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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915288/modification-of-orthogonal-trnas-unexpected-consequences-for-sense-codon-reassignment
#1
Wil Biddle, Margaret A Schmitt, John D Fisk
Breaking the degeneracy of the genetic code via sense codon reassignment has emerged as a way to incorporate multiple copies of multiple non-canonical amino acids into a protein of interest. Here, we report the modification of a normally orthogonal tRNA by a host enzyme and show that this adventitious modification has a direct impact on the activity of the orthogonal tRNA in translation. We observed nearly equal decoding of both histidine codons, CAU and CAC, by an engineered orthogonal M. jannaschii tRNA with an AUG anticodon: tRNA(Opt) We suspected a modification of the tRNA(Opt)AUG anticodon was responsible for the anomalous lack of codon discrimination and demonstrate that adenosine 34 of tRNA(Opt)AUG is converted to inosine...
December 1, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912146/inosine-acedoben-dimepranol-promotes-an-early-and-sustained-increase-in-the-natural-killer-cell-component-of-circulating-lymphocytes-a-clinical-trial-supporting-anti-viral-indications
#2
S Rumel Ahmed, Amy S Newman, James O'Daly, Sean Duffy, Gillian Grafton, Catherine A Brady, S John Curnow, Nicholas M Barnes, John Gordon
Inosine Acedoben Dimepranol (IAD), licensed for the treatment of cell-mediated immune deficiencies associated with viral infections, has been reported to impact a variety of immune parameters both in vitro and in vivo. Here we report the results from a clinical trial where multiple lymphocyte subsets - CD19+ B cells, CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T-helper cells, FoxP3(hi)/CD25(hi)/CD127(lo) regulatory T cells (Tregs), CD3-/CD56+ NK cells, and CD3+/CD56+ NKT cells - were, together with serum immunoglobulins and IgG subclasses, followed during 14days of IAD administration to ten healthy volunteers; these selected from 27 individuals pre-screened in vitro for their capacity to respond to IAD as gauged by increases in the percentage of Treg and/or NKT cells arising in PHA-stimulated cultures...
November 29, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911851/inherited-variants-affecting-rna-editing-may-contribute-to-ovarian-cancer-susceptibility-results-from-a-large-scale-collaboration
#3
Jennifer B Permuth, Brett Reid, Madalene Earp, Y Ann Chen, Alvaro N A Monteiro, Zhihua Chen, Aocs Study Group, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Peter A Fasching, Matthias W Beckmann, Diether Lambrechts, Adriaan Vanderstichele, Els Van Niewenhuyse, Ignace Vergote, Mary Anne Rossing, Jennifer Anne Doherty, Jenny Chang-Claude, Kirsten Moysich, Kunle Odunsi, Marc T Goodman, Yurii B Shvetsov, Lynne R Wilkens, Pamela J Thompson, Thilo Dörk, Natalia Bogdanova, Ralf Butzow, Heli Nevanlinna, Liisa Pelttari, Arto Leminen, Francesmary Modugno, Robert P Edwards, Roberta B Ness, Joseph Kelley, Florian Heitz, Beth Karlan, Jenny Lester, Susanne K Kjaer, Allan Jensen, Graham Giles, Michelle Hildebrandt, Dong Liang, Karen H Lu, Xifeng Wu, Douglas A Levine, Maria Bisogna, Andrew Berchuck, Daniel W Cramer, Kathryn L Terry, Shelley S Tworoger, Elizabeth M Poole, Elisa V Bandera, Brooke Fridley, Julie Cunningham, Stacey J Winham, Sara H Olson, Irene Orlow, Line Bjorge, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Leon Massuger, Tanja Pejovic, Melissa Moffitt, Nhu Le, Linda S Cook, Angela Brooks-Wilson, Linda E Kelemen, Jacek Gronwald, Jan Lubinski, Nicolas Wentzensen, Louise A Brinton, Jolanta Lissowska, Hanna Yang, Estrid Hogdall, Claus Hogdall, Lene Lundvall, Paul D P Pharoah, Honglin Song, Ian Campbell, Diana Eccles, Iain McNeish, Alice Whittemore, Valerie McGuire, Weiva Sieh, Joseph Rothstein, Catherine M Phelan, Harvey Risch, Steven Narod, John McLaughlin, Hoda Anton-Culver, Argyrios Ziogas, Usha Menon, Simon Gayther, Susan J Ramus, Aleksandra Gentry-Maharaj, Celeste Leigh Pearce, Anna H Wu, Jolanta Kupryjanczyk, Agnieszka Dansonka-Mieszkowska, Joellen M Schildkraut, Jin Q Cheng, Ellen L Goode, Thomas A Sellers
RNA editing in mammals is a form of post-transcriptional modification in which adenosine is converted to inosine by the adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADAR) family of enzymes. Based on evidence of altered ADAR expression in epithelial ovarian cancers (EOC), we hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ADAR genes modify EOC susceptibility, potentially by altering ovarian tissue gene expression. Using directly genotyped and imputed data from 10,891 invasive EOC cases and 21,693 controls, we evaluated the associations of 5,303 SNPs in ADAD1, ADAR, ADAR2, ADAR3, and SND1...
