed-loop circuits or Boolean logic gate circuits, can be used to program cells to perform specific functions with spatiotemporal control and restoration of homeostasis in response to the extracellular environment and intracellular signaling...
July 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750200/incoherent-inputs-enhance-the-robustness-of-biological-oscillators
#11
Zhengda Li, Shixuan Liu, Qiong Yang
Robust biological oscillators retain the critical ability to function in the presence of environmental perturbations. Although central architectures that support robust oscillations have been extensively studied, networks containing the same core vary drastically in their potential to oscillate, and it remains elusive what peripheral modifications to the core contribute to this functional variation. Here, we have generated a complete atlas of two- and three-node oscillators computationally, then systematically analyzed the association between network structure and robustness...
July 26, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750198/high-resolution-laser-scanning-reveals-plant-architectures-that-reflect-universal-network-design-principles
#12
Adam Conn, Ullas V Pedmale, Joanne Chory, Saket Navlakha
Transport networks serve critical functions in biological and engineered systems, and yet their design requires trade-offs between competing objectives. Due to their sessile lifestyle, plants need to optimize their architecture to efficiently acquire and distribute resources while also minimizing costs in building infrastructure. To understand how plants resolve this design trade-off, we used high-precision three-dimensional laser scanning to map the architectures of tomato, tobacco, or sorghum plants grown in several environmental conditions and through multiple developmental time points, scanning in total 505 architectures from 37 plants...
July 26, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750197/systematic-investigation-of-multi-tlr-sensing-identifies-regulators-of-sustained-gene-activation-in-macrophages
#13
Bin Lin, Bhaskar Dutta, Iain D C Fraser
A typical pathogen presents a combination of Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands during infection. Although individual TLR pathways have been well characterized, the nature of this "combinatorial code" in pathogen sensing remains unclear. Here, we conducted a comprehensive transcriptomic analysis of primary macrophages stimulated with all possible pairwise combinations of four different TLR ligands to understand the requirements, kinetics, and outcome of combined pathway engagement. We find that signal integration between TLR pathways leads to non-additive responses for a subset of immune mediators with sustained expression (>6 hr) properties and T cell polarizing function...
July 26, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750196/principles-of-systems-biology-no-19
#14
(no author information available yet)
This month: building bacterial organelles (Kerfeld, Tullman-Ercek), the widening scope of single cell analysis (Takebe, Glass, Rabadan), insights from yeast (Swain, Dunham), and more (Bloom, Romesberg, Gibson).
July 26, 2017: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750189/potencial-markers-and-metabolic-processes-involved-in-mechanism-of-radiation-induced-heart-injury
#15
Jan Slezak, Branislav Kura, Pavel Babal, Miroslav Barancik, Miroslav Ferko, Karel Frimmel, Barbora Kalocayova, Rakesh Kukreja, Antigone Lazou, Lucia Mezesova, Ludmila Okruhlicova, Tatiana Ravingerova, Pawan K Singal, Barbara Szeiffova Bacova, Csilla Viczenczova, Norbert Vrbjar, Narcis Tribulova
Irradiation of normal tissues leads to acute increase in reactive oxygen/nitrogen species that serve as intra and intercellular signaling to alter cell and tissue function. In the case of chest irradiation it can affect the heart, blood vessels and lungs, with consequent tissue remodelation and adverse side effects and symptoms. This complex process is orchestrated by a large number of interacting molecular signals, including cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. Inflammation, endothelial cell dysfunction, thrombogenesis, organ dysfunction and ultimate failing of the heart occur as a pathological entity - "radiation-induced heart disease" (RIHD) that is major source of morbidity and mortality...
July 27, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750166/repair-resistant-dna-lesions
#16
Nicholas E Geacintov, Suse Broyde
The eukaryotic global genomic nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER) pathway is the major mechanism that removes most bulky and some non-bulky lesions from cellular DNA. There is growing evidence that certain DNA lesions are repaired slowly, or are entirely resistant to repair in cells, tissues, and in cell extract model assay systems. It is well established that the eukaryotic DNA lesion-sensing proteins do not detect the damaged nucleotide, but recognize the distortions/destabilizations in the native DNA structure caused by the damaged nucleotides...
July 27, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750163/salt-gradient-modulation-of-microrna-translocation-through-a-biological-nanopore
#17
Josip Ivica, Philip T F Williamson, Maurits R R de Planque
In resistive pulse sensing of microRNA biomarkers, selectivity is achieved with polynucleotide-extended DNA probes, with the unzipping of a miRNA-DNA duplex in the nanopore recorded as a resistive current pulse. As the assay sensitivity is determined by the pulse frequency, we investigated the effect of cis/trans electrolyte concentration gradients applied over α-hemolysin nanopores. KCl gradients were found to exponentially increase the pulse frequency, while reducing the preference for 3'-first pore entry of the duplex and accelerating duplex unzipping, all manifestations of an enhanced electrophoretic force...
July 27, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750154/skin-hydration-microrelief-and-greasiness-of-normal-skin-in-antarctica
#18
Nikolai Tsankov, Dragomir Mateev, Razvigor Darlenski
BACKGROUND: The skin is the primary defence of the human body against external factors from physical, chemical, mechanical, and biologic origin. Climatic factors together with low temperature and sun radiation affect the skin. The effect of climatic conditions in Antarctica on healthy skin has not been previously addressed. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the skin hydration, greasiness, and microrelief due to the extreme climatic environmental factors during the stay of the members of the Bulgarian Antarctic expedition...
July 27, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750119/minimal-residual-disease-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-in-the-era-of-novel-agents-a-review
#19
Meghan Thompson, Danielle Brander, Chadi Nabhan, Anthony Mato
Importance: The landscape of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) treatment has changed considerably since the first reported assessment of minimal residual disease (MRD) by flow cytometry in 1992. Chemoimmunotherapy (CIT) combinations have become the standard of care for most patients, and novel targeted agents are rapidly being incorporated into the front-line and relapsed settings. Minimal residual disease status has been shown to be a predictor of both progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) at the time of response assessment following CIT, but less is known about the relationship between MRD and outcomes after novel oral therapeutics...
July 27, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750109/comparison-of-fixed-dental-prostheses-with-zirconia-and-metal-frameworks-five-year-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#20
Irena Sailer, Marc Balmer, Hüsler Jürg, Christoph Hans Franz Hämmerle, Sarah Känel, Daniel Stefan Thoma
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to test whether posterior zirconia-ceramic (ZC) and metal-ceramic (MC) fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) exhibit similar survival and technical/biologic complication rates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 58 patients in need of 76 posterior FDPs were randomly assigned to receive 40 ZC and 36 MC FDPs. The restorations were examined at baseline (cementation) and yearly for 5 years. Technical and biologic outcomes were compared. The independent treatment groups were compared with nonparametric Mann-Whitney test for metric variables and with Fisher exact test for categoric data...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Prosthodontics
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