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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925498/behavior-of-tetracycline-and-sulfamethoxazole-and-their-corresponding-resistance-genes-in-three-dimensional-biofilm-electrode-reactors-with-low-current
#1
Shuai Zhang, Hai L Song, Xiao L Yang, Xi Z Long, Xi Liu, Tong Q Chen
Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have become major health concerns. In this study, three-dimensional biofilm-electrode reactors (3D-BERs) under low current were designed to assess their performance in removing tetracycline (TC) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) from synthetic wastewater. In addition, the fates of the corresponding ARGs in microbial communities were investigated. The mass removal ratios of TC and SMX by the 3D-BERs were 82.6-97.3% and 72.2-93.2%, respectively. There were obvious increases in the relative abundances of all target genes after ∼2 months...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924435/antibiotic-resistance-is-linked-to-carriage-of-papc-and-iuta-virulence-genes-and-phylogenetic-group-d-background-in-commensal-and-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-from-infants-and-young-children
#2
N Karami, A E Wold, I Adlerberth
P fimbriae, enabling adherence to colonic and urinary epithelium, and aerobactin, an iron sequestering system, are both colonization factors in the human colon and virulence factors for urinary tract infection. The colonic microbiota is suggested to be a site suitable for the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes. We investigated whether phenotypic resistance to antibiotics in commensal and uropathogenic Escherichia coli from infants and young children is associated with carriage of virulence genes and to phylogenetic group origin and, in the case of fecal strains, to persistence in the gut and fecal population levels...
December 6, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923578/characterization-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-representative-organic-solid-wastes-food-waste-recycling-wastewater-manure-and-sewage-sludge
#3
Jangwoo Lee, Seung Gu Shin, Hyun Min Jang, Young Beom Kim, Joonyeob Lee, Young Mo Kim
In this research, the distribution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) was characterized in representative organic solid waste (OSW) in Korea: food waste-recycling wastewater (FRW), manure, and sewage sludge. The amounts of total ARG (gene copies/16S rRNA gene copies) was greatest in manure followed by sewage sludge and FRW. Interestingly, there were significantly different patterns in the diversity and mechanisms of ARGs. For example, a significant proportion of ARGs were tetracycline resistant genes in all the OSW (40...
December 3, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922763/antimicrobial-resistance-in-nontyphoidal-salmonella-isolated-from-human-and-poultry-related-samples-in-brazil-20-year-meta-analysis
#4
Daiane Voss-Rech, Luciana Potter, Clarissa Silveira Luiz Vaz, Daniela Isabel Brayer Pereira, Luís Antonio Sangioni, Águeda Castagna Vargas, Sônia de Avila Botton
Nontyphoidal Salmonella are one of the leading causes of foodborne diseases in the world. As poultry products are recognized as main sources of human salmonellosis, nontyphoidal Salmonella control has become a global issue for the poultry industry. The increasing antimicrobial resistance in poultry-related nontyphoidal Salmonella serovars is a global matter of concern. By monitoring the evolution of antimicrobial resistance, alternative treatments can be identified and possible restrictions in the treatment of systemic human salmonellosis foreseen...
December 6, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922740/antimicrobial-resistance-of-salmonella-spp-isolated-from-food
#5
Łukasz Mąka, Magdalena Popowska
This review summarizes current data on resistance among Salmonella spp. isolates of food origin from countries in different regions of the world. The mechanisms of resistance to different groups of antimicrobial compounds are also considered. Among strains resistant to quinolones and/or fluoroquinolones the most prevalent mechanism is amino acid substitutions in quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of genes gyrA, parC but mechanism of growing importance is plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) associated with genes qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS but frequency of their detection is different...
