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Subsaharan Africa

R N'Guetta, A Ekou, H Yao, J B Anzouan-Kacou, B Gérardin, R Pillière, A M Adoh, R Seka
AIM: Assess the challenges and outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the management of ACS at Abidjan Heart Institute. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective survey carried out from April, 1st, 2010 to April, 29th, 2016. Whole patients aged 18-year-old, admitted at Abidjan Heart Institute for ACS, and who underwent PCI were included in the Registre prospectif des actes de cardiologie interventionnelle de l'institut de cardiologie d'Abidjan (REPACI)...
May 9, 2018: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
Linda W Xu, Silvia D Vaca, Juliet Nalwanga, Christine Muhumuza, Daniel Vail, Benjamin J Lerman, Joel Kiryabwire, Hussein Ssenyonjo, John Mukasa, Michael Muhumuza, Michael M Haglund, Gerald Grant
BACKGROUND: In the past decade, neurosurgery in Uganda experienced increasing surgical volume and a new residency training program. Although research has examined surgical capacity, minimal data exist on the patient population treated by neurosurgery and their eventual outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Patients admitted to Mulago National Referral Hospital neurosurgical ward over 2 years (2014 and 2015) were documented in a prospective database. In total, 1167 were discharged with documented phone numbers and thus eligible for follow-up...
May 2018: World Neurosurgery
Anders Boyd, Laura Houghtaling, Raoul Moh, Mariama Abdou Chekaraou, Delphine Gabillard, Serge Paul Eholié, Xavier Anglaret, Fabien Zoulim, Christine Danel, Karine Lacombe, For The Anrs Trivacan And Anrs VarBVA Studies
Antiretroviral treatment (ART) interruptions increase the risk of severe morbidity/mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals from subSaharan Africa. We aimed to determine whether the risk is further increased among HIV-hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infected patients in this setting. In this sub-analysis of a randomized-control trial, 632 participants from Côte d'Ivoire randomized to receive continuous-ART (C-ART), structured ART interruptions of 2-months off, 4-months on (2/4-ART), and CD4-guided ART interruptions (CD4GT, interruption at 350/mm3 and reintroduction at 250/mm3 ) were analyzed...
December 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Cassandra O Cullin, Matthew S Sellers, Erin R Rogers, Kathleen E Scott, Danielle N Lee, Alexander G Ophir, Todd A Jackson
African giant pouched rats (Cricetomys spp.) are large rodents native to subSaharan Africa. Wild-caught pouched rats identified as Cricetomys ansorgei (n = 49) were imported from Tanzania. A survey of gastrointestinal parasitism by fecal flotation revealed the presence of multiple parasites, including Nippostrongylus spp., Heterakis spp., Trichuris spp., Hymenolepis spp., Raillietina spp., and Eimeria spp. Oral self-administered fenbendazole (150 ppm), topical moxidectin (2 mg/kg), pyrantel pamoate (15 mg/kg), piperazine (100 mg/kg daily), and injectable ivermectin (0...
October 1, 2017: Comparative Medicine
A Mouelle Sone, R Aquaron, C Baker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2016: Médecine et Santé Tropicales
Jean Duplex Wansi, Jean Wandji, Norbert Sewald, Lutfun Nahar, Claire Martin, Satyajit Dey Sarker
AIMS: Traditional medicinal use of species of the genus Drypetes is widespread in the tropical regions. The aim of this review is to systematically appraise the literature available to date on phytochemistry, ethnopharmacology, toxicology and bioactivity (in vitro and in vivo) of crude extracts and purified compounds. ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Plants of the genus Drypetes (Putranjivaceae) are used in the Subsaharan African and Asian traditional medicines to treat a multitude of disorders, like dysentery, gonorrhoea, malaria, rheumatism, sinusitis, tumours, as well as for the treatment of wounds, headache, urethral problems, fever in young children, typhoid and several other ailments...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Peter A Reichart, Hans R Gelderblom, Pathawee Khongkhunthian, Andrea Schmidt-Westhausen
The 2014-2015 outbreak of the Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa has been considered a major global health emergency by the WHO. Implications for health care providers including oral and maxillo-facial surgeons have been published by the WHO, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (USA), and other medical societies and public health organizations. While the risk of infection with the Ebola virus seems to be rather small in Europe, maxillo-facial and plastic surgeons often travel to Africa to treat patients with facial burns, cleft-lip and palate, and noma...
