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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724433/gridsample-an-r-package-to-generate-household-survey-primary-sampling-units-psus-from-gridded-population-data
#1
Dana R Thomson, Forrest R Stevens, Nick W Ruktanonchai, Andrew J Tatem, Marcia C Castro
BACKGROUND: Household survey data are collected by governments, international organizations, and companies to prioritize policies and allocate billions of dollars. Surveys are typically selected from recent census data; however, census data are often outdated or inaccurate. This paper describes how gridded population data might instead be used as a sample frame, and introduces the R GridSample algorithm for selecting primary sampling units (PSU) for complex household surveys with gridded population data...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717722/gestational-trophoblastic-neoplasia-treatment-at-the-butaro-cancer-center-of-excellence-in-rwanda
#2
Ignace Nzayisenga, Roanne Segal, Natalie Pritchett, Mary J Xu, Paul H Park, Edgie V Mpanumusingo, Denis G Umuhizi, Donald P Goldstein, Ross S Berkowitz, Vedaste Hategekimana, Clemence Muhayimana, Fidel Rubagumya, Temidayo Fadelu, Neo Tapela, Tharcisse Mpunga, Rahel G Ghebre
PURPOSE: Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) is a highly treatable disease, most often affecting young women of childbearing age. This study reviewed patients managed for GTN at the Butaro Cancer Center of Excellence (BCCOE) in Rwanda to determine initial program outcomes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective medical record review was performed for 35 patients with GTN assessed or treated between May 1, 2012, and November 30, 2014. Stage, risk score, and low or high GTN risk category were based on International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging and the WHO scoring system and determined by beta human chorionic gonadotropin level, chest x-ray, and ultrasound per protocol guidelines for resource-limited settings...
December 2016: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712686/using-touch-surgery-to-improve-surgical-education-in-low-and-middle-income-settings-a-randomized-control-trial
#3
Gisele Juru Bunogerane, Kathryn Taylor, Yihan Lin, Ainhoa Costas-Chavarri
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: There is a severe surgical workforce shortage in Rwanda. Innovative educational tools must be introduced to train more residents and increase surgical capacity. Touch Surgery (TS) is a smartphone application that offers trainees the opportunity to practice operations; however, its effect is unknown in low- and middle-income countries. Our objectives were to determine the training effect of TS and its feasibility for use in surgery education in a low-resource setting...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706729/a-retrospective-review-of-the-pediatric-development-clinic-implementation-a-model-to-improve-medical-nutritional-and-developmental-outcomes-of-at-risk-under-five-children-in-rural-rwanda
#4
Eric Ngabireyimana, Christine Mutaganzwa, Catherine M Kirk, Ann C Miller, Kim Wilson, Evodia Dushimimana, Olivier Bigirumwami, Evelyne S Mukakabano, Fulgence Nkikabahizi, Hema Magge
BACKGROUND: As more high-risk newborns survive the neonatal period, they remain at significant medical, nutritional, and developmental risk. However, no follow-up system for early intervention exists in most developing countries. In 2014, a novel Pediatric Development Clinic (PDC) was implemented to provide comprehensive follow-up to at-risk under-five children, led by nurses and social workers in a district hospital and surrounding health centers in rural Rwanda. METHODS: At each PDC visit, children undergo clinical/nutritional assessment and caregivers participate in counseling sessions...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698086/stroke-burden-in-rwanda-a-multicenter-study-on-stroke-management-and-outcome
#5
Agabe Emmy Nkusi, Severien Muneza, Steven Nshuti, David Hakizimana, Paulin Munyemana, Menelas Nkeshimana, Emmanuel Rudakemwa, Etienne Amendezo
BACKGROUND: Cerebro-vascular accidents (CVA) or Stroke constitute the second leading cause of mortality worldwide. Low and middle income countries bear most of stroke burden worldwide. The main objective of this study is to determine the burden of stroke in Rwanda. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study done in 2 parts; 6 months baseline data collection and outcome assessment sessions at 1 year. RESULTS: 96 patients were enrolled in our series...
