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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915442/co-exposure-to-low-doses-of-the-food-contaminants-deoxynivalenol-and-nivalenol-has-a-synergistic-inflammatory-effect-on-intestinal-explants
#1
Imourana Alassane-Kpembi, Olivier Puel, Philippe Pinton, Anne-Marie Cossalter, Ting-Chao Chou, Isabelle P Oswald
The global incidence of Fusarium head blight and attendant cereal grains multi-contamination by the trichothecene mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) are increasing as a possible result of climate change and inadequate agricultural practices. At the molecular level, these mycotoxins bind to the ribosome, activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase and induce a local and systemic inflammation. DON is of public health concern owing to the narrow margin between exposure and tolerable daily intake...
December 3, 2016: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915436/bone-marrow-produces-sufficient-alloreactive-natural-killer-nk-cells-in-vivo-to-cure-mice-from-subcutaneously-and-intravascularly-injected-4t1-breast-cancer
#2
Michel van Gelder, Ariane Vanclée, Catharina H M J van Elssen, Pierre Hupperets, Lotte Wieten, Gerard M Bos
PURPOSE: Administration of 5 million alloreactive natural killer (NK) cells after low-dose chemo-irradiation cured mice of 4T1 breast cancer, supposedly dose dependent. We now explored the efficacy of bone marrow as alternative in vivo source of NK cells for anti-breast cancer treatment, as methods for in vitro clinical scale NK cell expansion are still in developmental phases. METHODS: Progression-free survival (PFS) after treatment with different doses of spleen-derived alloreactive NK cells to 4T1-bearing Balb/c mice was measured to determine a dose-response relation...
December 3, 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915281/effects-of-predation-and-dispersal-on-bacterial-abundance-and-contaminant-biodegradation
#3
Sally Otto, Hauke Harms, Lukas Y Wick
Research into the biodegradation of soil contaminants has rarely addressed the consequences of predator-prey interactions. Here, we investigated the joint effect of predation and dispersal networks on contaminant degradation by linking spatial abundances of degrader (Pseudomonas fluorescens) and predator (Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus) bacteria to the degradation of the major soil contaminant phenanthrene (PHE). We used a laboratory microcosm with a PHE passive dosing system and a glass fiber network to facilitate bacterial dispersal...
December 2, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915270/chemoprevention-of-spontaneous-ovarian-cancer-in-the-domestic-hen
#4
E H Mocka, R A Stern, O J Fletcher, K E Anderson, J N Petitte, P E Mozdziak
The hen is an attractive animal model for in vivo testing of agents that thwart ovarian carcinogenesis because ovarian cancer in the domestic hen features clinical and molecular alterations that are similar to ovarian cancer in humans, including a high incidence of p53 mutations. The objective of the study was to test the potential ovarian cancer chemopreventive effect of the p53 stabilizing compound CP-31398 on hens that spontaneously present the ovarian cancer phenotype. Beginning at 79 wk of age, 576 egg-laying hens (Gallus domesticus) were randomized to diets containing different amounts of CP-31398 for 94 wk, 5 d, comprising a control group (C) (n = 144), which was fed a diet containing 0 ppm (mg/kg) of CP-31398; a low-dose treatment (LDT) group (n = 144), which was fed a diet containing 100 ppm of CP-31398; a moderate-dose treatment (MDT) group (n = 144) which was fed a diet containing 200 ppm of CP-31398; and a high-dose treatment (HDT) group (n = 144), which was fed a diet containing 300 ppm of CP-31398...
