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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109827/involvement-of-lateral-habenula-%C3%AE-1-subunit-containing-gabaa-receptor-mediated-inhibitory-transmission-in-the-regulation-of-depression-related-behaviors-in-experimental-parkinson-s-disease
#1
Tao Wang, Li Zhang, Qiao-Jun Zhang, Yong Wang, Cheng-Xue Du, Yi-Na Sun, Jin Zhang, Shu-Xuan Lv, Li Chen, Jian Liu
The lateral habenula (LHb) plays an important role in the regulation of depression. At present, it is not clear whether GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory transmission in the LHb is involved in Parkinson's disease (PD)-associated depression. In this study, unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the substantia nigra in rats induced depressive-like behaviors and led to hyperactivity of LHb neurons compared to sham-operated rats, which attribute to depletion of dopamine, and decreased synthesis and release of GABA and increased release of glutamate in the LHb...
January 18, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108264/iron-accumulation-and-microglia-activation-contribute-to-substantia-nigra-hyperechogenicity-in-the-6-ohda-induced-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Yaqin Zhu, Bao Wang, Kai Tao, Hengli Yang, Yixiao Wang, Tian Zhou, Yilin Yang, Lijun Yuan, Xi Liu, Yunyou Duan
INTRODUCTION: This study aims to explain the mechanisms for the formation of sonographic features of Parkinson's disease (PD) using a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model of PD. The iron chelator deferiprone (DFP) was used in the PD model rat to examine the relationship between iron and the echo signal. METHODS: Rat models were created using stereotactic injections of 6-OHDA. DFP was administered intragastrically. Transcranial sonography (TCS) was performed to observe the substantia nigra (SN) echo signal of the brain...
January 6, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108256/a-quantitative-evaluation-of-a-2-5-kb-rat-tyrosine-hydroxylase-promoter-to-target-expression-in-ventral-mesencephalic-dopamine-neurons-in-vivo
#3
Anne-Sophie Rolland, Tatyana Kareva, Nikolai Kholodilov, Robert E Burke
Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) have become powerful tools in neuroscience for both basic research and potential therapeutic use. They have become especially important tools for optogenetic experiments based on their ability to achieve transgene expression in postmitotic neurons with regional selectivity. With the use of appropriate promoter elements they can achieve cellular specificity as well. One population of neurons that plays a central role in human neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases are the dopamine neurons of the midbrain...
January 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106567/fractional-anisotropy-and-mean-diffusion-as-measures-of-dopaminergic-function-in-parkinson-s-disease-challenging-results
#4
Niklas Lenfeldt, Johan Eriksson, Björn Åström, Lars Forsgren, Susanna Jakobson
BACKGROUND: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been purported as an imaging technique to assess dopaminergic degeneration in Parkinson's disease. OBJECTIVE: To test if fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusion (MD) in the basal ganglia as measured by DTI correlates with dopaminergic function as measured by dopamine transporter (DAT) and dopamine D2-receptor (D2R) SPECT. METHODS: One-hundred and eleven patients with Parkinson's disease (71±10 years) and thirty-one controls (68±7 years) performed DTI, DAT and D2R SPECT at baseline and four follow-ups (1-year: 89 patients/zero controls; 3-year: 72/11; 5-year: 48/17; and 8-year: 13/13)...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104279/effect-of-inhibition-of-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-on-mptp-induced-dopaminergic-neuronal-damage
#5
J M Viveros-Paredes, R E Gonzalez-Castañeda, A Escalante-Castañeda, A R Tejeda-Martínez, F Castañeda-Achutiguí, M E Flores-Soto
INTRODUCTION: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterised by balance problems, muscle rigidity, and slow movement due to low dopamine levels and loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). The endocannabinoid system is known to modulate the nigrostriatal pathway through endogenous ligands such as anandamide (AEA), which is hydrolysed by fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH). The purpose of this study was to increase AEA levels using FAAH inhibitor URB597 to evaluate the modulatory effect of AEA on dopaminergic neuronal death induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)...