July 8, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697611/comparison-of-cow-side-diagnostic-tests-for-subclinical-mastitis-of-dairy-cows-in-musanze-district-rwanda
#6
Blaise Iraguha, Humphrey Hamudikuwanda, Borden Mushonga, Erick Kandiwa, Jean P Mpatswenumugabo
Four subclinical mastitis diagnostic tests (the UdderCheck® test [a lactate dehydrogenasebased test], the California Mastitis Test [CMT], the Draminski® test [a conductivity-based test] and the PortaSCC® test [a portable somatic cell count-based test]) were compared in a study comprising crossbreed dairy cows (n = 30) during September and October 2015. Sensitivity and specificity of the CMT, Draminski® and UdderCheck® tests were compared with the PortaSCC® as reference. The CMT, Draminski® and UdderCheck® test results were compared with the results of the PortaSCC® test using kappa statistics...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697451/reduced-efficacy-of-albendazole-against-ascaris-lumbricoides-in-rwandan-schoolchildren
#7
Jürgen Krücken, Kira Fraundorfer, Jean Claude Mugisha, Sabrina Ramünke, Kevin C Sifft, Dominik Geus, Felix Habarugira, Jules Ndoli, Augustin Sendegeya, Caritas Mukampunga, Claude Bayingana, Toni Aebischer, Janina Demeler, Jean Bosco Gahutu, Frank P Mockenhaupt, Georg von Samson-Himmelstjerna
Control of human soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) relies on preventive chemotherapy of schoolchildren applying the benzimidazoles (BZ) albendazole or mebendazole. Anthelmintic resistance (AR) is a common problem in nematodes of veterinary importance but for human STHs, information on drug efficacy is limited and routine monitoring is rarely implemented. Herein, the efficacy of single dose albendazole (400 mg) was evaluated in 12 schools in the Huye district of Rwanda where Ascaris is the predominant STH. Ascaris eggs were detected by wet mount microscopy and the Mini-FLOTAC method to assess cure rate (CR) and faecal egg count reduction (FECR)...
June 23, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694344/prevalence-of-pregnancy-related-complications-and-course-of-labour-of-surviving-women-who-gave-birth-in-selected-health-facilities-in-rwanda-a-health-facility-based-cross-sectional-study
#8
Jean Paul Semasaka Sengoma, Gunilla Krantz, Manasse Nzayirambaho, Cyprien Munyanshongore, Kristina Edvardsson, Ingrid Mogren
OBJECTIVES: This study estimated health facility-based prevalence for pre-eclampsia/eclampsia, postpartum haemorrhage and caesarean section (CS) due to prolonged labour/dystocia. The background characteristics of Rwandan pregnant women, the course of labour and the level of healthcare were investigated in relation to pregnancy and delivery outcomes. METHODS: This is health facility-based study and data were collected in 2014-2015 through structured interviews and medical records (n=817) in Kigali and Northern Province, Rwanda...
July 9, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693458/a-population-based-national-estimate-of-the-prevalence-and-risk-factors-associated-with-hypertension-in-rwanda-implications-for-prevention-and-control
#9
Marie-Rosette Nahimana, Alypio Nyandwi, Marie Aimee Muhimpundu, Olushayo Olu, Jeanine Umutesi Condo, Andre Rusanganwa, Jean Baptiste Koama, Candide Tran Ngoc, Jean Bosco Gasherebuka, Martin O Ota, Joseph C Okeibunor
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a leading cause of cardiovascular diseases and a growing public health problem in many developed and developing countries. However, population-based data to inform policy development are scarce in Rwanda. This nationally representative study aimed to determine population-based estimates of the prevalence and risk factors associated with hypertension in Rwanda. METHODS: We conducted secondary epidemiological analysis of data collected from a cross-sectional population-based study to assess the risk factors for NCDs using the WHO STEPwise approach to Surveillance of non-communicable diseases (STEPS)...
