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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081230/characteristics-of-hiv-infected-children-at-enrollment-into-care-and-at-antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-in-central-africa
#1
Adebola Adedimeji, Andrew Edmonds, Donald Hoover, Qiuhu Shi, Jean d'Amour Sinayobye, Martin Nduwimana, Patricia Lelo, Denis Nash, Kathryn Anastos, Marcel Yotebieng
BACKGROUND: Despite the World Health Organization (WHO) regularly updating guidelines to recommend earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in children, timely enrollment into care and initiation of ART in sub-Saharan Africa in children lags behind that of adults. The impact of implementing increasingly less restrictive ART guidelines on ART initiation in Central Africa has not been described. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data are from the Central Africa International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) pediatric cohort of 3,426 children (0-15 years) entering HIV care at 15 sites in Burundi, DRC, and Rwanda...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078172/gastric-rupture-in-pregnancy-case-series-from-a-tertiary-institution-in-rwanda-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
David Ntirushwa, Stephen Rulisa, Febronie Muhorakeye, Lisa Bazzett-Matabele, Theogene Rurangwa, Maria Small
Background Gastric rupture is a rare, life-threatening condition during pregnancy. Case study We present three cases of gastric perforation during pregnancy and the puerperium. The first patient presented with gastric perforation 4 days following an uncomplicated cesarean delivery for obstetric indications. She initially complained of epigastric pain; however, those symptoms resolved. She later demonstrated worsening abdominal distension, intra-abdominal free fluid, and signs of peritonitis. At laparotomy, an ascariasis-associated gastric rupture was diagnosed...
October 2016: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077588/first-in-human-evaluation-of-the-safety-and-immunogenicity-of-an-intranasally-administered-replication-competent-sendai-virus-vectored-hiv-type-1-gag-vaccine-induction-of-potent-t-cell-or-antibody-responses-in-prime-boost-regimens
#3
Julien Nyombayire, Omu Anzala, Brian Gazzard, Etienne Karita, Philip Bergin, Peter Hayes, Jakub Kopycinski, Gloria Omosa-Manyonyi, Akil Jackson, Jean Bizimana, Bashir Farah, Eddy Sayeed, Christopher L Parks, Makoto Inoue, Takashi Hironaka, Hiroto Hara, Tsugumine Shu, Tetsuro Matano, Len Dally, Burc Barin, Harriet Park, Jill Gilmour, Angela Lombardo, Jean-Louis Excler, Patricia Fast, Dagna S Laufer, Josephine H Cox
BACKGROUND:  We report the first-in-human safety and immunogenicity assessment of a prototype intranasally administered, replication-competent Sendai virus (SeV)-vectored, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine. METHODS:  Sixty-five HIV-1-uninfected adults in Kenya, Rwanda, and the United Kingdom were assigned to receive 1 of 4 prime-boost regimens (administered at 0 and 4 months, respectively; ratio of vaccine to placebo recipients, 12:4): priming with a lower-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally, followed by boosting with an adenovirus 35-vectored vaccine encoding HIV-1 Gag, reverse transcriptase, integrase, and Nef (Ad35-GRIN) given intramuscularly (SLA); priming with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally, followed by boosting with Ad35-GRIN given intramuscularly (SHA); priming with Ad35-GRIN given intramuscularly, followed by boosting with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally (ASH); and priming and boosting with a higher-dose SeV-Gag given intranasally (SHSH)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056881/hepatitis-b-virus-strains-from-rwandan-blood-donors-are-genetically-similar-and-form-one-clade-within-subgenotype-a1
#4
Theogene Twagirumugabe, Gatare Swaibu, Timothy David Walker, Magnus Lindh, Jean Bosco Gahutu, Tomas Bergström, Heléne Norder
BACKGROUND: Rwanda is a central African country with about 12 million inhabitants. The 1994 genocide against the Tutsi destroyed much of the infrastructure, including the health system. Although this has improved significantly, many challenges remain to be addressed. In this study, the prevalence of serological markers of past and ongoing hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and HBV vaccine related immunity was investigated in samples from blood donors from all regions of Rwanda. METHODS: The results from hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) analyses of all (45,061) blood donations collected countrywide in 2014 from 13,637 first time and 31,424 repeat blood donors were compiled...
