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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441458/evidence-that-promotion-of-male-circumcision-did-not-lead-to-sexual-risk-compensation-in-prioritized-sub-saharan-countries
#1
Chyun-Fung Shi, Michael Li, Jonathan Dushoff
BACKGROUND: WHO and UNAIDS prioritized 14 eastern and southern African countries with high HIV and low male circumcision prevalence for a voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) scale-up in 2007. Because circumcision provides only partial protection against HIV infection to men, the issue of possible risk compensation in response to VMMC campaigns is of particular concern. In this study, we looked at population-level survey data from the countries prioritized by WHO for a VMMC scale-up...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420542/improving-prehospital-trauma-care-in-rwanda-through-continuous-quality-improvement-an-interrupted-time-series-analysis
#2
John W Scott, Jeanne D'Arc Nyinawankusi, Samuel Enumah, Rebecca Maine, Eric Uwitonze, Yihan Hu, Ignace Kabagema, Jean Claude Byiringiro, Robert Riviello, Sudha Jayaraman
INTRODUCTION: Injury is a major cause of premature death and disability in East Africa, and high-quality pre-hospital care is essential for optimal trauma outcomes. The Rwandan pre-hospital emergency care service (SAMU) uses an electronic database to evaluate and optimize pre-hospital care through a continuous quality improvement programme (CQIP), beginning March 2014. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The SAMU database was used to assess pre-hospital quality metrics including supplementary oxygen for hypoxia (O2), intravenous fluids for hypotension (IVF), cervical collar placement for head injuries (c-collar), and either splinting (splint) or administration of pain medications (pain) for long bone fractures...
April 5, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419352/dermatophytes-and-dermatophytosis-in-the-eastern-and-southern-parts-of-africa
#3
E I Nweze, I E Eke
Dermatophytosis is currently a disease of global importance and a public health burden. It is caused by dermatophytes, which attack and grow on dead animal keratin. Dermatophytes belong to three genera, namely, Epidermophyton, Microsporum, and Trichophyton. The predominant clinical forms and causative agents vary from one region of the world to another. Poor socioeconomic status, high population densities, and poor sanitary conditions are some of the factors responsible for the high prevalence of dermatophytosis in many developing countries, which include countries in southern and eastern Africa, the focus of this review...
April 17, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415996/travel-and-the-emergence-of-high-level-drug-resistance-in-plasmodium-falciparum-in-southwest-uganda-results-from-a-population-based-study
#4
Caroline A Lynch, Richard Pearce, Hirva Pota, Connie Egwang, Thomas Egwang, Amit Bhasin, Jonathan Cox, Tarekegn A Abeku, Cally Roper
BACKGROUND: The I164L mutation on the dhfr gene confers high level resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) but it is rare in Africa except in a cluster of reports where prevalence >10% in highland areas of southwest Uganda and eastern Rwanda. The occurrence of the dhfr I164L mutation was investigated in community surveys in this area and examined the relationship to migration. METHODS: A cross-sectional prevalence survey was undertaken in among villages within the catchment areas of two health facilities in a highland site (Kabale) and a highland fringe site (Rukungiri) in 2007...
April 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408856/writing-skills-enhancement-for-public-health-professionals-in-rwanda
#5
Raywat Deonandan, Nodine Sangwa, Steve Kanters, Sabin Nsanzimana
In 2013, Canadian scholars delivered a 1-week workshop to 30 junior public health professionals in Rwanda. The goal was to improve the Rwandans' skills and confidence with respect to writing scientific papers for submission to international peer-reviewed global health journals. As a result of the workshop, there was a statistically significant improvement in participants' reported confidence in many aspects of navigating the publishing process, but no improvement in confidence regarding statistically analyzing their data...
2017: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406872/assessing-the-readiness-of-nursing-sectors-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-to-adopt-holistic-practice-rwanda-as-exemplar
#6
William Rosa
Over the past several years, holistic nursing education has become more readily available to nurses working in high-income nations, and holistic practice has become better defined and promoted through countless organizational and governmental initiatives. However, global nursing community members, particularly those serving in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) within resource-constrained health care systems, may not find holistic nursing easily accessible or applicable to practice. The purpose of this article is to assess the readiness of nursing sectors within these resource-constrained settings to access, understand, and apply holistic nursing principles and practices within the context of cultural norms, diverse definitions of the nursing role, and the current status of health care in these countries...
May 2017: Holistic Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399509/intimate-partner-violence-among-pregnant-women-in-rwanda-its-associated-risk-factors-and-relationship-to-anc-services-attendance-a-population-based-study
#7
Akashi Andrew Rurangirwa, Ingrid Mogren, Joseph Ntaganira, Gunilla Krantz
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of four forms of intimate partner violence during pregnancy in Rwandan women, associated sociodemographic and psychosocial factors and relationship to antenatal care service usage. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional population-based study conducted in the Northern province of Rwanda and in Kigali city. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: A total of 921 women who gave birth within the past 13 months were included...
