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Magnetization transfer

Qianmei Zhang, Wei Wei, Peiling Wang, Liping Zuo, Feng Li, Jin Xu, Xiaobo Xi, Xiaoyong Gao, Guanghui Ma, Hai-Yan Xie
Adoptive T-cell transfer for cancer therapy relies on both effective ex vivo T cell expansion and in vivo targeting performance. One promising but challenging method for accomplishing this purpose is to construct multifunctional artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPCs). We herein developed biomimetic magnetosomes as versatile aAPCs, wherein magnetic nanoclusters were coated with azide-engineered leucocyte membranes and then decorated with T-cell stimuli through copper-free click chemistry. These novel nano aAPCs not only exhibited high performance for antigen-specific cytotoxic T cell (CTL) expansion and stimulation but also visually and effectively guided reinfused CTLs to tumor tissues through magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic control...
September 18, 2017: ACS Nano
Marco Battiston, Francesco Grussu, Andrada Ianus, Torben Schneider, Ferran Prados, James Fairney, Sebastien Ourselin, Daniel C Alexander, Mara Cercignani, Claudia A M Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Rebecca S Samson
PURPOSE: To develop a framework to fully characterize quantitative magnetization transfer indices in the human cervical cord in vivo within a clinically feasible time. METHODS: A dedicated spinal cord imaging protocol for quantitative magnetization transfer was developed using a reduced field-of-view approach with echo planar imaging (EPI) readout. Sequence parameters were optimized based in the Cramer-Rao-lower bound. Quantitative model parameters (i.e., bound pool fraction, free and bound pool transverse relaxation times [ T2F, T2B], and forward exchange rate [kFB ]) were estimated implementing a numerical model capable of dealing with the novelties of the sequence adopted...
September 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Shereen A Majeed, Basma Ghazal, Dustin E Nevonen, Philip C Goff, David A Blank, Victor N Nemykin, Saad Makhseed
2,3,9,10,16,17,23·24-Octakis-(9H-carbazol-9-yl) phthalocyaninato zinc(II) (3) and 2,3,9,10,16,17,23·24-octakis-(3,6-di-tert-butyl-9H-carbazole) phthalocyaninato zinc(II) (4) complexes were prepared and characterized by NMR and UV-vis spectroscopies, magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry, and X-ray crystallography. UV-vis and MCD data are indicative of the interligand charge-transfer nature of the broad band observed in 450-500 nm range for 3 and 4...
September 18, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Agnes T Reiner, Nicolas-Guillermo Ferrer, Priyamvada Venugopalan, Ruenn Chai Lai, Sai Kiang Lim, Jakub Dostálek
The sensitive analysis of small lipid extracellular vesicles (EVs) by using a grating-coupled surface plasmon resonance (GC-SPR) biosensor has been reported. In order to enable the analysis of trace amounts of EVs present in complex liquid samples, the target analyte is pre-concentrated on the sensor surface by using magnetic nanoparticles and its affinity binding is probed by wavelength interrogation of SPR. The GC-SPR has been demonstrated to allow for the implementation of efficient pulling of EVs to the sensor surface by using magnetic nanoparticles and an external magnetic field gradient applied through the sensor chip...
September 18, 2017: Analyst
P K Chanda, M Kamrul-Hasan, M Abu-Bakar, M Rahman, M A Kader, M A Hossain, N I Siddiqui
An 18 years-old-girl presented one and half years back with the complaints of short stature, retarded growth, and menorrhagia with sudden severe lower abdominal pain; was diagnosed as bilateral ovarian cysts and underwent bilateral ovarian cystectomy. Later on she was incidentally diagnosed as a case of hypothyroidism when she had been experiencing slowly enlarging left lower abdominal mass with dull ache for the 5 month and then was transferred to the department of Endocrinology for further evaluation. Detailed work up revealed her short stature with obesity, delayed bone age and other features of hypothyroidism which was confirmed by thyroid function testing...
July 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Matteo Mancini, Giovanni Giulietti, Nicholas Dowell, Barbara Spanò, Neil Harrison, Marco Bozzali, Mara Cercignani
Microstructural imaging and connectomics are two research areas that hold great potential for investigating brain structure and function. Combining these two approaches can lead to a better and more complete characterization of the brain as a network. The aim of this work is characterizing the connectome from a novel perspective using the myelination measure given by the g-ratio. The g-ratio is the ratio of the inner to the outer diameters of a myelinated axon, whose aggregated value can now be estimated in vivo using MRI...