January 16, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097465/hydroxysafflor-yellow-a-improves-motor-dysfunction-in-the-rotenone-induced-mice-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#6
Tian Wang, Lijie Wang, Cuiting Li, Bing Han, Zhenhua Wang, Ji Li, Yan Lv, Shuyun Wang, Fenghua Fu
Dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) is diminished in patients of Parkinson's disease (PD). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is responsible for regulating expression of the DRD3 in the brain. Our previous study showed that hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) could increase BDNF content in the striatum of PD mice. This experiment aimed to evaluate whether HSYA can improve the motor dysfunction induced by rotenone through regulating the BDNF/TrkB/DRD3 signaling pathway in mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were intraperitoneally treated with HSYA...
January 17, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096964/g-csf-for-mobilizing-transplanted-bone-marrow-stem-cells-in-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Manouchehr Safari, Behnaz Jafari, Sam Zarbakhsh, Hamidreza Sameni, Abbas Ali Vafaei, Nasrin Khan Mohammadi, Laya Ghahari
OBJECTIVES: Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is used in clinical practice for the treatment of neutropenia and to stimulate generation of hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow donors. In the present study, the ability of G-CSF in mobilizing exogenous bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) from peripheral blood into the brain was tested. We for the first time injected a small amount of BMSCs through the tail vein. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We choose 25 male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were lesioned by 6-OHDA injected into the left substantia nigra, pars compacta (SNpc)...
December 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095073/preclinical-and-potential-applications-of-common-western-herbal-supplements-as-complementary-treatment-in-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Luke A Morgan, Oliver Grundmann
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurological disorder with a complex pathological etiology, which is not fully understood. Progression of PD may be the result of a buildup of iron in the substantia nigra, microglia-mediated neuroinflammation, dysfunctional mitochondria, or abnormal protein handling. Dopamine is the main neurotransmitter affected, but as the disease progresses, a decrease in all the brain's biogenic amines occurs. Current medication used in the treatment of PD aims to prevent the breakdown of dopamine or increase dopaminergic neurotransmission in the central nervous system...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094105/sonographic-alteration-of-substantia-nigra-is-related-to-parkinsonism-predominant-course-of-x-linked-dystonia-parkinsonism
#9
Uwe Walter, Raymond Rosales, Alessandro Rocco, Ana Westenberger, Aloysius Domingo, Criscely L Go, Norbert Brüggemann, Christine Klein, Lillian V Lee, Dirk Dressler
INTRODUCTION: X-linked recessive dystonia-parkinsonism (XDP, DYT3) is highly prevalent in the Philippines and manifests with varying phenotype. We sought to evaluate the significance of transcranial brain sonography as a biomarker for parkinsonism-predominant phenotype. METHODS: 90 Filipino participants were enrolled into a cross-sectional study: 39 patients with XDP, 21 asymptomatic first-degree relatives of XDP patients, and 30 healthy control subjects. Echogenicity of the substantia nigra and the lenticular nuclei was digitally quantified...
January 10, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093210/neuroprotection-by-paeoniflorin-in-the-mptp-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Meizhu Zheng, Chunming Liu, Yajun Fan, Pan Yan, Dongfang Shi, Yuchi Zhang
Paeoniflorin (PF) is a major bioactive ingredient in Radix Paeonia alba roots that has low toxicity and has been shown to have neuroprotective effects. Our in vitro experiments suggested that PF affords a significant neuroprotective effect against MPP(+)-induced damage and apoptosis in PC12 cells through Bcl-2/Bax/caspase-3 pathway. The objectives of the present study were to explore the potential neuroprotective effect of PF in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD)...