2016: Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920760/prevalence-of-the-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-coagulase-positive-and-negative-staphylococcus-in-chicken-meat-retailed-to-consumers
#6
Kamelia Osman, Jihan Badr, Khalid S Al-Maary, Ihab M I Moussa, Ashgan M Hessain, Zeinab M S Amin Girah, Usama H Abo-Shama, Ahmed Orabi, Aalaa Saad
The use of antibiotics in farm management (growing crops and raising animals) has become a major area of concern. Its implications is the consequent emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and accordingly their access into the human food chain with passage of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) to the normal human intestinal microbiota and hence to other pathogenic bacteria causative human disease. Therefore, we pursued in this study to unravel the frequency and the quinolone resistance determining region, mecA and cfr genes of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920474/hepatitis-b-virus-upregulates-host-expression-of-%C3%AE-1-2-mannosidases-via-the-ppar%C3%AE-pathway
#7
Song Hu, Li-Bin Jiang, Xiao-Jing Zou, Wei Yi, De-Ying Tian
AIM: To assess the effects of hepatitis B virus (HBV) on the expression of host α-1,2-mannosidases and determine the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: We measured the expression levels of MAN1A1, MAN1A2, MAN1B1, and MAN1C1 in cell lines HepG2.2.15, HepN10, HepAD38 and HepG2 by Western blot. Viral antigens (HBsAg and HBeAg) in the culture medium were measured using the chemiluminescence method. HBV DNA quantification assays were performed using a commercial real-time PCR kit...
November 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918694/ceftaroline-activity-against-multidrug-resistant-streptococcus-pneumoniae-from-u-s-medical-centers-2014-and-molecular-characterization-of-a-single-ceftaroline-nonsusceptible-isolate
#8
Michael A Pfaller, Rodrigo E Mendes, Robert K Flamm, Ronald N Jones, Helio S Sader
Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates (2,614) were collected from patients at 135 U.S. Medical Centers during 2014. Isolates were evaluated for multidrug resistance to penicillin, ceftriaxone, erythromycin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and levofloxacin. A single isolate (853008) demonstrated a ceftaroline nonsusceptible minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value, and it was subjected to molecular characterization. Ceftaroline (MIC50/90, ≤0.015/0.12 μg/ml) was eightfold more potent than ceftriaxone (MIC50/90, ≤0...
December 5, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917926/clonal-spread-of-mcr-1-in-pmqr-carrying-st34-salmonella-isolates-from-animals-in-china
#9
Xing-Ping Li, Liang-Xing Fang, Jia-Qi Song, Jing Xia, Wei Huo, Jin-Tao Fang, Xiao-Ping Liao, Ya-Hong Liu, Youjun Feng, Jian Sun
Since initial identification in China, the widespread geographical occurrence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1 in Enterobacteriaceae has been of great concern. In this study, a total of 22 Salmonella enterica were resistant to colistin, while only five isolates which belonged to ST34 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) were mcr-1 positive. Four of them shared nearly identical PFGE type, although they were from different host species and diverse geographical locations. All the mcr-1-positive S...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916622/a-novel-group-of-incq1-plasmids-conferring-multidrug-resistance
#10
M Oliva, R Monno, P D'Addabbo, G Pesole, A M Dionisi, M Scrascia, M Chiara, D S Horner, C Manzari, I Luzzi, C Calia, A M D'Erchia, C Pazzani
The IncQ is a group of non-conjugative but mobilisable plasmids that are stably maintained and found in a wide range of bacteria, contributing to the spread of antimicrobial resistance genes and to the insurgence of multidrug resistant bacteria. Here we report the identification, in clinical Salmonella Typhimurium strains, of an IncQ1 plasmid (pNUC) conferring resistance to sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin and tetracycline encoded by sul2, strAB and tetA, respectively. pNUC was detected in five multidrug resistant S...
December 1, 2016: Plasmid
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916605/modulation-of-drug-resistance-and-biofilm-formation-of-staphylococcus-aureus-isolated-from-the-oral-cavity-of-tunisian-children
#11
Tarek Zmantar, Rihab Ben Slama, Kais Fdhila, Bochra Kouidhi, Amina Bakhrouf, Kamel Chaieb
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate the antimicrobial and the anti-biofilm activities of Lactobacillus plantarum extract (LPE) against a panel of oral Staphylococcus aureus (n=9) and S. aureus ATCC 25923. The in vitro ability of LPE to modulate bacterial resistance to tetracycline, benzalchonium chloride (BC), and chlorhexidine (CHX) were tested also. METHODS: The MICs and MBCs of LPE, tetracycline (TET), CHX and BC were determined in absence and in presence of a sub-MIC doses of LPE (1/2 MIC)...