January 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043604/the-majority-of-patients-with-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-sub-saharan-africa-present-a-concomitant-resistance-to-pyrazinamide
#5
Géraldine Daneau, Mourad Gumusboga, Pim De Rijk, Arnaud Trebucq, Leen Rigouts, Armand Van Deun, Bouke C de Jong
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Pyrazinamide (PZA) is an antibacterial used in the first-line regimen against tuberculosis (TB) for its action against dormant bacilli. PZA is also included in the new short regimen to treat multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). However, the prevalence and significance of PZA resistance is not known in Central and West Africa. METHODS: Between 2013 and 2016, we collected samples from MDR-TB patients recruited in an observational study implementing the new short MDR-TB regimen in six countries: Burundi (n=35), Cameroon (n=135), Niger (n=57), Central African Republic (n=35), Democratic Republic of the Congo (n=99), and Rwanda (n=16)...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025738/community-based-accompaniment-and-the-impact-of-distance-for-hiv-patients-newly-initiated-on-antiretroviral-therapy-early-outcomes-and-clinic-visit-adherence-in-rural-rwanda
#6
Fabien Munyaneza, Joseph Ntaganira, Laetitia Nyirazinyoye, Ermyas Birru, Marie Paul Nisingizwe, Neil Gupta, Cheryl L Amoroso, Guillaine Neza, Lisa R Hirschhorn, Bethany L Hedt-Gauthier
Community-based accompaniment (CBA) has been associated with improved antiretroviral therapy (ART) patient outcomes in Rwanda. In contrast, distance has generally been associated with poor outcomes. However, impact of distance on outcomes under the CBA model is unknown. This retrospective cohort study included 537 adults initiated on ART in 2012 in two rural districts in Rwanda. The primary outcomes at 6 months after ART initiation included overall program status, missed a visit and missed three consecutive visits...
December 26, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006001/detectable-viral-load-in-late-pregnancy-among-women-in-the-rwanda-option-b-pmtct-program-enrollment-results-from-the-kabeho-study
#7
Michelle M Gill, Heather J Hoffman, Emily A Bobrow, Placidie Mugwaneza, Dieudonne Ndatimana, Gilles F Ndayisaba, Cyprien Baribwira, Laura Guay, Anita Asiimwe
There are limited viral load (VL) data available from programs implementing "Option B+," lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART) to all HIV-positive pregnant and postpartum women, in resource-limited settings. Extent of viral suppression from a prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV program in Rwanda was assessed among women enrolled in the Kigali Antiretroviral and Breastfeeding Assessment for the Elimination of HIV (Kabeho) Study. ARV drug resistance testing was conducted on women with VL>2000 copies/ml...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988531/monophyly-review-six-new-species-and-dna-barcode-of-micropterous-afromontane-i-afropictinus-i-heteroptera-aradidae
#8
Ernst Heiss, Vasily Grebennikov
The micropterous East African flat bug genus Afropictinus Heiss, 1986 (Heteroptera: Aradidae: Mezirinae) is revised. In addition to the type and only known species A. congoensis (Hoberlandt, 1956) from Rwanda, four new species from Tanzania (A. castor sp. nov., A. hylas sp. nov., A. idas sp. nov., A. nauplius sp. nov.), one new species from the Democratic Republic of the Congo (A. kahuzianus sp. nov.), and one new species from Ethiopia (A. nabu sp. nov.) are described and illustrated. An identification key is presented to all seven nominal species of Afropictinus...
December 15, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986094/using-an-intervention-mapping-approach-for-planning-implementing-and-assessing-a-community-led-project-towards-malaria-elimination-in-the-eastern-province-of-rwanda
#9
Chantal Marie Ingabire, Emmanuel Hakizimana, Fredrick Kateera, Alexis Rulisa, Bart Van Den Borne, Ingmar Nieuwold, Claude Muvunyi, Constantianus J M Koenraadt, Michele Van Vugt, Leon Mutesa, Jane Alaii
BACKGROUND: Active community participation in malaria control is key to achieving malaria pre-elimination in Rwanda. This paper describes development, implementation and evaluation of a community-based malaria elimination project in Ruhuha sector, Bugesera district, Eastern province of Rwanda. METHODS: Guided by an intervention mapping approach, a needs assessment was conducted using household and entomological surveys and focus group interviews. Data related to behavioural, epidemiological, entomological and economical aspects were collected...