January 13, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089851/neuregulin-1-mutant-mice-indicate-motor-and-sensory-deficits-indeed-few-references-for-schizophrenia-endophenotype-model
#11
Silvia Schneider, Katja Götz, Carmen Birchmeier, Herbert Schwegler, Thomas Roskoden
Neuregulins (Nrg) are a gene family that binds to tyrosine kinase receptors of the ErbB family. The protein of Nrg1 is to be involved in heart formation, migration of neurons, axonal pathfinding and synaptic function. A relation between Nrg1 and schizophrenia is assumed. Chronic impairment in schizophrenia is characterized by different positive and negative symptoms. Detectable markers of this disease in human and in animal models are activity, social behavior and sensory processing. In this study we compared heterozygous Nrg1 mutant mice in behavior and quantification of dopaminergic and serotoninergic neurons with wild type-like littermates...
January 13, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088642/anti-rage-antibody-selectively-blocks-acute-systemic-inflammatory-responses-to-lps-in-serum-liver-csf-and-striatum
#12
Juciano Gasparotto, Camila Tiefensee Ribeiro, Rafael Calixto Bortolin, Henrique Schaan Fernandes, Alexsander Alves Teixeira, Marcelo Otavio Rodrigues Guasselli, Crepin Aziz Jose O Agani, Natália Cabral Souza, Mateus Grings, Guilhian Leipnitz, Henrique Mautone Gomes, Matheus Augusto de Bittencourt Pasquali, Peter R Dunkley, Phillip W Dickson, José Claudio Fonseca Moreira, Daniel Pens Gelain
Systemic inflammation induces transient or permanent dysfunction in the brain by exposing it to soluble inflammatory mediators. The receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) binds to distinct ligands mediating and increasing inflammatory processes. In this study we used an LPS-induced systemic inflammation model in rats to investigate the effect of blocking RAGE in serum, liver, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain (striatum, prefrontal cortex, ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra). Intraperitoneal injection of RAGE antibody (50 μg/kg) was followed after 1h by a single LPS (5 mg/kg) intraperitoneal injection...
January 11, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088038/evidence-of-functional-duplicity-of-nestin-expression-in-the-adult-mouse-midbrain
#13
Parisa Farzanehfar, Shi Sheng Lu, Anupa Dey, Dharshani Musiienko, Hamzah Baagil, Malcolm K Horne, Tim D Aumann
Whether or not neurogenesis occurs in the adult substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) is an important question relevant for developing better treatments for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Although controversial, it is generally believed that dividing cells here remain undifferentiated or differentiate into glia, not neurons. However, there is a suggestion that Nestin-expressing neural precursor cells (NPCs) in the adult SNc have a propensity to differentiate into neurons, which we sought to confirm in the present study...
January 5, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078602/sulfatides-primarily-exist-in-the-substantia-nigra-region-of-mouse-brain-tissue
#14
Kab-Tae Park, Jong Cheol Shon, Ji-Eun Kim, Gyu Hwan Park, Hyun Jin Choi, Kwang-Hyeon Liu
Lipid distribution in the brain is important for many biological functions and has been associated with some brain diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate lipid distribution in different regions of brain tissue in mice. To this end, substantia nigra (SN), caudate putamen (CPu), hippocampus (Hip), hypothalamus (Hyp), and cortex (Cx) tissues of mice were analyzed using direct infusion nanoelectrospray-ion trap mass spectrometry and multivariate analyses. The SN, CPu, Hip, Hyp, and Cx groups showed clear differences in lipid distribution using principal component analysis and a partial least-squares discriminant analysis score plot, and lipid levels were significantly different in different brain regions...
January 11, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077166/threonine-175-a-novel-pathological-phosphorylation-site-on-tau-protein-linked-to-multiple-tauopathies
#15
Alexander J Moszczynski, Wencheng Yang, Robert Hammond, Lee Cyn Ang, Michael J Strong
Microtubule associated protein tau (tau) deposition is associated with a spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases collectively termed tauopathies. We have previously shown that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with cognitive impairment (ALSci) is associated with tau phosphorylation at Thr(175) and that this leads to activation of GSK3β which then induces phosphorylation at tau Thr(231). This latter step leads to dissociation of tau from microtubules and pathological tau fibril formation. To determine the extent to which this pathway is unique to ALS, we have investigated the expression of pThr(175) tau and pThr(231) tau across a range of frontotemporal degenerations...
