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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919985/human-tumor-derived-exosomes-tex-regulate-treg-functions-via-cell-surface-signaling-rather-than-uptake-mechanisms
#1
Laurent Muller, Patricia Simms, Chang-Sook Hong, Michael I Nishimura, Edwin K Jackson, Simon C Watkins, Theresa L Whiteside
Tumor-derived exosomes (TEX) are ubiquitously present in the tumor microenvironment and plasma of cancer patients. TEX carry a cargo of multiple stimulatory and inhibitory molecules and deliver them to recipient cells, serving as a communication network for the tumor. The mechanisms TEX use for delivering messages to recipient cells were evaluated using PKH26-labeled TEX produced by cultured human tumor cells, exosomes produced by dendritic cells-derived exosomes (DEX), or exosomes isolated from plasma of cancer patients (EXO)...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912088/sip-and-spit-or-sip-and-swallow-choice-of-methods-differentially-alters-taste-intensity-estimates-across-stimuli
#2
Cordelia A Running, John E Hayes
While the myth of the tongue map has been consistently and repeatedly debunked in controlled studies, evidence for regional differences in suprathreshold intensity has been noted by multiple research groups. Given differences in physiology between the anterior and posterior tongue (fungiform versus foliate and circumvallate papillae) and differences in total area stimulated (anterior only versus whole tongue, pharynx, and epiglottis), small methodological changes (sip and spit versus sip and swallow) have the potential to substantially influence data...
September 11, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891979/determination-of-the-main-nucleosides-and-nucleobases-in-natural-and-cultured-ophiocordyceps-xuefengensis
#3
Juan Zou, Ling Wu, Zheng-Mi He, Ping Zhang, Zuo-Hong Chen
Ophiocordyceps xuefengensis, a recently described species of Ophiocordycepsthat is associated with the larvae of Phassusnodus (Hepialidae) in the living root or trunk of the medicinal plant Clerodendrumcyrtophyllum, isthe largest known Cordycepsspecies and is recognized as a desirable alternative for natural Ophiocordycepssinensis. This study investigated the main nucleosides and nucleobases in natural and cultured Ophiocordycepsxuefengensis. The contents of the nucleosides and nucleobases in the natural and cultured samples were determined by reverse phase HPLC...
September 11, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889784/isolation-and-characterization-of-key-contributors-to-the-kokumi-taste-in-soybean-seeds
#4
Masayuki Shibata, Motohiko Hirotsuka, Yukiko Mizutani, Haruya Takahashi, Teruo Kawada, Kentaro Matsumiya, Yukako Hayashi, Yasuki Matsumura
The water extract of soybean seeds (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is nearly tasteless, but "kokumi" taste sensation was confirmed upon addition of a basic umami solution containing glutamic acid, inosine monophosphate, and sodium chloride. To identify the key contributors to the "kokumi" taste sensation in soybean seeds, sensory-guided fractionation, taste sensory analyses, and LC-MS/MS analyses were utilized. γ-glutamyl-tyrosine and γ-glutamyl-phenylalanine were identified as contributors to "kokumi taste"; specifically, these γ-glutamyl peptides imparted the "kokumi" taste sensation at a low taste threshold in a basic umami solution...
September 11, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888888/sepsis-induced-by-cecal-ligation-and-perforation-clp-alters-nucleotidase-activities-in-platelets-of-rats
#5
Renata S Pereira, Claudia M Bertoncheli, Stephen A Adefegha, Lívia G Castilhos, Karine L Silveira, João Felipe P Rezer, Pedro H Doleski, Fátima H Abdalla, Karen F Santos, Claudio A M Leal, Roberto C V Santos, Emerson A Casali, Cesar E J Moritz, Daniel R Stainki, Daniela B R Leal
Sepsis is a potentially lethal condition, and it is associated with platelet alterations. The present study sought to investigate the activity of ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase), E-5'-nucleotidase, and ecto-adenosine deaminase (E-ADA) in the platelets of rats that were induced with sepsis. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups of ten animals each: a negative control group (normal; NC); a group that underwent surgical procedures (sham); and a group that underwent cecal ligation and perforation (CLP)...