December 1, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916494/a-novel-solid-digestate-derived-biochar-cu-np-composite-activating-h2o2-system-for-simultaneous-adsorption-and-degradation-of-tetracycline
#12
Dun Fu, Zheng Chen, Dong Xia, Liang Shen, Yuanpeng Wang, Qingbiao Li
Solid digestate, a by-product of anaerobic digestion systems, has led to a range of environmental issues. In the present study, a novel composite based on a solid digestate-biochar-Cu NP composite was synthesized for tetracycline removal from an aqueous medium. The removal efficiency values for tetracycline (200 mg L(-1)) were 31.5% and 97.8%, respectively, by the biochar-Cu NP composite (0.5 g L(-1)) in the absence and presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 20 mM) within 6 h of reaction time. The possible degradation pathway of tetracycline was investigated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
December 1, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915294/insightful-directed-evolution-of-escherichia-coli-quorum-sensing-promoter-region-of-the-lsracdbfg-operon-a-tool-for-synthetic-biology-systems-and-protein-expression
#13
Pricila Hauk, Kristina Stephens, Ryan Mckay, Chelsea Ryan Virgile, Hana Ueda, Marc Ostermeier, Kyoung-Seok Ryu, Herman O Sintim, William E Bentley
Quorum sensing (QS) regulates many natural phenotypes (e.q. virulence, biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance), and its components, when incorporated into synthetic genetic circuits, enable user-directed phenotypes. We created a library of Escherichia coli lsr operon promoters using error-prone PCR (ePCR) and selected for promoters that provided E. coli with higher tetracycline resistance over the native promoter when placed upstream of the tet(C) gene. Among the fourteen clones identified, we found several mutations in the binding sites of QS repressor, LsrR...
December 1, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912133/fate-of-tetracycline-resistance-in-synthetic-livestock-carcass-leachate-for-two-years
#14
Dennis Espineli Salcedo, Sungpyo Kim
To simulate the fate of antibiotic resistance in leachate from anaerobic carcass landfill site, anaerobic reactors were set-up and their antibiotic resistance activities were monitored for 2 years. Initially, Escherichia coli DH5α with tetracycline resistance pB10 plasmid was inoculated in nutrient rich anaerobic reactors. The fate of tetracycline resistant bacteria (TRB) was tracked by analysis using culture-based method, EC50 (half maximal effective concentration), and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908699/fast-methodology-for-the-determination-of-a-broad-set-of-antibiotics-and-some-of-their-metabolites-in-seafood
#15
Albert Serra-Compte, Diana Álvarez-Muñoz, Sara Rodríguez-Mozaz, Damià Barceló
The presence of antibiotics in seafood for human consumption may pose a risk for consumers. A methodology for the analysis of antibiotics in seafood based on QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe) extraction, followed by detection and quantification using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was developed. The analytical method was evaluated for the determination of 23 antibiotics (including parent compounds and some metabolites) in fish, mussels and clams. Recoveries ranged between 30% and 70% for most of the compounds and method detection and quantification limits (MDLs and MQLs) were between 0...