July 10, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691003/leadership-development-of-rehabilitation-professionals-in-a-low-resource-country-a-transformational-leadership-project-based-model
#10
Maureen Romanow Pascal, Monika Mann, Kim Dunleavy, Julia Chevan, Liliane Kirenga, Assuman Nuhu
BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE: This paper presents an overview of the activities and outcomes of the Leadership Institute (LI), a short-term leadership development professional development course offered to physiotherapists in a low-resource country. Previous studies have provided examples of the benefits of such programs in medicine and nursing, but this has yet to be documented in the rehabilitation literature. The prototype of leadership development presented may provide guidance for similar trainings in other low-resource countries and offer the rehabilitation community an opportunity to build on the model to construct a research agenda around rehabilitation leadership development...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685037/integrating-palliative-care-into-national-health-systems-in-africa-a-multi-country-intervention-study
#11
Liz Grant, Julia Downing, Emmanuel Luyirika, Mairead Murphy, Liz Namukwaya, Fatia Kiyange, Mackuline Atieno, Emilly Kemigisha-Ssali, Jenny Hunt, Kaly Snell, Scott A Murray, Mhoira Leng
BACKGROUND: The WHO is calling for the integration of palliative care in all health care settings globally. METHODS: A 3.5-year program was implemented in 12 government hospitals, three each in Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Zambia. A four-pillared approach of advocacy, staff training, service delivery strengthening and international and regional partnership working was utilized. A baseline assessment was undertaken to ascertain needs, and 27 indicators were agreed to guide and evaluate the intervention...
June 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677256/xanthomonas-campestris-pv-musacearum-a-major-constraint-to-banana-plantain-and-enset-production-in-central-and-east-africa-over-the-past-decade
#12
Valentine Nakato, George Mahuku, Teresa Coutinho
Taxonomy: Bacteria; Phylum Proteobacteria; Class Gammaproteobacteria; Order Xanthomonadales; Family Xanthomonadaceae; Genus Xanthomonas; currently classified as X. campestris pv. musacearum (Xcm). However, fatty acid methyl esters analysis, genetic and genomic evidence suggest that this pathogen is X. vasicola and resides in a separate pathovar. Isolation and detection: Xcm can be isolated on Yeast Peptone Glucose Agar (YPGA), Cellobiose Cephalexin Agar and Yeast Tryptone Sucrose Agar (YTSA) complemented with 5-flouro-uracil, cephalexin and cycloheximide to confer semi-selectivity...
July 5, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671283/low-prevalence-of-hepatitis-c-virus-rna-in-blood-donors-with-anti-hepatitis-c-virus-reactivity-in-rwanda
#13
Theogene Twagirumugabe, Gatare Swaibu, Tomas Bergström, Timothy David Walker, Jean Bosco Gahutu, Heléne Norder
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the leading cause of severe liver disease worldwide and is highly endemic in Africa, where it often has nosocomial spread. Little is known on the HCV prevalence, risk for transfusion-transmitted HCV, and circulating genotypes in Rwanda. This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of anti-HCV among blood donors from all regions of the country and genetically characterize identified HCV strains. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Data on anti-HCV reactivity for all 45,061 Rwandan blood donations during 2014 were compiled...
July 3, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662494/gorilloflasca-africana-n-g-n-sp-entodiniomorphida-from-wild-habituated-virunga-mountain-gorillas-gorilla-beringei-beringei-in-rwanda
#14
Akira Ito, Winnie Eckardt, Tara S Stoinski, Thomas R Gillespie, Toshihiro Tokiwa
A new entodiniomorphid ciliate species, Gorilloflasca africana n. g., n. sp. was described from the Virunga mountain gorillas, Gorilla beringei beringei, in Rwanda. It is characterized by a flask-shaped body, a long tubular vestibulum, a round frontal lobe, a large posterior cavity, an ellipsoidal or peanut-shaped macronucleus and a single contractile vacuole. G. africana has the adoral and the vestibular ciliary zones in the buccal area. The adoral ciliary zone is non-retractable, encircling the vestibular opening...
June 13, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660371/effects-of-river-discharge-and-land-use-and-land-cover-lulc-on-water-quality-dynamics-in-migina-catchment-rwanda
#15
Abias Uwimana, Anne van Dam, Gretchen Gettel, Bonfils Bigirimana, Kenneth Irvine
Agricultural intensification may accelerate the loss of wetlands, increasing the concentrations of nutrients and sediments in downstream water bodies. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of land use and land cover and river discharge on water quality in the Migina catchment, southern Rwanda. Rainfall, discharge and water quality (total nitrogen, total phosphorus, total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, pH, and temperature) were measured in different periods from May 2009 to June 2013...