September 13, 2017: NeuroImage
Bryce L Geeraert, R Marc Lebel, Alyssa C Mah, Sean C Deoni, David C Alsop, Gopal Varma, Catherine Lebel
Sensitive and specific biomarkers of myelin can help define baseline brain health and development, identify and monitor disease pathology, and evaluate response to treatment where myelin content is affected. Diffusion measures such as radial diffusivity (RD) are commonly used to assess myelin content, but are not specific to myelin. Inhomogeneous magnetization transfer (ihMT) and multicomponent driven equilibrium single-pulse observation of T1 and T2 (mcDESPOT) offer quantitative parameters (qihMT and myelin volume fraction/VFm, respectively) which are suggested to have improved sensitivity to myelin...
September 12, 2017: NeuroImage
Yu Chen, Qiang Sun
Based on first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that the recently-synthesized 2D organometallic framework consisting of Au atoms and 1,3,5-triethynylbenzene (Au-TEB) is a magnetic 2D organic topological insulator (OTI). The charge transfer and covalent bonding character lead to ferromagnetism and half-metallicity in the framework, and the weak spin-orbit coupling (SOC) of C pz orbitals mediated by Au d orbitals opens modest bandgaps in the vicinity of the Fermi level. Moreover, using tight-binding model simulations, we further characterize the nonzero Chern number and edge states of Au-TEB to confirm its topological nontriviality that remains intact when the framework is supported on an insulating substrate, and applying an external strain can increase the magnitude of SOC gaps, leading to an enhanced topological nontriviality...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Charlie Y Wang, Yuchi Liu, Shuying Huang, Mark A Griswold, Nicole Seiberlich, Xin Yu
The purpose of this work was to develop a (31) P spectroscopic magnetic resonance fingerprinting (MRF) method for fast quantification of the chemical exchange rate between phosphocreatine (PCr) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) via creatine kinase (CK). A (31) P MRF sequence (CK-MRF) was developed to quantify the forward rate constant of ATP synthesis via CK ( kfCK), the T1 relaxation time of PCr ( T1PCr), and the PCr-to-ATP concentration ratio ( MRPCr). The CK-MRF sequence used a balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP)-type excitation with ramped flip angles and a unique saturation scheme sensitive to the exchange between PCr and γATP...
September 15, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
Stephanie L Barnes, Anna G Sorace, Jennifer G Whisenant, J Oliver McIntyre, Hakmook Kang, Thomas E Yankeelov
This work evaluates quantitative dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) parameters as early biomarkers of response in a preclinical model of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). The standard Tofts' model of DCE-MRI returns estimates of the volume transfer constant (K(trans) ) and the extravascular extracellular volume fraction (ve ). DW-MRI returns estimates of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Mice (n = 38) were injected subcutaneously with MDA-MB-231...
September 15, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
Kasibhatta J Datta, Anuj K Rathi, Pawan Kumar, Josef Kaslik, Ivo Medrik, Vaclav Ranc, Rajender S Varma, Radek Zboril, Manoj B Gawande
A facile approach for the synthesis of magnetite microspheres with flower-like morphology is reported that proceeds via the reduction of iron(III) oxide under a hydrogen atmosphere. The ensuing magnetic catalyst is well characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, TEM, N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm, and Mössbauer spectroscopy and explored for a simple yet efficient transfer hydrogenation reduction of a variety of nitroarenes to respective anilines in good to excellent yields (up to 98%) employing hydrazine hydrate. The catalyst could be easily separated at the end of a reaction using an external magnet and can be recycled up to 10 times without any loss in catalytic activity...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Daniel R Kattnig, P J Hore
Birds have a remarkable ability to obtain navigational information from the Earth's magnetic field. The primary detection mechanism of this compass sense is uncertain but appears to involve the quantum spin dynamics of radical pairs formed transiently in cryptochrome proteins. We propose here a new version of the current model in which spin-selective recombination of the radical pair is not essential. One of the two radicals is imagined to react with a paramagnetic scavenger via spin-selective electron transfer...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
Tao Wang, Qitang Fan, Lin Feng, Zhijie Tao, Jianmin Huang, Huanxin Ju, Qian Xu, Shanwei Hu, Junfa Zhu
Kagome lattices have attracted much attention due to their potential applications in spin-frustrated magnetism and host-guest chemistry. Examples toward the fabrication of 2D Kagome lattices reported previously have a common feature that the precursor molecules were typically structurally intact on surface with no chemical reactions accompanied. Herein, with the combined synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy (SRPES) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we demonstrated that two types of chiral Kagome lattices from on-surface synthesized organometallic compounds were fabricated, which are known as intermediates of Glaser coupling on silver single crystal surfaces...