July 12, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906632/changes-in-cardiac-nucleotide-metabolism-in-huntington-s-disease
#4
Marta Toczek, Barbara Kutryb-Zajac, Paulina Zukowska, Ewa M Slominska, Mark Isalan, Michal Mielcarek, Ryszard T Smolenski
Huntington's disease (HD) is a monogenic neurodegenerative disorder with a significant peripheral component to the disease pathology. This includes an HD-related cardiomyopathy, with an unknown pathological mechanism. In this study, we aimed to define changes in the metabolism of cardiac nucleotides using the well-established R6/2 mouse model. In particular, we focused on measuring the activity of enzymes that control ATP and other adenine nucleotides in the cardiac pool, including eNTPD, AMPD, e5'NT, ADA, and PNP...
December 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906617/evaluation-of-cellular-purine-transport-and-metabolism-in-the-caco-2-cell-using-comprehensive-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-method-for-analysis-of-purines
#5
T Fukuuchi, M Kobayashi, N Yamaoka, K Kaneko
Using Caco-2 cells and our previously developed high-performance liquid chromatography method for quantification of purine bases, nucleosides, and nucleotides, we evaluated cellular purine transport and uptake. The analytes were separated using YMC-Triart C18 column with gradient elution. We used Caco-2 cells as intestinal model cells and monitored purine transport across a monolayer for 2 h. The degree of change of purine concentrations in the permeate was very slight; however, it was possible to simultaneously determine these parameters for all purines because of our method's high sensitivity...
December 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904786/a-targeted-metabolomics-assay-to-measure-eight-purines-in-the-diet-of-common-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus
#6
A J Ardente, T J Garrett, R S Wells, M Walsh, C R Smith, J Colee, R C Hill
Bottlenose dolphins managed under human care, human beings and Dalmatian dogs are prone to forming urate uroliths. Limiting dietary purine intake limits urate urolith formation in people and dogs because purines are metabolized to uric acid, which is excreted in urine. Managed dolphins develop ammonium urate nephroliths, whereas free-ranging dolphins do not. Free-ranging dolphins consume live fish, whereas managed dolphins consume different species that have been stored frozen and thawed. Differences in the purine content of fish consumed by dolphins under human care versus in the wild may be responsible for the difference in urolith prevalence...
October 2016: Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903231/new-analogues-of-mycophenolic-acid
#7
Agnieszka Głowacka, Michal Prejs, Grzegorz Cholewinski, Krystyna Dzierzbicka
Mycophenolic acid (MPA) possesses antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, immunosuppressive and anticancer properties. It is a non-competitive and reversible inhibitor of dehydrogenase inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMPDH) [1,2]. This compound belongs to the immunosuppressive drugs used for the prevention of both acute and chronic transplant rejection [3]. Until now clinically have been used two derivatives of MPA: mycophenolate mofetil (MMF, CellCept) and mycophenolate sodium (MPS, Myfortic). They cause, similar to MPA, although at lower degree, the side effects such as vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, gastrointestinal, urogenital tract, blood or nervous system disorders...
November 29, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893733/adarb1-catalyzes-circadian-a-to-i-editing-and-regulates-rna-rhythm
#8
Hideki Terajima, Hikari Yoshitane, Haruka Ozaki, Yutaka Suzuki, Shigeki Shimba, Shinya Kuroda, Wataru Iwasaki, Yoshitaka Fukada
It has been proposed that the CLOCK-ARNTL (BMAL1) complex drives circadian transcription of thousands of genes, including Per and Cry family genes that encode suppressors of CLOCK-ARNTL-dependent transcription. However, recent studies demonstrated that 70-80% of circadian-oscillating mRNAs have no obvious rhythms in their de novo transcription, indicating the potential importance of post-transcriptional regulation. Our CLOCK-ChIP-seq analysis identified rhythmic expression of adenosine deaminase, RNA-specific, B1 (Adarb1, also known as Adar2), an adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA-editing enzyme...