February 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388951/implementing-the-emergency-triage-assessment-and-treatment-plus-admission-care-etat-clinical-practice-guidelines-to-improve-quality-of-hospital-care-in-rwandan-district-hospitals-healthcare-workers-perspectives-on-relevance-and-challenges
#8
Celestin Hategeka, Leah Mwai, Lisine Tuyisenge
BACKGROUND: An emergency triage, assessment and treatment plus admission care (ETAT+) intervention was implemented in Rwandan district hospitals to improve hospital care for severely ill infants and children. Many interventions are rarely implemented with perfect fidelity under real-world conditions. Thus, evaluations of the real-world experiences of implementing ETAT+ are important in terms of identifying potential barriers to successful implementation. This study explored the perspectives of Rwandan healthcare workers (HCWs) on the relevance of ETAT+ and documented potential barriers to its successful implementation...
April 7, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379741/rehabilitation-for-survivors-of-the-1994-genocide-in-rwanda-what-are-the-lessons-learned
#9
Philomène Uwamaliya, Grahame Smith
Rehabilitation remains a significant concern among survivors of the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. Rehabilitation falls under tertiary prevention, which is a core function of public health. Despite efforts to introduce various rehabilitation programmes for genocide survivors in Rwanda, these initiatives have often proved inadequate in meeting their long-term needs. The failure of the Rwandan Government, international community, United Nations, and other Non-Government Organisations (NGOs) calls into serious question their commitment to international human rights laws...
April 2017: Issues in Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376085/status-and-methodology-of-publicly-available-national-hiv-care-continua-and-90-90-90-targets-a-systematic-review
#10
Reuben Granich, Somya Gupta, Irene Hall, John Aberle-Grasse, Shannon Hader, Jonathan Mermin
BACKGROUND: In 2014, the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) issued treatment goals for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The 90-90-90 target specifies that by 2020, 90% of individuals living with HIV will know their HIV status, 90% of people with diagnosed HIV infection will receive antiretroviral treatment (ART), and 90% of those taking ART will be virally suppressed. Consistent methods and routine reporting in the public domain will be necessary for tracking progress towards the 90-90-90 target...
April 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365754/the-impact-of-health-insurance-on-maternal-health-care-utilization-evidence-from-ghana-indonesia-and-rwanda
#11
Wenjuan Wang, Gheda Temsah, Lindsay Mallick
While research has assessed the impact of health insurance on health care utilization, few studies have focused on the effects of health insurance on use of maternal health care. Analyzing nationally representative data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), this study estimates the impact of health insurance status on the use of maternal health services in three countries with relatively high levels of health insurance coverage-Ghana, Indonesia and Rwanda. The analysis uses propensity score matching to adjust for selection bias in health insurance uptake and to assess the effect of health insurance on four measurements of maternal health care utilization: making at least one antenatal care visit; making four or more antenatal care visits; initiating antenatal care within the first trimester and giving birth in a health facility...
April 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359213/caring-for-perinatally-hiv-infected-children-call-for-mental-care-for-the-children-and-the-caregivers
#12
Kimiyo Kikuchi, Krishna C Poudel, John Muganda Rwibasira, Adolphe Majyambere, Vincent Mutabazi, Simon Pierre Nyonsenga, Ribakare Muhayimpundu, Masamine Jimba
Antiretroviral therapy has dramatically improved the survival rate of perinatally HIV-infected children. For them to thrive, it is necessary to understand better their mental health issues. Caregivers play an important role in children's daily care and caregiver mental health may relate to children's mental health. However, this association has rarely been studied. Accordingly, the present study examined the associations between depression of caregivers and that of perinatally HIV-infected children in Kigali, Rwanda...
March 30, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358624/understanding-antiretroviral-treatment-adherence-among-hiv-positive-women-at-four-postpartum-time-intervals-qualitative-results-from-the-kabeho-study-in-rwanda
#13
Michelle M Gill, Aline Umutoni, Heather J Hoffman, Dieudonne Ndatimana, Gilles F Ndayisaba, Solange Kibitenga, Placidie Mugwaneza, Anita Asiimwe, Emily A Bobrow
As lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for pregnant women is implemented, it is important to understand the attitudes and norms affecting women's postpartum ART adherence. This is a qualitative cross-sectional study of HIV-positive postpartum women (n = 112) enrolled in a 2-year observational prospective cohort in Rwanda. Informed by the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), we conducted in-depth interviews with women whose children were 0-6, 7-12, 13-18, or 21-24 months of age to describe factors contributing to adherence and changes over time...
March 30, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348194/cross-sectional-observational-assessment-of-quality-of-newborn-care-immediately-after-birth-in-health-facilities-across-six-sub-saharan-african-countries
#14
Joseph de Graft-Johnson, Linda Vesel, Heather E Rosen, Barbara Rawlins, Stella Abwao, Goldy Mazia, Robert Bozsa, Winifrede Mwebesa, Neena Khadka, Rosemary Kamunya, Ashebir Getachew, Gaudiosa Tibaijuka, Jean Pierre Rakotovao, Alemnesh Tekleberhan
OBJECTIVE: To present information on the quality of newborn care services and health facility readiness to provide newborn care in 6 African countries, and to advocate for the improvement of providers' essential newborn care knowledge and skills. DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational health facility assessment. SETTING: Ethiopia, Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Rwanda and Tanzania. PARTICIPANTS: Health workers in 643 facilities...