January 11, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076797/major-shifts-in-glial-regional-identity-are-a-transcriptional-hallmark-of-human-brain-aging
#16
Lilach Soreq, Jamie Rose, Eyal Soreq, John Hardy, Daniah Trabzuni, Mark R Cookson, Colin Smith, Mina Ryten, Rickie Patani, Jernej Ule
Gene expression studies suggest that aging of the human brain is determined by a complex interplay of molecular events, although both its region- and cell-type-specific consequences remain poorly understood. Here, we extensively characterized aging-altered gene expression changes across ten human brain regions from 480 individuals ranging in age from 16 to 106 years. We show that astrocyte- and oligodendrocyte-specific genes, but not neuron-specific genes, shift their regional expression patterns upon aging, particularly in the hippocampus and substantia nigra, while the expression of microglia- and endothelial-specific genes increase in all brain regions...
January 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076378/p62-pathology-model-in-the-rat-substantia-nigra-with-filamentous-inclusions-and-progressive-neurodegeneration
#17
Kasey L Jackson, Wen-Lang Lin, Sumitra Miriyala, Robert D Dayton, Manikandan Panchatcharam, Kevin J McCarthy, Monica Castanedes-Casey, Dennis W Dickson, Ronald L Klein
One of the proteins most frequently found in neuropathological lesions is the ubiquitin binding protein p62 (sequestosome 1). Post-mortem analysis of p62 is a defining diagnostic marker in several neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and inclusion body myositis. Since p62 functions in protein degradation pathways including autophagy, the build-up of p62-positive inclusions suggests defects in protein clearance. p62 was expressed unilaterally in the rat substantia nigra with an adeno-associated virus vector (AAV9) in order to study p62 neuropathology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073327/nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-disease
#18
Rosanna Palmeri, Lo Viviana Buono, Francesco Corallo, Maria Foti, Di Giuseppe Lorenzo, Placido Bramanti, Silvia Marino
Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and nonmotor symptoms. Nonmotor symptoms include cognitive deficits and impairment in emotions recognition ability associated with loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and with alteration in frontostriatal circuits. In this review, we analyzed the studies on social cognition ability in patients with PD. We searched on PubMed and Web of Science databases and screening references of included studied and review articles for additional citations...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071709/early-life-peripheral-lipopolysaccharide-challenge-reprograms-catecholaminergic-neurons
#19
Lin Kooi Ong, Erin A Fuller, Luba Sominsky, Deborah M Hodgson, Peter R Dunkley, Phillip W Dickson
Neonatal immune challenge with the bacterial mimetic lipopolysaccharide has the capacity to generate long-term changes in the brain. Neonatal rats were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (0.05 mg/kg) on postnatal day (PND) 3 and again on PND 5. The activation state of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) was measured in the locus coeruleus, ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra on PND 85. In the locus coeruleus there was an approximately four-fold increase in TH activity. This was accompanied by a significant increase in TH protein together with increased phosphorylation of all three serine residues in the N-terminal region of TH...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068457/cellular-gabaergic-neuroactive-steroid-3%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-3-hydroxy-pregnan-20-one-3%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-thp-immunostaining-levels-are-increased-in-the-ventral-tegmental-area-of-human-alcohol-use-disorder-patients-a-postmortem-study
#20
Ahmet Sait Hasirci, Antoniette M Maldonado-Devincci, Matthew C Beattie, Todd K O'Buckley, A Leslie Morrow
BACKGROUND: The GABAergic neuroactive steroid (3α,5α)-3-hydroxy-pregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THP; allopregnanolone) enhances GABAergic activity and produces subjective effects similar to ethanol (EtOH). The effect of chronic alcohol exposure on 3α,5α-THP concentrations has been studied in mouse, rat, and monkey limbic brain areas. Chronic EtOH exposure produced divergent brain region and cell-specific changes in 3α,5α-THP concentrations in animal studies. However, 3α,5α-THP levels in similar human brain regions have never been examined in individuals diagnosed with alcohol use disorder (AUD)...
January 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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