November 28, 2016: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881417/analysis-of-germination-capacity-and-inventarisation-of-germinant-receptor-sub-clusters-of-genome-sequenced-bacillus-cereus-environmental-isolates-and-model-strains
#9
Alicja K Warda, Yinghua Xiao, Jos Boekhorst, Marjon H J Wells-Bennik, Masja N Nierop Groot, Tjakko Abee
: Spore germination of 17 Bacillus cereus food isolates and reference strains was evaluated using flow cytometry analysis in combination with fluorescent staining at a single spore level. This approach allowed for rapid collection of germination data in more than 20 conditions including heat activation of spores, germination in complex media (BHI and TSB), and exposure to saturating concentrations of single amino acids and the combination of alanine and inosine. Whole genome sequence comparison revealed a total of eleven clusters of operons encoded germinant receptors (GRs); GerK, GerI and GerL were present in all strains, whereas GerR, GerS, GerG, GerQ, GerX, GerF, GerW and GerZ (sub)clusters showed a more diverse presence/absence in different strains...
November 23, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874103/cordyceps-collected-from-bhutan-an-appropriate-alternative-of-cordyceps-sinensis
#10
Ding-Tao Wu, Guang-Ping Lv, Jian Zheng, Qian Li, Shuang-Cheng Ma, Shao-Ping Li, Jing Zhao
Natural Cordyceps collected in Bhutan has been widely used as natural Cordyceps sinensis, an official species of Cordyceps used as Chinese medicines, around the world in recent years. However, whether Cordyceps from Bhutan could be really used as natural C. sinensis remains unknown. Therefore, DNA sequence, bioactive components including nucleosides and polysaccharides in twelve batches of Cordyceps from Bhutan were firstly investigated, and compared with natural C. sinensis. Results showed that the fungus of Cordyceps from Bhutan was C...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870265/antizyme-inhibitor-1-a-potential-carcinogenic-molecule
#11
REVIEW
Shiqiao Qiu, Jing Liu, Feiyue Xing
Polyamines are multivalent and organic cations essential for cellular growth, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Increased levels of polyamines are closely associated with numerous forms of cancer. An autoregulatory circuit composed by the ornithine decarboxylase(ODC), antizymes(AZ) and antizyme inhibitor (AZI) governs the intracellular level of polyamines. AZ binds with ODC to inhibit the ODC activity and to promote the ubiquitin-independent degradation of ODC. AZI binds to AZ with a higher affinity than ODC...
November 21, 2016: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867934/a-comparison-of-molecular-biology-mechanism-of-shewanella-putrefaciens-between-fresh-and-terrestrial-sewage-wastewater
#12
Jiajie Xu, Weina He, Zhonghua Wang, Dijun Zhang, Jing Sun, Jun Zhou, Yanyan Li, Xiurong Su
Municipal and industrial wastewater is often discharged into the environment without appropriate treatment, especially in developing countries. As a result, many rivers and oceans are contaminated. It is urgent to control and administer treatments to these contaminated rivers and oceans. However, most mechanisms of bacterial colonization in contaminated rivers and oceans were unknown, especially in sewage outlets. We found Shewanella putrefaciens to be the primary bacteria in the terrestrial sewage wastewater outlets around Ningbo City, China...
2016: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867276/ursolic-acid-a-natural-pentacylcic-triterpene-from-ochrosia-elliptica-and-its-role-in-the-management-of-certain-neglected-tropical-diseases
#13
Rola M Labib, Sherif S Ebada, Fadia S Youssef, Mohamed L Ashour, Samir A Ross
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis and African trypanosomiasis are recognized as the leading causes of mortality and morbidity with the greatest prevalence in the developing countries. They affect more than one billion of the poorest people on the globe. OBJECTIVE: To find a cheap, affordable, safe, and efficacious antileshmanial and antitrypanosomal natural drug and to elucidate its probable mode of action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Phytochemical investigation of the non-polar fraction of the methanol extract of leaves of Ochrosia elliptica Labill...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863387/aberrant-overexpression-of-adar1-promotes-gastric-cancer-progression-by-activating-mtor-p70s6k-signaling
#14
Ning Dou, Shijun Yu, Xiaojuan Ye, Dong Yang, Yandong Li, Yong Gao
ADAR1, one of adenosine deaminases acting on RNA, modulates RNA transcripts through converting adenosine (A) to inosine (I) by deamination. Emerging evidence has implicated that ADAR1 plays an important role in a few of human cancers, however, its expression and physiological significance in gastric cancer remain undefined. In the present study, we demonstrated that ADAR1 was frequently overexpressed in gastric cancer samples by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. In a gastric cancer tissue microarray, ADAR1 staining was closely correlated with tumor stage (P < 0...