December 16, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975330/an-integrated-approach-to-monitoring-ecosystem-services-and-agriculture-implications-for-sustainable-agricultural-intensification-in-rwanda
#10
Melissa F Rosa, Curan A Bonham, Jan Dempewolf, Bernadette Arakwiye
Maintaining the long-term sustainability of human and natural systems across agricultural landscapes requires an integrated, systematic monitoring system that can track crop productivity and the impacts of agricultural intensification on natural resources. This study presents the design and practical implementation of a monitoring framework that combines satellite observations with ground-based biophysical measurements and household surveys to provide metrics on ecosystem services and agricultural production at multiple spatial scales, reaching from individual households and plots owned by smallholder farmers to 100-km(2) landscapes...
January 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956850/the-african-crane-database-1978-2014-records-of-three-threatened-crane-species-family-gruidae-from-southern-and-eastern-africa
#11
Tanya Smith, Samantha Page-Nicholson, Kerryn Morrison, Bradley Gibbons, M Genevieve W Jones, Mark van Niekerk, Bronwyn Botha, Kirsten Oliver, Kevin McCann, Lizanne Roxburgh
BACKGROUND: The International Crane Foundation (ICF) / Endangered Wildlife Trust's (EWT) African Crane Conservation Programme has recorded 26 403 crane sightings in its database from 1978 to 2014. This sightings collection is currently ongoing and records are continuously added to the database by the EWT field staff, ICF/EWT Partnership staff, various partner organizations and private individuals. The dataset has two peak collection periods: 1994-1996 and 2008-2012. The dataset collection spans five African countries: Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia; 98% of the data were collected in South Africa...
2016: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935649/intense-pre-admission-carriage-and-further-acquisition-of-esbl-producing-enterobacteriaceae-among-patients-and-their-caregivers-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-rwanda
#12
Mathis S E Kurz, Claude Bayingana, Jules M Ndoli, Augustin Sendegeya, Anita Durst, Roland Pfüller, Jean Bosco Gahutu, Frank P Mockenhaupt
OBJECTIVES: To assess the presence and risk factors of intestinal carriage extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) among patients admitted to the University Teaching Hospital of Butare and among their attending caregivers; and to analyse the acquisition of ESBL-PE carriage during hospital stay and associated factors. METHODS: We screened 392 patients and their attending caregivers at admission and discharge for ESBL-PE carriage. Bacterial species were determined using the API-20E system, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done by agar disc-diffusion...
December 9, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931334/the-effect-of-household-poverty-on-tuberculosis
#13
A Siroka, I Law, J Macinko, K Floyd, R P Banda, N B Hoa, B Tsolmon, P Chanda-Kapata, M Gasana, T Lwinn, M Senkoro, T Tupasi, N A Ponce
: pSETTING: Households in Malawi, Mongolia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Rwanda, Tanzania, Viet Nam and Zambia.OBJECTIVE To assess the relationship between household socio-economic level, both relative and absolute, and individual tuberculosis (TB) disease. DESIGN: We analysed national TB prevalence surveys from eight countries individually and in pooled multicountry models. Socio-economic level (SEL) was measured in terms of both relative household position and absolute wealth...
December 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925671/rwanda-2014-15
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Studies in Family Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922344/predictors-of-mortality-in-a-paediatric-intensive-care-unit-in-kigali-rwanda
#15
Rosine Nyirasafari, Mark H Corden, Angélique Charlie Karambizi, Jean Claude Kabayiza, Jean Damascene Makuza, Rex Wong, Michael F Canarie
BACKGROUND: The enormous burden of critical illness in resource-limited settings has led to a growing interest in paediatric critical care in these regions. However, published data on the practice of critical care and patient outcomes in these settings are scant. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to identify risk factors associated with mortality in the newly established Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) at Kigali University Teaching Hospital (KUTH) in Rwanda and test the predictive ability of a newly devised mortality risk score, the modified PRISM (MP) score...
