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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339422/diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-for-diagnosis-of-parkinson-s-disease-a-novel-software-tool-proposal
#1
Cruz Gloria, Sheng Dong Nie
In order to diagnose Parkinson disease (PD) at an early stage, it is important to develop a sensitive method for detecting structural changes in the substantia nigra (SN). Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have become important tools in supporting diagnosis of PD, with findings based on increased apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) in basal ganglia and decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in SN. Based on the hypothesis that a diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) theory is a valuable method for PD diagnosis based on the non-Gaussian diffusion of water in biologic systems, the purpose of this study is to develop an image processing scheme (software) based on Image-J for the facilitating the application of DKI to assist PD diagnosis...
March 21, 2017: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338882/tribal-love-the-neural-correlates-of-passionate-engagement-in-football-fans
#2
Isabel C Duarte, Sónia Afonso, Helena Jorge, Ricardo Cayolla, Carlos Ferreira, Miguel Castelo-Branco
The tribal character of the affective link between football fans and their teams is a well-recognized phenomenon. Other forms of love such as romantic or maternal attachment have previously been studied from a neuroimaging point of view. Here we aimed to investigate the neural basis of this tribal form of love, which implies both the feeling of belongingness and rivalry against opposing teams. A pool of 56 participants was submitted to an fMRI experimental design involving the presentation of winning and losing football moments of their loved, rival or neutral teams...
February 23, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337124/interleukin-4-protects-dopaminergic-neurons-in-vitro-but-is-dispensable-for-mptp-induced-neurodegeneration-in-vivo
#3
Laura Hühner, Jennifer Rilka, Ralf Gilsbach, Xiaolai Zhou, Venissa Machado, Björn Spittau
Microglia are involved in physiological as well as neuropathological processes in the central nervous system (CNS). Their functional states are often referred to as M1-like and M2-like activation, and are believed to contribute to neuroinflammation-mediated neurodegeneration or neuroprotection, respectively. Parkinson's disease (PD) is one the most common neurodegenerative disease and is characterized by the progressive loss of midbrain dopaminergic (mDA) neurons in the substantia nigra resulting in bradykinesia, tremor, and rigidity...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335819/concordance-analysis-of-microarray-studies-identifies-representative-gene-expression-changes-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-comparison-of-33-human-and-animal-studies
#4
Erin Oerton, Andreas Bender
BACKGROUND: As the popularity of transcriptomic analysis has grown, the reported lack of concordance between different studies of the same condition has become a growing concern, raising questions as to the representativeness of different study types, such as non-human disease models or studies of surrogate tissues, to gene expression in the human condition. METHODS: In a comparison of 33 microarray studies of Parkinson's disease, correlation and clustering analyses were used to determine the factors influencing concordance between studies, including agreement between different tissue types, different microarray platforms, and between neurotoxic and genetic disease models and human Parkinson's disease...
March 23, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335015/the-synaptic-function-of-parkin
#5
Jenny Sassone, GiuliaMaia Serratto, Flavia Valtorta, Vincenzo Silani, Maria Passafaro, Andrea Ciammola
Loss of function mutations in the gene PARK2, which encodes the protein parkin, cause autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism, a neurodegenerative disease characterized by degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons localized in the substantia nigra pars compacta. No therapy is effective in slowing disease progression mostly because the pathogenesis of the disease is yet to be understood. From accruing evidence suggesting that the protein parkin directly regulates synapses it can be hypothesized that PARK2 gene mutations lead to early synaptic damage that results in dopaminergic neuron loss over time...