September 6, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880718/codon-adaptation-to-trnas-with-inosine-modification-at-position-34-is-widespread-among-eukaryotes-and-present-in-two-bacterial-phyla
#6
Àlbert Rafels-Ybern, Adrian Gabriel Torres, Xavier Grau-Bove, Iñaki Ruiz-Trillo, Lluís Ribas de Pouplana
The modification of adenosine to inosine at position 34 of tRNA anticodons has a profound impact upon codon-anticodon recognition. In bacteria, I34 is thought to exist only in tRNA(Arg), while in eukaryotes the modification is present in eight different tRNAs. In eukaryotes, the widespread use of I34 strongly influenced the evolution of genomes in terms of tRNA gene abundance and codon usage. In humans, codon usage indicates that I34 modified tRNAs are preferred for the translation of highly repetitive coding sequences, suggesting that I34 is an important modification for the synthesis of proteins of highly skewed amino acid composition...
September 7, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874170/protein-recoding-by-adar1-mediated-rna-editing-is-not-essential-for-normal-development-and-homeostasis
#7
Jacki E Heraud-Farlow, Alistair M Chalk, Sandra E Linder, Qin Li, Scott Taylor, Joshua M White, Lokman Pang, Brian J Liddicoat, Ankita Gupte, Jin Billy Li, Carl R Walkley
BACKGROUND: Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing of dsRNA by ADAR proteins is a pervasive epitranscriptome feature. Tens of thousands of A-to-I editing events are defined in the mouse, yet the functional impact of most is unknown. Editing causing protein recoding is the essential function of ADAR2, but an essential role for recoding by ADAR1 has not been demonstrated. ADAR1 has been proposed to have editing-dependent and editing-independent functions. The relative contribution of these in vivo has not been clearly defined...
September 5, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864459/rna-editing-in-bacteria-recodes-multiple-proteins-and-regulates-an-evolutionarily-conserved-toxin-antitoxin-system
#8
Dan Bar-Yaacov, Ernest Mordret, Ruth Towers, Tammy Biniashvili, Clara Soyris, Schraga Schwartz, Orna Dahan, Yitzhak Pilpel
Adenosine (A) to inosine (I) RNA editing is widespread in eukaryotes. In prokaryotes, however, A-to-I RNA editing was only reported to occur in tRNAs but not in protein-coding genes. By comparing DNA and RNA sequences of Escherichia coli, we show for the first time that A-to-I editing occurs also in prokaryotic mRNAs and has the potential to affect the translated proteins and cell physiology. We found 15 novel A-to-I editing events, of which 12 occurred within known protein-coding genes where they always recode a tyrosine (TAC) into a cysteine (TGC) codon...
September 1, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856214/the-roche-total-mycophenolic-acid%C3%A2-assay-an-application-protocol-for-the-abx-pentra-400-analyzer-and-comparison-with-lc-ms-in-children-with-idiopathic-nephrotic-syndrome
#9
François Parant, Bruno Ranchin, Marie-Claude Gagnieu
BACKGROUND: For TDM of mycophenolate acid (MPA), the Roche Total Mycophenolic Acid® assay based on the inhibition of recombinant inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) has been shown to be a simple and reliable alternative to chromatographic methods. We have adapted this assay on the ABX Pentra 400 analyzer (HORIBA). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the analytical performances of the Roche Total Mycophenolic Acid® assay on the ABX Pentra 400 and to compare it to an LC-MS method using samples from children with nephrotic syndrome treated with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)...
April 2017: Pract Lab Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855414/nuclear-and-mitochondrial-rna-editing-systems-have-opposite-effects-on-protein-diversity
#10
Daniel B Sloan
RNA editing can yield protein products that differ from those directly encoded by genomic DNA. This process is pervasive in the mitochondria of many eukaryotes, where it predominantly results in the restoration of ancestral protein sequences. Nuclear mRNAs in metazoans also undergo editing (adenosine-to-inosine or 'A-to-I' substitutions), and most of these edits appear to be nonadaptive 'misfirings' of adenosine deaminases. However, recent analysis of cephalopod transcriptomes found that many editing sites are shared by anciently divergent lineages within this group, suggesting they play some adaptive role...