December 3, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915193/metabolic-fate-and-detectability-of-the-new-psychoactive-substances-2-4-bromo-2-5-dimethoxyphenyl-n-2-methoxyphenyl-methyl-ethanamine-25b-nbome-and-2-4-chloro-2-5-dimethoxyphenyl-n-2-methoxyphenyl-methyl-ethanamine-25c-nbome-in-human-and-rat-urine-by-gc-ms
#5
Achim T Caspar, Simon D Brandt, Andreas E Stoever, Markus R Meyer, Hans H Maurer
25B-NBOMe and 25C-NBOMe are potent 5-HT2A receptor agonists that have been associated with inducing hallucinogenic effects in drug users and severe intoxications. This paper describes the identification of their metabolites in rat and human urine by liquid chromatography (LC)-high resolution (HR)-MS/MS, the comparison of metabolite formation in vitro and in vivo and in different species, the general involvement of human cytochrome-P450 (CYP) isoenzymes on their metabolism steps, and their detectability by standard urine screening approaches (SUSAs) using GC-MS, LC-MS(n), or LC-HR-MS/MS...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915184/anti-atherosclerotic-effects-of-pravastatin-in-brachiocephalic-artery-in-comparison-with-en-face-aorta-and-aortic-roots-in-apoe-ldlr-mice
#6
Renata B Kostogrys, Magdalena Franczyk-Zarow, Marlena Gasior-Glogowska, Edyta Kus, Agnieszka Jasztal, Tomasz P Wrobel, Malgorzata Baranska, Izabela Czyzynska-Cichon, Anna Drahun, Angelika Manterys, Stefan Chlopicki
BACKGROUND: Cholesterol-dependent and independent mechanisms were proposed to explain anti-atherosclerotic action of statins in humans. However, their effects in murine models of atherosclerosis have not been consistently demonstrated. Here, we studied the effects of pravastatin on atherosclerosis in ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice fed a control and atherogenic diet. METHODS: ApoE/LDLR(-/-) mice were fed a control (CHOW) or an atherogenic (Low Carbohydrate High Protein, LCHP) diet...
September 17, 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915051/low-but-not-high-dose-caffeine-is-a-readily-available-probe-for-adenosine-actions
#7
REVIEW
Bertil B Fredholm, Jiangning Yang, Yingqing Wang
Caffeine is very widely used and knowledge of its mode of action can be used to gain an understanding of basal physiological regulation. This review makes the point that caffeine is - in low doses - an antagonist of adenosine acting at A1, A2A and A2B receptors. We use published and unpublished data to make the point that high dose effects of caffeine are not only qualitatively different but have a different underlying mechanism. Therefore one must be careful in only using epidemiological or experimental data where rather low doses of caffeine are used to draw conclusions about the physiology and pathophysiology of adenosine...
November 30, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915005/development-and-characterisation-of-disulfiram-loaded-plga-nanoparticles-for-the-treatment-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#8
Mohammad Najlah, Zahima Ahmed, Mohammed Iqbal, Zhipeng Wang, Patrica Tawari, Weiguang Wang, Christopher McConville
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer in both men and women. A recent phase IIb study demonstrated that disulfiram (DSF) in combination with cisplatin and vinorelbine was well tolerated and prolonged the survival of patients with newly diagnosed NSCLC. However, DSF is rapidly (4 minutes) metabolised in the bloodstream and it is this issue which is limiting its anticancer application in the clinic. We have recently demonstrated that a low dose of DSF-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles supplemented with oral Cu inhibited tumour growth and reduced metastasis in a xenograft mouse lung cancer model...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914971/once-weekly-ofatumumab-in-untreated-or-relapsed-waldenstr%C3%A3-m-s-macroglobulinaemia-an-open-label-single-arm-phase-2-study
#9
Richard R Furman, Herbert A Eradat, Christine G DiRienzo, Craig C Hofmeister, Suzanne R Hayman, John P Leonard, Morton Coleman, Ranjana Advani, Asher Chanan-Khan, Julie Switzky, Qiming M Liao, Damini Shah, Roxanne C Jewell, Steen Lisby, Thomas S Lin
BACKGROUND: The development of more effective and safer treatments, especially non-chemotherapeutics, is needed for patients with Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia. The aim of the study was to assess the safety and clinical activity of intravenous ofatumumab monotherapy for untreated and relapsed Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia. METHODS: We did a phase 2, open-label, single-arm study at six centres (hospitals and cancer clinics) in the USA. Patients aged at least 18 years who were diagnosed with untreated or relapsed Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia and required treatment, received up to three cycles of weekly ofatumumab for 5 weeks...
November 30, 2016: Lancet Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914963/hypothermia-in-mouse-is-caused-by-adenosine-a1-and-a3-receptor-agonists-and-amp-via-three-distinct-mechanisms
#10
Jesse Lea Carlin, Shalini Jain, Elizabeth Gizewski, Tina C Wan, Dilip K Tosh, Cuiying Xiao, John A Auchampach, Kenneth A Jacobson, Oksana Gavrilova, Marc L Reitman
Small mammals have the ability to enter torpor, a hypothermic, hypometabolic state, allowing impressive energy conservation. Administration of adenosine or adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) can trigger a hypothermic, torpor-like state. We investigated the mechanisms for hypothermia using telemetric monitoring of body temperature in wild type and receptor knock out (Adora1(-/-)-/-, Adora3(-/-)) mice. Confirming prior data, stimulation of the A3 adenosine receptor (AR) induced hypothermia via peripheral mast cell degranulation, histamine release, and activation of central histamine H1 receptors...