February 23, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334019/cell-survival-and-differentiation-with-nanocrystalline-glass-like-carbon-using-substantia-nigra-dopaminergic-cells-derived-from-transgenic-mouse-embryos
#6
Noela Rodriguez-Losada, Pablo Romero, Guillermo Estivill-Torrús, Roberto Guzmán de Villoria, Jose A Aguirre
Regenerative medicine requires, in many cases, physical supports to facilitate appropriate cellular architecture, cell polarization and the improvement of the correct differentiation processes of embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent cells or adult cells. Because the interest in carbon nanomaterials has grown within the last decade in light of a wide variety of applications, the aim of this study was to test and evaluate the suitability and cytocompatibility of a particular nanometer-thin nanocrystalline glass-like carbon film (NGLC) composed of curved graphene flakes joined by an amorphous carbon matrix...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332488/parkinson-disease
#7
REVIEW
Werner Poewe, Klaus Seppi, Caroline M Tanner, Glenda M Halliday, Patrik Brundin, Jens Volkmann, Anette-Eleonore Schrag, Anthony E Lang
Parkinson disease is the second-most common neurodegenerative disorder that affects 2-3% of the population ≥65 years of age. Neuronal loss in the substantia nigra, which causes striatal dopamine deficiency, and intracellular inclusions containing aggregates of α-synuclein are the neuropathological hallmarks of Parkinson disease. Multiple other cell types throughout the central and peripheral autonomic nervous system are also involved, probably from early disease onwards. Although clinical diagnosis relies on the presence of bradykinesia and other cardinal motor features, Parkinson disease is associated with many non-motor symptoms that add to overall disability...
March 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327638/conditional-deletion-of-ndufs4-in-dopaminergic-neurons-promotes-parkinson-s-disease-like-non-motor-symptoms-without-loss-of-dopamine-neurons
#8
Won-Seok Choi, Hyung-Wook Kim, François Tronche, Richard D Palmiter, Daniel R Storm, Zhengui Xia
Reduction of mitochondrial complex I activity is one of the major hypotheses for dopaminergic neuron death in Parkinson's disease. However, reduction of complex I activity in all cells or selectively in dopaminergic neurons via conditional deletion of the Ndufs4 gene, a subunit of the mitochondrial complex I, does not cause dopaminergic neuron death or motor impairment. Here, we investigated the effect of reduced complex I activity on non-motor symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease using conditional knockout (cKO) mice in which Ndufs4 was selectively deleted in dopaminergic neurons (Ndufs4 cKO)...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326933/attenuation-of-hyperalgesia-responses-via-the-modulation-of-5-hydroxytryptamine-signalings-in-the-rostral-ventromedial-medulla-and-spinal-cord-in-a-6-hydroxydopamine-induced-rat-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Chen-Tao Wang, Cheng-Jie Mao, Xiao-Qi Zhang, Cai-Yi Zhang, Dong-Jun Lv, Ya-Ping Yang, Kai-Lin Xia, Jun-Yi Liu, Fen Wang, Li-Fang Hu, Guang-Yin Xu, Chun-Feng Liu
Background Although pain is one of the most distressing non-motor symptoms among patients with Parkinson's disease, the underlying mechanisms of pain in Parkinson's disease remain elusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) and spinal cord in pain sensory abnormalities in a 6-hydroxydopamine-treated rat model of Parkinson's disease. Methods The rotarod test was used to evaluate motor function. The radiant heat test and von Frey test were conducted to evaluate thermal and mechanical pain thresholds, respectively...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326165/neurochemical-and-motor-changes-in-mice-with-combined-mutations-linked-to-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Xiang Bai, Margaret Chia-Ying Wey, Paul Anthony Martinez, Chao Shi, Elizabeth Fernandez, Randy Strong
Considerable evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD), the most prevalent neurodegenerative movement disorder. Reduced expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH1) and glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1), enzymes that function to detoxify aldehydes and hydroxyl radicals, respectively, has been reported in the substantia nigra of patients who died with PD. To determine whether deficiency in these two genes contributes to the pathogenesis of PD, mice were generated with homozygous null mutations of both Aldh1a1 (the murine homolog of ALDH1) and Gpx1 genes [knockout (KO) mice]...