March 27, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346109/assessing-process-of-paediatric-care-in-a-resource-limited-setting-a-cross-sectional-audit-of-district-hospitals-in-rwanda
#15
Celestin Hategeka, Jeannie Shoveller, Lisine Tuyisenge, Larry D Lynd
BACKGROUND: Routine assessment of quality of care helps identify deficiencies which need to be improved. While gaps in the emergency care of children have been documented across sub-Saharan Africa, data from Rwanda are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To assess the care of sick infants and children admitted to Rwandan district hospitals and the extent to which it follows currently recommended clinical practice guidelines in Rwanda. METHODS: Data were gathered during a retrospective cross-sectional audit of eight district hospitals across Rwanda in 2012/2013...
March 27, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336445/mortality-associated-characteristics-of-traumatic-brain-injury-patients-at-the-university-teaching-hospital-of-kigali-rwanda
#16
Elizabeth Krebs, Charles J Gerardo, Lawrence P Park, Joao Ricardo Nickenig Vissoci, Jean Claude Byiringiro, Fidele Byiringiro, Stephen Rulisa, Nathan Thielman, Catherine Staton
OBJECTIVE: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability. TBI patients in low and middle- income countries have worse outcomes than those in high-income countries. We aimed to evaluate important clinical indicators associated with mortality for TBI patients at the University Teaching Hospital of Kigali (UTHK) Kigali, Rwanda. METHODS: Prospective consecutive sampling of TBI patients presenting to UTHK Accident and Emergency Department were screened for inclusion criteria: reported head trauma, alteration in consciousness, headache, or visible head trauma...
March 21, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334799/the-relative-roles-of-anc-and-epi-in-the-continuous-distribution-of-llins-a-qualitative-study-in-four-countries
#17
Katherine Theiss-Nyland, Diakalia Koné, Corine Karema, Waqo Ejersa, Jayne Webster, Jo Lines
Background: The continuous distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) for malaria prevention, through the antenatal care (ANC) and the Expanded Programme on Immunizations (EPI), is recommended by the WHO to improve and maintain LLIN coverage. Despite these recommendations, little is known about the relative strengths and weaknesses of the ANC and EPI-based LLIN distribution. This study aimed to explore and compare the roles of the ANC and EPI for LLIN distribution in four African countries...
May 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328735/building-workforce-capacity-abroad-while-strengthening-global-health-programs-at-home-participation-of-seven-harvard-affiliated-institutions-in-a-health-professional-training-initiative-in-rwanda
#18
Corrado Cancedda, Robert Riviello, Kim Wilson, Kirstin W Scott, Meenu Tuteja, Jane R Barrow, Bethany Hedt-Gauthier, Gene Bukhman, Jennifer Scott, Danny Milner, Giuseppe Raviola, Barbara Weissman, Stacy Smith, Tej Nuthulaganti, Craig D McClain, Barbara E Bierer, Paul E Farmer, Anne E Becker, Agnes Binagwaho, Joseph Rhatigan, David E Golan
A consortium of 22 U.S. academic institutions is currently participating in the Rwanda Human Resources for Health Program (HRH Program). Led by the Rwandan Ministry of Health and funded by both the U.S. Government and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the primary goal of this seven-year initiative is to help Rwanda train the number of health professionals necessary to reach the country's health workforce targets. Since 2012, the participating U.S. academic institutions have deployed faculty from a variety of health-related disciplines and clinical specialties to Rwanda...
May 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325084/application-of-a-contextual-instructional-framework-in-a-continuing-professional-development-training-program-for-physiotherapists-in-rwanda
#19
Kim Dunleavy, Julia Chevan, Antoinette P Sander, Jean Damascene Gasherebuka, Monika Mann
BACKGROUND: Continuing professional development is an important component of capacity building in low resource countries. The purpose of this case study is to describe the use of a contextual instructional framework to guide the processes and instructional design choices for a series of continuing professional development courses for physiotherapists in Rwanda. METHODS: Four phases of the project are described: (1) program proposal, needs assessment and planning, (2) organization of the program and instructional design, (3) instructional delivery and (4) evaluation...
March 22, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323868/-waiting-for-daas-a-retrospective-chart-review-of-patients-with-untreated-hepatitis-c-in-rwanda
#20
Neil Gupta, Jules Kabahizi, Constance Mukabatsinda, Timothy David Walker, Emmanuel Musabeyezu, Athanase Kiromera, Jennifer Ilo Van Nuil, Kevin Steiner, Joia Mukherjee, Sabin Nsanzimana, Aimable Mbituyumuremyi
BACKGROUND: Access to treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) in sub-Saharan Africa is extremely limited. With the advent of direct acting antivirals (DAAs), highly effective and easy-to-deliver oral regimens are now available on the global market. This study was conducted to understand the background and characteristics of a national cohort of patients with HCV infection enrolled in care and awaiting therapy with DAAs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of all adult patients with confirmed HCV infection who were currently enrolled in care and treatment at the four existing hepatitis referral centers in Rwanda...
2017: PloS One
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