November 30, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914859/fine-and-ultrafine-atmospheric-particulate-matter-at-a-multi-influenced-urban-site-physicochemical-characterization-mutagenicity-and-cytotoxicity
#11
Yann Landkocz, Frédéric Ledoux, Véronique André, Fabrice Cazier, Paul Genevray, Dorothée Dewaele, Perrine J Martin, Capucine Lepers, Anthony Verdin, Lucie Courcot, Saâd Boushina, François Sichel, Maurizio Gualtieri, Pirouz Shirali, Dominique Courcot, Sylvain Billet
Particulate Matter (PM) air pollution is one of the major concerns for environment and health. Understanding the heterogeneity and complexity of fine and ultrafine PM is a fundamental issue notably for the assessment of PM toxicological effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of a multi-influenced urban site PM, with or without the ultrafine fraction. For this purpose, PM2.5-0.3 (PM with aerodynamic diameter ranging from 0.3 to 2.5 μm) and PM2.5 were collected in Dunkerque, a French coastal industrial city and were extensively characterized for their physico-chemical properties, including inorganic and organic species...
November 30, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914857/imidacloprid-induces-various-toxicological-effects-related-to-the-expression-of-3%C3%AE-hsd-nr5a1-and-ogg1-genes-in-mature-and-immature-rats
#12
Amany Abdel-Rahman Mohamed, Wafaa A M Mohamed, Safaa I Khater
This study aimed to evaluate the adverse effects of the insecticide imidacloprid (IMI) on male spermatogenesis, steroidogenesis, and DNA damage in sexually mature and immature rats. Forty male rats (mature and immature) were equally divided into four groups: two mature and two immature groups. IMI groups of both ages were orally administered IMI in corn oil at a concentration of 1 mg/mL for kg BW/day, whereas their respective controls were orally administered corn oil only (1 mL/kg of body weight) daily for 65 days...
November 30, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914846/comparison-of-high-and-low-dose-intra-articular-triamcinolone-acetonide-injection-for-treatment-of-primary-shoulder-stiffness-a-prospective-randomized-trial
#13
Yang-Soo Kim, Hyo-Jin Lee, Dong-Hwan Lee, Keun-Young Choi
BACKGROUND: Intra-articular corticosteroid injection has a proven effect for shoulder stiffness, yet the optimal dose is still controversial. The purpose of the study was to compare the outcomes of intra-articular triamcinolone acetonide injection at 2 different doses in patients with shoulder stiffness. METHODS: Intra-articular injection of 40 mg (group I, n = 76) or 20 mg (group II, n = 71) of triamcinolone acetonide was performed in patients with shoulder stiffness...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914779/what-do-radiation-oncologists-require-for-future-advancements-in-lung-sbrt
#14
REVIEW
Umberto Ricardi, Serena Badellino, Andrea Riccardo Filippi
Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) is a well established therapeutic option for patients affected with peripheral early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), given the positive clinical evidence accumulated so far on its efficacy and safety. SBRT is regarded as the best choice for inoperable patients, and could also be offered as an alternative to surgery to selected operable patients. More recently, its use for lung metastases progressively increased, and SBRT is now regarded as a low toxic and highly effective local therapy for lung oligometastases from different primary tumors, especially colorectal cancer...
November 30, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914740/predicting-the-relative-impacts-of-maternal-and-neonatal-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-vaccine-target-product-profiles-a-consensus-modelling-approach
#15
Wirichada Pan-Ngum, Timothy Kinyanjui, Moses Kiti, Sylvia Taylor, Jean-François Toussaint, Sompob Saralamba, Thierry Van Effelterre, D James Nokes, Lisa J White
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major viral cause of infant and childhood lower respiratory tract disease worldwide. Defining the optimal target product profile (TPP) is complicated due to a wide range of possible vaccine properties, modalities and an incomplete understanding of the mechanism of natural immunity. We report consensus population level impact projections based on two mathematical models applied to a low income setting. METHOD: Two structurally distinct age-specific deterministic compartmental models reflecting uncertainty associated with the natural history of infection and the mechanism by which immunity is acquired and lost were constructed...