August 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840402/optimization-of-the-purine-operon-and-energy-generation-in-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-for-guanosine-production
#11
Yuling Liao, Yanrui Ye, Bin Wang, Li Pan
OBJECTIVES: To deregulate the purine operon of the purine biosynthetic pathway and optimize energy generation of the respiratory chain to improve the yield of guanosine in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens XH7. RESULTS: The 5'-untranslated region of the purine operon, which contains the guanine-sensing riboswitch, was disrupted. The native promoter Pw in B. amyloliquefaciens XH7 was replaced by different strong promoters. Among the promoter replacement mutants, XH7purE::P41 gave the highest guanosine yield (16...
August 24, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835621/genetic-basis-of-mycotoxin-susceptibility-differences-between-budding-yeast-isolates
#12
Xtopher Quispe, Sebastián M Tapia, Carlos Villarroel, Christian Oporto, Valentina Abarca, Verónica García, Claudio Martínez, Francisco A Cubillos
Micophenolic acid (MPA) is an immunosuppressant mycotoxin which impairs yeast cell growth to variable degrees depending on the genetic background. Such variation could have emerged from several phenomena, including MPA gene resistance mutations and variations in copy number and localisation of resistance genes. To test this, we evaluated MPA susceptibility in four S. cerevisiae isolates and genetically dissected variation through the identification of Quantitative Trait Loci. Via linkage analysis we identified six QTLs, majority of which were located within subtelomeres and co-localised with IMD2, an inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase previously identified underlying MPA drug resistance in yeast cells...
August 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823130/use-of-alternative-curing-salts-for-processing-salamis
#13
Dong-Gyun Yim, Ku-Young Chung, Cheorun Jo, Ki-Chang Nam
Objective: This study was performed to determine effects of different curing salts on the quality of salamis and to assess feasibility of using NaCl-alternative salts. Methods: Various types of curing salts (KCl or MgCl2) as well as NaCl (sun-dried or refined) were incorporated for processing of salamis. The proximate composition, fatty acids, nucleotide-related compounds, and free amino acids of the salamis were analyzed during 40 days of ripening. Results: The substitution of NaCl by KCl caused higher fat and ash content, but lower moisture content of the salami after 20 days of ripening (p<0...
August 16, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820319/a-to-i-rna-editing-thinking-beyond-the-single-nucleotide
#14
Nabeel S Ganem, Ayelet T Lamm
Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing is a conserved process, which is performed by ADAR enzymes. By changing nucleotides in coding regions of genes and altering codons, ADARs expand the cell's protein repertoire. This function of the ADAR enzymes is essential for human brain development. However, most of the known editing sites are in non-coding repetitive regions in the transcriptome and the purpose of editing in these regions is unclear. Recent studies, which have shown that editing levels of transcripts vary between tissues and developmental stages in many organisms, suggest that the targeted RNA and ADAR editing are both regulated...
August 18, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820109/pseudomonas-wadenswilerensis-sp-nov-and-pseudomonas-reidholzensis-sp-nov-two-novel-species-within-the-pseudomonas-putida-group-isolated-from-forest-soil
#15
David Frasson, Michael Opoku, Tara Picozzi, Tanja Torossi, Stefanie Balada, Theo H M Smits, Urs Hilber
Within the frame of a biotechnological screening, we isolated two Pseudomonas strains from forest soil. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain CCOS 864T shared 99.8 % similarity with Pseudomonas donghuensis HYST, while strain CCOS 865T shared 99.0 % similarity with Pseudomonas putida DSM 291T and lower similarity with other P. putida group type strains. Based on multilocus sequence analysis, the two strains were genotypically distinct from each other, each forming a separate clade. Strains CCOS 864T and CCOS 865T were Gram-stain-negative, motile and rod-shaped, growing at a temperature range of 4-37 °C...