December 6, 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918334/challenges-of-anesthesia-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-cross-sectional-survey-of-access-to-safe-obstetric-anesthesia-in-east-africa
#16
Isabella Epiu, Jossy Verel Bahe Tindimwebwa, Cephas Mijumbi, Thomas M Chokwe, Edwin Lugazia, Francois Ndarugirire, Theogene Twagirumugabe, Gerald Dubowitz
BACKGROUND: The United Nations 2015 Millennium Development Goals targeted a 75% reduction in maternal mortality. However, in spite of this goal, the number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births remains unacceptably high across Sub-Saharan Africa. Because many of these deaths could likely be averted with access to safe surgery, including cesarean delivery, we set out to assess the capacity to provide safe anesthetic care for mothers in the main referral hospitals in East Africa. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted at 5 main referral hospitals in East Africa: Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Rwanda, and Burundi...
January 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915137/parental-health-shocks-and-schooling-the-impact-of-mutual-health-insurance-in-rwanda
#17
Maame Esi Woode
The goal of this study was to look at the educational spill-over effects of health insurance on schooling with a focus on the Rwandan Community Based Health Insurance Programme, the Mutual Health Insurance scheme. Using a two-person general equilibrium overlapping generations model, this paper theoretically analyses the possible effect of health insurance on the relationship between parental health shocks and child schooling. Individuals choose whether or not they want to incur a medical cost by seeking care in order to reduce the effect of health shocks on their labour market availability and productivity...
January 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905919/susceptibility-of-anopheles-gambiae-to-insecticides-used-for-malaria-vector-control-in-rwanda
#18
Emmanuel Hakizimana, Corine Karema, Dunia Munyakanage, Gad Iranzi, John Githure, Jon Eric Tongren, Willem Takken, Agnes Binagwaho, Constantianus J M Koenraadt
BACKGROUND: The widespread emergence of resistance to pyrethroids is a major threat to the gains made in malaria control. To monitor the presence and possible emergence of resistance against a variety of insecticides used for malaria control in Rwanda, nationwide insecticide resistance surveys were conducted in 2011 and 2013. METHODS: Larvae of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato mosquitoes were collected in 12 sentinel sites throughout Rwanda. These were reared to adults and analysed for knock-down and mortality using WHO insecticide test papers with standard diagnostic doses of the recommended insecticides...
December 1, 2016: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905895/mortality-along-the-continuum-of-hiv-care-in-rwanda-a-model-based-analysis
#19
Eran Bendavid, David Stauffer, Eric Remera, Sabin Nsanzimana, Steve Kanters, Edward J Mills
BACKGROUND: HIV is the leading cause of death among adults in sub-Saharan Africa. However, mortality along the HIV care continuum is poorly described. We combine demographic, epidemiologic, and health services data to estimate where are people with HIV dying along Rwanda's care continuum. METHODS: We calibrated an age-structured HIV disease and transmission stochastic simulation model to the epidemic in Rwanda. We estimate mortality among HIV-infected individuals in the following states: untested, tested without establishing care in an antiretroviral therapy (ART) program (unlinked), in care before initiating ART (pre-ART), lost to follow-up (LTFU) following ART initiation, and retained in active ART care...
December 1, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905020/laparoscopic-versus-open-cholecystectomy-a-cost-effectiveness-analysis-at-rwanda-military-hospital
#20
Allison Silverstein, Ainhoa Costas-Chavarri, Mussa R Gakwaya, Joseph Lule, Swagoto Mukhopadhyay, John G Meara, Mark G Shrime
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is first-line treatment for uncomplicated gallstone disease in high-income countries due to benefits such as shorter hospital stays, reduced morbidity, more rapid return to work, and lower mortality as well-being considered cost-effective. However, there persists a lack of uptake in low- and middle-income countries. Thus, there is a need to evaluate laparoscopic cholecystectomy in comparison with an open approach in these settings. METHODS: A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to evaluate laparoscopic and open cholecystectomies at Rwanda Military Hospital (RMH), a tertiary care referral hospital in Rwanda...
November 30, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
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