November 28, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914539/the-effects-of-alpha-cypermethrin-exposure-on-biochemical-and-redox-parameters-in-pregnant-rats-and-their-newborns
#16
Leila Hocine, Hafida Merzouk, Sid Ahmed Merzouk, Hafeda Ghorzi, Meriem Youbi, Michel Narce
Pyrethroid insecticides are extensively used in agriculture and in household activities. During pregnancy, they might affect maternal metabolic status and there after fetal development. In this work, we studied metabolic and redox effects of low dose alpha-cypermethrin exposure in pregnant rats and their offspring. The diet containing alpha cypermethrin at 0.02mg/kg/day was consumed during the entire gestation. Plasma biochemical parameters as well as liver lipid and oxidative stress markers were determined...
November 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914492/ticagrelor-with-aspirin-or-alone-in-high-risk-patients-after-coronary-intervention-rationale-and-design-of-the-twilight-study
#17
Usman Baber, George Dangas, David J Cohen, C Michael Gibson, Shamir R Mehta, Dominick J Angiolillo, Stuart J Pocock, Mitchell W Krucoff, Adnan Kastrati, E Magnus Ohman, Philippe Gabriel Steg, Juan Badimon, M Urooj Zafar, Jaya Chandrasekhar, Samantha Sartori, Melissa Aquino, Roxana Mehran
BACKGROUND: Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is necessary to prevent thrombosis yet increases bleeding after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (DES). Antiplatelet monotherapy with a potent P2Y12 receptor antagonist may reduce bleeding while maintaining anti thrombotic efficacy compared with conventional DAPT. METHODS: TWILIGHT is a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial evaluating the comparative efficacy and safety of antiplatelet monotherapy versus DAPT in up to 9000 high-risk patients undergoing PCI with DES...
December 2016: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914106/effect-of-cranberry-extract-on-the-frequency-of-bacteriuria-in-dogs-with-acute-thoracolumbar-disk-herniation-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#18
N J Olby, S L Vaden, K Williams, E H Griffith, T Harris, C L Mariani, K R Muñana, P J Early, S R Platt, L Boozer, C Giovanella, R Longshore
BACKGROUND: Dogs with spinal cord injury are at increased risk of developing bacteriuria due to increased residual urine volume. Cranberry extract inhibits binding of E. coli to uroepithelial cells, potentially reducing risk of bacteriuria. HYPOTHESIS: Cranberry extract reduces risk of bacteriuria in dogs after acute TL-IVDH. ANIMALS: Client-owned dogs with acute onset TL-IVDH causing nonambulatory status. METHODS: Randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded, prospective clinical trial...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913970/radiological-and-biochemical-effects-ctx-ii-mmp-3-8-and-13-of-low-level-laser-therapy-lllt-in-chronic-osteoarthritis-in-al-kharj-saudi-arabia
#19
Gopal Nambi S, Walid Kamal, Julie George, Elbagir Manssor
Inflammation of synovial membrane and degeneration of articular cartilage in osteoarthritis (OA) lead to major changes in joint space width (JSW) and biochemical components such as collagen-II telopeptide (CTX-II) and matrix metallo protineases (MMP-3, 8, and 13). Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is thought to have an analgesic effect as well as biomodulatory effect on microcirculation and cartilage regeneration in animal studies. The objective of this study was to examine the analgesic and biochemical effect of LLLT in patients with knee osteoarthritis...
December 3, 2016: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913881/phase-ii-trial-of-s-1-plus-leucovorin-in-patients-with-advanced-gastric-cancer-and-clinical-prediction-by-s-1-pharmacogenetic-pathway
#20
Ming-Ming He, Dong-Sheng Zhang, Feng Wang, Zi-Xian Wang, Shu-Qiang Yuan, Zhi-Qiang Wang, Hui-Yan Luo, Chao Ren, Miao-Zhen Qiu, Ying Jin, De-Shen Wang, Dong-Liang Chen, Zhao-Lei Zeng, Yu-Hong Li, Yang-Yang He, Yuan-Tao Hao, Pi Guo, Feng-Hua Wang, Yi-Xin Zeng, Rui-Hua Xu
BACKGROUND: The first one-arm phase II trial aimed to evaluate and predict efficacy and safety of S-1 plus oral leucovorin (S-1/LV) as first-line chemotherapy for patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC), using S-1 pharmacogenetic pathway approach. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 39 patients orally took S-1 at conventional dose and LV simultaneously at a dose of 25 mg twice daily for a week, within a 2-week cycle. The primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR), while the secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), time to failure (TTF), overall survival (OS), disease control rate (DCR), and adverse events (AEs)...
December 2, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
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