2017: Pathobiology of Aging & Age related Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326036/associations-between-early-markers-of-parkinson-s-disease-and-sarcopenia
#11
Michael Drey, Sandra E Hasmann, Jan-Peter Krenovsky, Markus A Hobert, Stefanie Straub, Morad Elshehabi, Anna-Katharina von Thaler, Andreas J Fallgatter, Gerhard W Eschweiler, Ulrike Suenkel, Daniela Berg, Walter Maetzler
Introduction: Sarcopenia and Parkinson's disease (PD) are both common age-related syndromes, and there is preliminary evidence that the probability of the co-occurrence of these syndromes within one individual is higher than expected. However, it is unclear to date whether one of the syndromes induces the other, or whether there may be common underlying causes. This pilot study thus aimed at investigating the association of the features of increased risk for PD with early stage sarcopenia (ESS). Method: Two hundred and fifty-five community-dwelling individuals were recruited from the Tübinger evaluation of Risk factors for Early detection of NeuroDegeneration (TREND) study...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326032/a-dynamic-circuit-hypothesis-for-the-pathogenesis-of-blepharospasm
#12
David A Peterson, Terrence J Sejnowski
Blepharospasm (sometimes called "benign essential blepharospasm," BEB) is one of the most common focal dystonias. It involves involuntary eyelid spasms, eye closure, and increased blinking. Despite the success of botulinum toxin injections and, in some cases, pharmacologic or surgical interventions, BEB treatments are not completely efficacious and only symptomatic. We could develop principled strategies for preventing and reversing the disease if we knew the pathogenesis of primary BEB. The objective of this study was to develop a conceptual framework and dynamic circuit hypothesis for the pathogenesis of BEB...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321769/n-propargyl-caffeamide-paca-ameliorates-dopaminergic-neuronal-loss-and-motor-dysfunctions-in-mptp-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease-and-in-mpp-induced-neurons-via-promoting-the-conversion-of-prongf-to-ngf
#13
Dan Luo, Jia Zhao, Yuanyuan Cheng, Simon Ming-Yuen Lee, Jianhui Rong
Insufficient production of nerve growth factor (NGF) is implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD). We recently discovered that caffeic acid derivative N-propargyl caffeamide (PACA) not only potentiated NGF-induced neurite outgrowth but also attenuated 6-hydroxydopamine neurotoxicity in neuronal culture. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PACA could increase NGF levels against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxicity in a mouse PD model. We induced parkinsonism in mice by intraperitoneal injection of MPTP for seven consecutive days...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321131/does-activation-of-midbrain-dopamine-neurons-promote-or-reduce-feeding
#14
L Boekhoudt, T J M Roelofs, J W de Jong, A E de Leeuw, M C M Luijendijk, I G Wolterink-Donselaar, G van der Plasse, R A H Adan
BACKGROUND: Dopamine (DA) signalling in the brain is necessary for feeding behaviour, and alterations in the DA system have been linked to obesity. However, the precise role of DA in the control of food intake remains debated. On the one hand, food reward and motivation are associated with enhanced DA activity. On the other hand, psychostimulant drugs that increase DA signalling suppress food intake. This poses the questions of how endogenous DA neuronal activity regulates feeding, and whether enhancing DA neuronal activity would either promote or reduce food intake...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320442/analysis-of-monocyte-infiltration-in-mptp-mice-reveals-that-microglial-cx3cr1-protects-against-neurotoxic-over-induction-of-monocyte-attracting-ccl2-by-astrocytes
#15
Vincent R Parillaud, Guillaume Lornet, Yann Monnet, Anne-Laure Privat, Andrei T Haddad, Vanessa Brochard, Amaury Bekaert, Camille Baudesson de Chanville, Etienne C Hirsch, Christophe Combadière, Stéphane Hunot, Christian S Lobsiger
BACKGROUND: Evidence from mice suggests that brain infiltrating immune cells contribute to neurodegeneration, and we previously identified a deleterious lymphocyte infiltration in Parkinson's disease mice. However, this remains controversial for monocytes, due to artifact-prone techniques used to distinguish them from microglia. Our aim was to reassess this open question, by taking advantage of the recent recognition that chemokine receptors CCR2 and CX3CR1 can differentiate between inflammatory monocytes and microglia, enabling to test whether CCR2(+) monocytes infiltrate the brain during dopaminergic (DA) neurodegeneration and whether they contribute to neuronal death...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303260/evidence-for-an-additive-neurorestorative-effect-of-simultaneously-administered-cdnf-and-gdnf-in-hemiparkinsonian-rats-implications-for-different-mechanism-of-action