June 28, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649416/educational-intervention-to-reduce-disease-related-to-sub-optimal-basic-hygiene-in-rwanda-initial-evaluation-and-feasibility-study
#16
Margaret A Stone, Hormisdas Ndagijimana
BACKGROUND: Despite a global reduction in morbidity related to sub-optimal water, sanitation and hygiene, the incidence of such diseases remains a significant problem in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to initially assess the potential effectiveness (primarily in terms of impact on morbidity) of a simple educational intervention delivered in Rwanda. Additionally, we sought to explore feasibility relating to the practicality of evaluating and implementing this type of intervention in a low- and middle-income country...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631150/low-dose-subcutaneous-ketamine-for-postoperative-pain-management-in-rwanda-a-dose-finding-study
#17
Jon Tuchscherer, William P McKay, Theogene Twagirumugabe
PURPOSE: Good pain control is not a normal part of surgical care in sub-Saharan Africa due to lack of resources. The primary objective of this study was to determine an efficacious dose of subcutaneous ketamine for postoperative pain for use in a future randomized controlled trial. METHODS: Following research ethics board and local hospital approval for this research, we obtained informed consent from 31 patients undergoing major surgery for a random walk dose-finding study...
June 19, 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630794/a-case-of-presumed-tuberculosis-uveitis-with-occlusive-vasculitis-from-an-endemic-region
#18
Berna Başarır, Yalçın Karaküçük, Çiğdem Altan, Banu Şatana, Bulut Ocak, Aslı İnal
In this report, we present a case with presumed unilateral tuberculosis uveitis from an endemic region. A 23-year-old male presented with decreased vision in his left eye for 15 days. Visual acuities were 1.0 in his right eye and 0.3 in his left eye. Ophthalmologic examination was normal for the right eye. Slit-lamp examination revealed 2+ cells in the vitreous without anterior chamber reaction in his left eye. Fundus examination revealed occlusive vasculitis and granuloma. His history revealed that he had a respiratory infection with fever 3 months ago while visiting his native country, Rwanda, and was treated with non-specific antibiotic therapy...
June 2017: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630744/maternal-predictors-of-neonatal-outcomes-after-emergency-cesarean-section-a-retrospective-study-in-three-rural-district-hospitals-in-rwanda
#19
Naome Nyirahabimana, Christine Minani Ufashingabire, Yihan Lin, Bethany Hedt-Gauthier, Robert Riviello, Jackline Odhiambo, Joel Mubiligi, Martin Macharia, Stephen Rulisa, Illuminee Uwicyeza, Patient Ngamije, Fulgence Nkikabahizi, Theoneste Nkurunziza
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, neonatal mortality post-cesarean delivery is higher than the global average. In this region, most emergency cesarean sections are performed at district hospitals. This study assesses maternal predictors for poor neonatal outcomes post-emergency cesarean delivery in three rural district hospitals in Rwanda. METHODS: This retrospective study includes a random sample of 441 neonates from Butaro, Kirehe and Rwinkwavu District Hospitals, born between 01 January and 31 December 2015...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630542/the-role-of-international-human-rights-norms-in-the-liberalization-of-abortion-laws-globally
#20
Johanna B Fine, Katherine Mayall, Lilian Sepúlveda
International and regional human rights norms have evolved significantly to recognize that the denial of abortion care in a range of circumstances violates women's and girls' fundamental human rights. These increasingly progressive standards have played a critical role in transforming national-level abortion laws by both influencing domestic high court decisions on abortion and serving as a critical resource in advancing law and policy reform. Courts in countries such as Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, and Nepal have directly incorporated these standards into groundbreaking cases liberalizing abortion laws and increasing women's access to safe abortion services, demonstrating the influence of these human rights standards in advancing women's reproductive freedom...
June 2017: Health and Human Rights
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