August 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819113/insights-into-the-role-of-endonuclease-v-in-rna-metabolism-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#16
Daniel García-Caballero, Guiomar Pérez-Moreno, Antonio M Estévez, Luis Miguel Ruíz-Pérez, Antonio E Vidal, Dolores González-Pacanowska
Inosine may arise in DNA as a result of oxidative deamination of adenine or misincorporation of deoxyinosine triphosphate during replication. On the other hand, the occurrence of inosine in RNA is considered a normal and essential modification induced by specific adenosine deaminases acting on mRNA and tRNA. In prokaryotes, endonuclease V (EndoV) can recognize and cleave inosine-containing DNA. In contrast, mammalian EndoVs preferentially cleave inosine-containing RNA, suggesting a role in RNA metabolism for the eukaryotic members of this protein family...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818035/comparative-analysis-of-inosine-substituted-duplex-dna-by-circular-dichroism-and-x-ray-crystallography
#17
Justin P Peters, Ewa A Kowal, Pradeep S Pallan, Martin Egli, L James Maher
Leveraging structural biology tools, we report the results of experiments seeking to determine if the different mechanical properties of DNA polymers with base analog substitutions can be attributed, at least in part, to induced changes from classical B-form DNA. The underlying hypothesis is that different inherent bending and twisting flexibilities may characterize non-canonical B-DNA, so that it is inappropriate to interpret mechanical changes caused by base analog substitution as resulting simply from 'electrostatic' or 'base stacking' influences without considering the larger context of altered helical geometry...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815296/autoantibodies-against-rods-and-rings-related-impdh2-in-hepatitis-c-genotype-1-and-daa-therapy-in-a-real-life-cohort
#18
Werner Dammermann, Susanne Polywka, Inga Dettmann, Swantje Mindorf, Lars Komorowski, Malte Wehmeyer, Julian Schulze Zur Wiesch, Winfried Stöcker, Stefan Lüth
Autoantibodies against inosine-5'-monophosphate-dehydrogenase-2 (IMPDH2; "rods and rings" pattern) develop in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients under treatment with peg-interferon (IFN) and ribavirin (RBV), an inhibitor of IMPDH2. We investigated the influence of the alternative therapy with direct-acting antivirals (DAA)/ribavirin on anti-IMPDH2 autoantibody generation and the use of anti-IMPDH2 development as a marker for therapy outcome (sustained virologic response, SVR). We analyzed a "real life" cohort of 104 unselected CHC genotype 1 (GT1) patients treated with IFN/first-generation DAA/RBV prospectively compared to a historic cohort of 59 IFN/RBV-treated CHC GT1 patients...
August 16, 2017: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812932/celebrating-wobble-decoding-half-a-century-and-still-much-is-new
#19
Paul F Agris, Emily R Eruysal, Amithi Narendran, Ville Y P Väre, Sweta Vangaveti, Srivathsan V Ranganathan
A simple post-transcriptional modification of tRNA, deamination of adenosine to inosine at the first, or wobble, position of the anticodon, inspired Francis Crick's Wobble Hypothesis 50 years ago. Many more naturally-occurring modifications have been elucidated and continue to be discovered. The post-transcriptional modifications of tRNA's anticodon domain are the most diverse and chemically complex of any RNA modifications. Their contribution with regards to chemistry, structure and dynamics reveal individual and combined effects on tRNA function in recognition of cognate and wobble codons...
August 16, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807916/inhibition-of-calcineurin-or-impdh-exerts-moderate-to-potent-antiviral-activity-against-norovirus-replication
#20
Wen Dang, Yuebang Yin, Yijin Wang, Wenshi Wang, Junhong Su, Dave Sprengers, Luc J W van der Laan, Krzysztof Felczak, Krzysztof W Pankiewicz, Kyeong-Ok Chang, Marion P G Koopmans, Herold J Metselaar, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Qiuwei Pan
Norovirus is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide and has emerged as an important issue of chronic infection in transplantation patients. Since no approved antiviral is available, we evaluated the effects of different immunosuppressants and ribavirin on norovirus and explored their mechanism-of-actions by using a human norovirus (HuNV) replicon-harboring model and a surrogate murine norovirus (MNV) infectious model. Roles of corresponding drug targets were investigated by gain- or loss-of-function approaches...
August 14, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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