#16
Merja H Voutilainen, Francesca De Lorenzo, Polina Stepanova, Susanne Bäck, Li-Ying Yu, Päivi Lindholm, Eeva Pörsti, Mart Saarma, Pekka T Männistö, Raimo K Tuominen
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with a progressive loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) and the accumulation of intracellular inclusions containing α-synuclein. Current therapies do not stop the progression of the disease, and the efficacy of these treatments wanes over time. Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are naturally occurring proteins promoting the survival and differentiation of neurons and the maintenance of neuronal contacts. CDNF (cerebral dopamine NTF) and GDNF (glial cell line-derived NTF) are able to protect DAergic neurons against toxin-induced degeneration in experimental models of PD...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302024/medicinal-plants-as-protective-strategies-against-parkinson-s-disease
#17
Natalia Areiza Mazo, Valentina Echeverria, Ricardo Cabezas, Marco Ávila-Rodriguez, Gjumrakch Aliev, Jerzy Leszek, George E Barreto
Parkinson´s disease is a neurodegenerative disease caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta region. An important mechanism contributing to its development is oxidative stress, induced by the imbalance between the endogenous antioxidant defenses and free radicals production. Naturally occurring bioactive compounds exhibit high antioxidant capacity that may help reducing oxidative stress and even reverse the damage induced by ROS. Fruits are particularly rich in phytochemicals with antioxidant effect, and their properties against the development of neurodegenerative diseases are of great interest...
March 16, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292181/synthesis-structure-characterization-and-evaluation-in-microglia-cultures-of-neuromelanin-analogues-suitable-for-modeling-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Emanuele Ferrari, Andrea Capucciati, Ilaria Prada, Fabio Andrea Zucca, Giulia D'Arrigo, Daniele Pontiroli, Maria Grazia Bridelli, Michela Sturini, Luigi Bubacco, Enrico Monzani, Claudia Verderio, Luigi Zecca, Luigi Casella
In the substantia nigra of human brain, neuromelanin (NM) released by degenerating neurons can activate microglia with consequent neurodegeneration, typical of Parkinson's disease (PD). Synthetic analogues of NM were prepared to develop a PD model reproducing the neuropathological conditions of the disease. Soluble melanin-protein conjugates were obtained by melanization of fibrillated β-lactoglobulin (fLG). The melanic portion of the conjugates contains either eumelanic (EufLG) or mixed eumelanic/pheomelanic composition (PheofLG), the latter better simulating natural NMs...
March 15, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290500/pramipexole-restores-depressed-transmission-in-the-ventral-hippocampus-following-mptp-lesion
#19
Javier Castro-Hernández, Paul A Adlard, David I Finkelstein
The hippocampus has a significant association with memory, cognition and emotions. The dopaminergic projections from both the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra are thought to be involved in hippocampal activity. To date, however, few studies have investigated dopaminergic innervation in the hippocampus or the functional consequences of reduced dopamine in disease models. Further complicating this, the hippocampus exhibits anatomical and functional differentiation along its dorso-ventral axis. In this work we investigated the role of dopamine on hippocampal long term potentiation using D-amphetamine, which stimulates dopamine release, and also examined how a dopaminergic lesion affects the synaptic transmission across the anatomic subdivisions of the hippocampus...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290386/imaging-biomarker-correlates-with-oxidative-stress-in-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Rajini M Naduthota, Rose D Bharath, Ketan Jhunjhunwala, Ravi Yadav, Jitender Saini, Rita Christopher, Pramod Kumar Pal
BACKGROUND: While oxidative stress (OS) may be one of the crucial factors determining the initiation and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD), its correlation with gray matter (GM) atrophy is not known. AIMS: To determine the GM volume (GMV) changes using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and correlation with OS marker serum malondialdehyde (MDA) in PD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-two patients with PD were clinically evaluated and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on a 3T MRI scanner using a 32-channel head coil...
March 2017: Neurology India
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