November 15, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857540/meat-quality-and-physicochemical-trait-assessments-of-berkshire-and-commercial-3-way-crossbred-pigs
#15
Sivakumar Allur Subramaniyan, Da Rae Kang, Shah Ahmed Belal, Eun-So-Ri Cho, Jong-Hyun Jung, Young-Chul Jung, Yang-Il Choi, Kwan-Seob Shim
In this study, we compared qualities and physiochemical traits of meat from Berkshire (black color) pigs with those of meat from 3-way Landrace (white color) × Yorkshire (white color) × Duroc (red color) crossbred pigs (LYD). Meat quality characteristics, including pH, color, drip loss, cooking loss, and free amino acid, fatty acid, vitamin, and mineral contents of longissimus dorsi muscles, were compared. Meat from Berkshire pigs had deeper meat color (redness), higher pH, and lower drip loss and cooking loss than meat from LYD pigs...
October 31, 2016: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854073/altered-extracellular-atp-adp-and-amp-hydrolysis-in-blood-serum-of-sedentary-individuals-after-an-acute-aerobic-moderate-exercise-session
#16
Cesar Eduardo Jacintho Moritz, Bruno Costa Teixeira, Liliana Rockenbach, Alvaro Reischak-Oliveira, Emerson André Casali, Ana Maria Oliveira Battastini
Nucleotidases participate in the regulation of physiological and pathological events, such as inflammation and coagulation. Exercise promotes distinct adaptations, and can influence purinergic signaling. In the present study, we investigated soluble nucleotidase activities in the blood serum of sedentary young male adults at pre- and post-acute moderate aerobic exercise. In addition, we evaluated how this kind of exercise could influence adenine nucleotide concentrations in the blood serum. Sedentary individuals were submitted to moderate aerobic exercise on a treadmill; blood samples were collected pre- and post-exercise, and serum was separated for analysis...
November 16, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852378/-analysis-of-the-protein-expression-differences-between-colonized-and-infectious-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii
#17
W J Sui, M Wang, Y F Huang, X X Lu
Objective: To analyze the protein expression differences between colonized multidrug-resistant acinetobacter baumannii (MDR-AB) and infectious MDR-AB using comparative proteomics and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and to explore the molecular characteristics of MDR-AB infections. Methods: A total of 59 MDR-AB strains including 23 of bloodstream infections MDR-AB and 36 of nasal, pharyngeal or environmental colonization MDR-AB were collected from Beijing Tongren Hospital between January 2008 and December 2011...
November 8, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851964/caps1-rna-editing-promotes-dense-core-vesicle-exocytosis
#18
Kotaro Miyake, Toshio Ohta, Hisako Nakayama, Nobutaka Doe, Yuri Terao, Eiji Oiki, Izumi Nagatomo, Yui Yamashita, Takaya Abe, Kazuko Nishikura, Atsushi Kumanogoh, Kouichi Hashimoto, Yukio Kawahara
Calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion 1 (CAPS1) plays a distinct role in the priming step of dense core vesicle (DCV) exocytosis. CAPS1 pre-mRNA is known to undergo adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing in its coding region, which results in a glutamate-to-glycine conversion at a site in its C-terminal region. However, the physiological significance of CAPS1 RNA editing remains elusive. Here, we created mutant mice in which edited CAPS1 was solely expressed. These mice were lean due to increased energy expenditure caused by physical hyperactivity...
November 15, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847171/synthesis-of-%C3%AE-santonin-derivatives-for-diminutive-effect-on-t-and-b-cell-proliferation-and-their-structure-activity-relationships
#19
Praveen K Chinthakindi, Jasvinder Singh, Shilpa Gupta, Amit Nargotra, Priya Mahajan, Anupurna Kaul, Zabeer Ahmed, Surrinder Koul, Payare L Sangwan
A new library of 20 compounds from α-santonin was synthesized and tested against Con-A induced T-cell proliferation and LPS-induced B-cell proliferation via MTT assay. The study resulted in the identification of potent immunosuppressant molecules, which were further screened along with α-santonin for Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-α) inhibitory activity. One of the molecules (7) at 10 μM showed equipotency to that of dexamethasone (1 μM conc.) used as a standard. Structure activity relationships of the synthesized compounds along with our earlier reported α-santonin derivatives have been studied...
November 9, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833958/clinical-importance-of-pharmacogenetics-in-the-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection
#20
Adina Maria Kamal, Paul MitruŢ, Kamal Constantin Kamal, Oana Sorina Tica, Mihaela Niculescu, Dragoş Ovidiu Alexandru, Andrei Adrian Tica
Globally, over 4% of the world population is affected by hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The current standard of care for hepatitis C infection is combination therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin for 48 weeks, which yield a sustained virological response in only a little over half of the patients with genotype 1 HCV. We investigated the clinical importance of pharmacogenetics in treatment efficacy and prediction of hematotoxicity. A total of 148 patients infected with HCV were enrolled. All patients were treated for a period of 48 weeks or less with pegylated interferon and ribavirin...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
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