September 14, 2017: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
Wenyu Zhao, Zhiyuan Liu, Zhigang Sun, Qingjie Zhang, Ping Wei, Xin Mu, Hongyu Zhou, Cuncheng Li, Shifang Ma, Danqi He, Pengxia Ji, Wanting Zhu, Xiaolei Nie, Xianli Su, Xinfeng Tang, Baogen Shen, Xiaoli Dong, Jihui Yang, Yong Liu, Jing Shi
The ability to control chemical and physical structuring at the nanometre scale is important for developing high-performance thermoelectric materials. Progress in this area has been achieved mainly by enhancing phonon scattering and consequently decreasing the thermal conductivity of the lattice through the design of either interface structures at nanometre or mesoscopic length scales or multiscale hierarchical architectures. A nanostructuring approach that enables electron transport as well as phonon transport to be manipulated could potentially lead to further enhancements in thermoelectric performance...
September 13, 2017: Nature
Haemy Lee Masson, Hyeok-Mook Kang, Laurent Petit, Christian Wallraven
Touch delivers a wealth of information already from birth, helping infants to acquire knowledge about a variety of important object properties using their hands. Despite the fact that we are touch experts as much as we are visual experts, surprisingly, little is known how our perceptual ability in touch is linked to either functional or structural aspects of the brain. The present study, therefore, investigates and identifies neuroanatomical correlates of haptic perceptual performance using a novel, multi-modal approach...
September 13, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
Lian Li, Michael Chopp, Guangliang Ding, Qingjiang Li, Asim Mahmood, Quan Jiang
Vascular permeability and hemodynamic alteration in response to the transplantation of human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) were longitudinally investigated in non directly injured and normal-appearing cerebral tissue using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Male Wistar rats (300-350g, n=30) subjected to controlled cortical impact TBI were intravenously injected with 1 ml of saline (at 6-hours or 1-week post-injury, n=5/group) or with hMSCs in suspension (∼3x10(6) hMSCs, at 6-hours or 1-week post-injury, n=10/group)...
September 9, 2017: Brain Research
Louisa Traser, Peter Birkholz, Tabea Viktoria Flügge, Robert Kamberger, Michael Burdumy, Bernhard Richter, Jan Gerrit Korvink, Matthias Echternach
Purpose: Recently, efforts have been made to investigate the vocal tract using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Due to technical limitations, teeth were omitted in many previous studies on vocal tract acoustics. However, the knowledge of how teeth influence vocal tract acoustics might be important in order to estimate the necessity of implementing teeth in vocal tract models. The aim of this study was therefore to estimate the effect of teeth on vocal tract acoustics. Method: The acoustic properties of 18 solid (3-dimensional printed) vocal tract models without teeth were compared to the same 18 models including teeth in terms of resonance frequencies (fRn)...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
H Flentje, P-A Mortemousque, R Thalineau, A Ludwig, A D Wieck, C Bäuerle, T Meunier
Controlling nanocircuits at the single electron spin level is a possible route for large-scale quantum information processing. In this context, individual electron spins have been identified as versatile quantum information carriers to interconnect different nodes of a spin-based semiconductor quantum circuit. Despite extensive experimental efforts to control the electron displacement over long distances, maintaining electron spin coherence after transfer remained elusive up to now. Here we demonstrate that individual electron spins can be displaced coherently over a distance of 5 µm...
September 11, 2017: Nature Communications
Cheng-Di Dong, Chiu-Wen Chen, Chang-Mao Hung
This study developed a new and cost-effective method for the remediation of marine sediments contaminated with PAHs. Fe3O4 particles were synthesized as the active component, supported on bamboo biochar (BB) to form a composite catalyst (Fe3O4-BB). The effects of critical parameters, including the initial pH, sodium persulfate (PS) concentration, and dose of catalyst were investigated. The concentration of high-molecular-weight PAHs in sediments was much higher than that of low-molecular-weight PAHs; pyrene was an especially prominent marker of PAH contamination in sediments...
September 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
S Meyer, Y-T Chen, S Wimmer, M Althammer, T Wimmer, R Schlitz, S Geprägs, H Huebl, D Ködderitzsch, H Ebert, G E W Bauer, R Gross, S T B Goennenwein
The observation of the spin Hall effect triggered intense research on pure spin current transport. With the spin Hall effect, the spin Seebeck effect and the spin Peltier effect already observed, our picture of pure spin current transport is almost complete. The only missing piece is the spin Nernst (-Ettingshausen) effect, which so far has been discussed only on theoretical grounds. Here, we report the observation of the spin Nernst effect. By applying a longitudinal temperature gradient, we generate a pure transverse spin current in a Pt thin film...
September 11, 2017: Nature Materials
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