June 2016: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Augustin Etile Anoh, Chantal Akoua-Koffi, Emmanuel Couacy-Hymann, Maude Pauly, Grit Schubert, Arsène Mossoun, Sabrina Weiss, Siv Aina J Leendertz, Michael A Jarvis, Fabian H Leendertz, Bernhard Ehlers
BACKGROUND: Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) are herpesviruses that infect many mammalian species, including humans. Infection generally passes undetected, but the virus can cause serious disease in individuals with impaired immune function. Human CMV (HCMV) is circulating with high seroprevalence (60-100 %) on all continents. However, little information is available on HCMV genoprevalence and genetic diversity in subsaharan Africa, especially in rural areas of West Africa that are at high risk of human-to-human HCMV transmission...
2015: Virology Journal
Rachel Jenkins, Caleb Othieno, Linnet Ongeri, Bernards Ogutu, Peter Sifuna, James Kingora, David Kiima, Michael Ongecha, Raymond Omollo
There have been no repeat surveys of psychotic symptoms in Kenya or indeed subSaharan Africa. A mental health epidemiological survey was therefore conducted in a demographic surveillance site of a Kenyan household population in 2013 to test the hypothesis that the prevalence of psychotic symptoms would be similar to that found in an earlier sample drawn from the same sample frame in 2004, using the same overall methodology and instruments. This 2013 study found that the prevalence of one or more psychotic symptoms was 13...
May 2015: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Hoyt Bleakley
To what extent do tropical diseases contribute to the poverty characteristic of tropical countries? Estimates of the impact of health on income are difficult to obtain because health is a normal good-countries with higher income will buy more of it-and third factors such as remoteness and bad government might impede both productivity and public health. In the Abuja Declaration of 2005, African heads of states claim that malaria has depressed income growth in Subsaharan Africa since the 1960s, so much so that GDP in the region today is 40% lower because of malaria...
May 2009: American Economic Review
J C Yombi, S Jonckheere, A Vincent, D Wilmes, B Vandercam, L Belkhir
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy reduces mortality and morbidity in HIVinfected individuals, most markedly when initiated early, before advanced immunodeficiency has developed. Although the international guidelines recommend starting antiretroviral therapy ART with a high CD4 cell count level, in the practice, this is particularly challenging to achieve, especially in late presentation of HIV diagnosis. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and the demographic features associated with late presentation for HIV diagnosis in our Centre...
January 2014: Acta Clinica Belgica
M G Cattell
Family support for the elderly is a growing concern in contemporary subsaharan Africa. Presented here are 3 case studies of elderly Samia, a Luyia subgroup in western Kenya, which illustrate different experiences of old age among rural Africans living under conditions of modernization and rapid socio-economic change. These mini-biographies demonstrate the continued salience of family support networks in the lives of elderly Samia. They are examples ("models of") more and less successful aging as variations on the Samia (and African) theme of familial interdependence...
October 1990: Journal of Cross-cultural Gerontology
Mohamed J Ahsan, Shiv K Garg, Bharat Vashistha, Piush Sharma
Tuberculosis (TB) remains as one of the most serious public health problems worldwide. It is one of the main causes of death in poor and developing countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, where it may be associated with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It has been estimated that one third of the world population is infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), and there were about 8.7 million new TB cases, and about 1.4 million yearly deaths due to TB in 2011. DOTS is the currently used drug therapy in TB but there is non-compliance which results in emergence of resistance...