November 28, 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906990/surveillance-of-helicobacter-pylori-antibiotic-susceptibility-in-indonesia-different-resistance-types-among-regions-and-with-novel-genetic-mutations
#16
Muhammad Miftahussurur, Ari Fahrial Syam, Iswan Abbas Nusi, Dadang Makmun, Langgeng Agung Waskito, Lukman Hakim Zein, Fardah Akil, Willy Brodus Uwan, David Simanjuntak, I Dewa Nyoman Wibawa, Jimmy Bradley Waleleng, Alexander Michael Joseph Saudale, Fauzi Yusuf, Syifa Mustika, Pangestu Adi, Ummi Maimunah, Hasan Maulahela, Yudith Annisa Ayu Rezkitha, Phawinee Subsomwong, Nasronudin, Dadik Rahardjo, Rumiko Suzuki, Junko Akada, Yoshio Yamaoka
Information regarding Helicobacter pylori antibiotic resistance in Indonesia was previously inadequate. We assessed antibiotic susceptibility for H. pylori in Indonesia, and determined the association between virulence genes or genetic mutations and antibiotic resistance. We recruited 849 dyspeptic patients who underwent endoscopy in 11 cities in Indonesia. E-test was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of five antibiotics. PCR-based sequencing assessed mutations in 23S rRNA, rdxA, gyrA, gyrB, and virulence genes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902427/phenotypic-and-genetic-characterization-of-multi-drug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-the-tropics-of-southeast-asia
#17
Siti Norayuni Mohd Zulkeflle, Yus Amira Yusaimi, Norio Sugiura, Koji Iwamoto, Masafumi Goto, Motoo Utsumi, Nor'azizi Bin Othman, Zuriati Zakaria, Hirofumi Hara
Antibiotic resistance has become a major public health problem throughout the world. The presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in hospital wastewater is cause for great concern today. In this study, 276 S. aureus isolates were recovered from hospital wastewater samples in Malaysia. All of the isolates were screened for susceptibility to nine different classes of antibiotics: ampicillin (AMP), ciprofloxacin (CFX), gentamicin (GMN), kanamycin (KMN), erythromycin (ERM), vancomycin (VAN), trimetoprim and sulfamethaxazole (TM-SMZ), chloramphenicol (CMP), tetracycline (TET), and nalidixic acid (NAL)...
November 3, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902396/determination-of-antimicrobial-resistance-of-enterococcus-strains-isolated-from-pigs-and-their-genotypic-characterization-by-method-of-amplification-of-dna-fragments-surrounding-rare-restriction-sites-the-adsrrs-fingerprinting
#18
Aneta Nowakiewicz, Grażyna Ziółkowska, Aleksandra Trościańczyk, Przemysław Zięba, Sebastian Gnat
In this study, we analysed phenotypic resistance profiles and their reflection in the genomic profiles of Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from pigs raised on different farms. Samples were collected from five pig farms (n=90 animals) and tested for Enterococcus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of 12 antimicrobials were determined using the broth microdilution method, and epidemiological molecular analysis of strains belonging to selected species (E. faecalis, E. faecium and E. hirae) was performed using the ADSRRS-fingerprinting method with a few modifications...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902365/the-oral-cavities-of-healthy-infants-harbor-high-proportions-of-streptococcus-salivarius-strains-with-phenotypic-and-genotypic-resistance-to-multiple-classes-of-antibiotics
#19
Thaís H Palma, Erika Harth-Chú, Jodie Scott, Rafael N Stipp, Heike Boisvert, Mariana F Salomão, Jéssica D Theobaldo, Rosana F Possobon, Leandro C Nascimento, Jonathan W McCafferty, Lina Faller, Margaret J Duncan, Renata O Mattos-Graner
Emerging antibiotic resistance in the oropharyngeal microbiota, of which Streptococcus salivarius is a prominent species, represents a challenge for treating pediatric populations. In this study, we investigated the role of S. salivarius as a reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) in the oral microbiota by analyzing 95 S. salivarius isolates from 22 healthy infants (2 to 16 months of age). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of penicillin G, amoxicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, doxycycline and streptomycin were determined...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902358/wolbachia-suppresses-cell-fusing-agent-virus-in-mosquito-cells
#20
Guagmei Zhang, Kayvan Etebari, Sassan Asgari
The genus Flavivirus contains a large number of positive sense single-stranded RNA viruses. While some are transmitted by mosquitoes or other arthropods and are pathogenic to humans and animals (e.g. dengue and Zika viruses), some are insect-specific and do not replicate in vertebrate cells. These are known as insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs). Cell fusing agent virus (CFAV) was the first described ISF, which was detected in an Aedes aegypti cell line, Aag2. Here, we investigated the effect of Wolbachia, a widespread endosymbiont of many insect species, that is known to block replication of several pathogenic flaviviruses, on CFAV...
November 8, 2016: Journal of General Virology
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