October 2013: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
Prema Ramachandran
The World Food Summit in 1996 provided a comprehensive definition for food security which brings into focus the linkage between food, nutrition and health. India has been self sufficient in food production since seventies and low household hunger rates. India compares well with developing countries with similar health profile in terms of infant mortality rate (IMR) and under five mortality rate (U5 MR). India fares poorly when underweight in under five children is used as an indicator for food insecurity with rates comparable to that of Subsaharan Africa...
September 2013: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Jean-Robert Mburano Rwenge
This study has as specific objective to analyze the prevalence of risky sexual behaviors and their social factors in Francophone sub-Saharan African countries among young people by highlighting the differences between countries. The data used are those of the national Demographic and Health Surveys. The following are the main results of the study: 1) Among males, the average age at first sex is lower in two Central African countries, the Congo and DRC and in Benin than in Burkina Faso, and in strongly Islamized countries such as Chad, Senegal and Mali; 2) Among girls, an opposite schema has, to some extent, been observed; 3) In the countries studied, multi-partner sexual activity persists, but Cameroon, Congo, Cote-d'Ivoire, Benin and Guinea are more affected by this problem than other countries; 4) the rate of condom use at last sex has improved but some countries like Burkina Faso, Cote-d'Ivoire, Senegal and Cameroon are more advanced than others; 5) Several family, extra-family and individual factors influence risky sexual behaviors in the countries studied but the intensity and direction of observed statistical relations do not necessarily converge...
March 2013: African Journal of Reproductive Health
Omar M Amin, Paul Evans, Richard A Heckmann, Atif M El-Naggar
Mediorhynchus africanus n. sp. is described from specimens collected from the helmeted guinea fowls, Numida meliagris Linn. 1758 in Kruger National Park and elsewhere in subSaharan Africa from the same and other galliform birds. These specimens were previously assigned to Mediorhynchus gallinarum Bhaleroa (Proc Zool Soc Lond Ser B Syst Morph 107:199-203, 1937) described from chickens, Gallus gallus L. in India and subsequently reported from other Asian countries. The identification of the African forms as M...
August 2013: Parasitology Research
Amine Toumi, Sadok Chlif, Jihene Bettaieb, Nissaf Ben Alaya, Aicha Boukthir, Zaher E Ahmadi, Afif Ben Salah
BACKGROUND: Old world Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ZCL) is a vector-borne human disease caused by Leishmania major, a unicellular eukaryotic parasite transmitted by pool blood-feeding sand flies mainly to wild rodents, such as Psammomys obesus. The human beings who share the rodent and sand fly habitats can be subverted as both sand fly blood resource. ZCL is endemic in the Middle East, Central Asia, Subsaharan and North Africa. Like other vector-borne diseases, the incidence of ZCL displayed by humans varies with environmental and climate factors...
2012: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Marina L Sardi, Fernando V Ramírez Rozzi
Modern human populations differ in developmental processes and in several phenotypic traits. However, the link between ontogenetic variation and human diversification has not been frequently addressed. Here, we analysed craniofacial ontogenies by means of geometric-morphometrics of Europeans and Southern Africans, according to dental and chronological ages. Results suggest that different adult cranial morphologies between Southern Africans and Europeans arise by a combination of processes that involve traits modified during the prenatal life and others that diverge during early postnatal ontogeny...
2012: PloS One
Alexis Elira Dokekias
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2011: Santé: Cahiers D'étude et de Recherches Francophones
M Dugas
The outlook for reaching key Millennium Development goals in Africa in 2015 is mostly positive. However, two critical indicators, i.e., maternal and neonatal mortality, show lagging progress. The purpose of this report is to underline the importance of prenatal care in efforts to reduce maternal mortality. It describes the minimum prenatal care package recommended by WHO and propses strategies for increasing access to prenatal examination. Health education, improvement of care quality and outreach services are promising avenues to increasing the use of prenatal services...
December 2011: Médecine Tropicale: Revue du Corps de Santé Colonial
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