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Axonal regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915198/mir-129-controls-axonal-regeneration-via-regulating-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-in-peripheral-nerve-injury
#1
Hui Zhu, Chengbin Xue, Min Yao, Hongkui Wang, Ping Zhang, Tianmei Qian, Songlin Zhou, Shiying Li, Bin Yu, Yongjun Wang, Xiaosong Gu
The microenvironment of peripheral nerve regeneration consists of multiple neurotrophic factors, adhesion molecules, and extracellular matrix molecules, secreted by unique glial cells in the peripheral nerve system (PNS)-Schwann cell (SCs). Following peripheral nerve injury (PNI), local IGF-1 production is upregulated in SCs and denervated muscle during axonal sprouting and regeneration. Regulation of IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling is considered as a potentially targeted therapy of PNI. We previously identified a group of novel miRNAs in proximal nerve following rat sciatic nerve transection...
June 18, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907154/temporal-changes-in-macrophage-phenotype-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#2
Joy E Tomlinson, Emilija Žygelytė, Jennifer K Grenier, Michael G Edwards, Jonathan Cheetham
BACKGROUND: Macrophages play a key role in peripheral nerve repair and demonstrate complex phenotypes that are highly dependent on microenvironmental cues. METHODS: We determined temporal changes in macrophage gene expression over time using RNA sequencing after fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) macrophage populations from injured peripheral nerve. We identified key upstream regulators and dominant pathways using ingenuity pathway analysis and confirmed these changes with NanoString technology...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905040/-promotion-of-transplanted-collagen-scaffolds-combined-with-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-for-axonal-regeneration-and-motor-function-recovery-in-rats-after-transected-spinal-cord-injury
#3
Xi Chen, Yongheng Fan, Zhifeng Xiao, Xing Li, Bin Yang, Yannan Zhao, Xianglin Hou, Sufang Han, Jianwu Dai
Objective: To evaluate the effect of the combination of collagen scaffold and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on the repair of transected spinal cord injury in rats. Methods: Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: group A (sham operation group), T 9 , T 10 segments of the spinal cord was only exposed; group B, 4-mm T 9 , T 10 segments of the spinal cord were resected; group C, 4-mm T 9 , T 10 segments of the spinal cord were resected and linear ordered collagen scaffolds (LOCS) with corresponding length was transplanted into lesion site; group D, 4-mm T 9 , T 10 segments of the spinal cord were resected and LOCS with collagen binding domain (CBD)-BDNF was transplanted into lesion site...
June 1, 2018: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905039/-review-of-the-regeneration-mechanism-of-complete-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Jiayin Li, Xing Li, Zhifeng Xiao, Jianwu Dai
Spinal cord injury (SCI), especially the complete SCI, usually results in complete paralysis below the level of the injury and seriously affects the patient's quality of life. SCI repair is still a worldwide medical problem. In the last twenty years, Professor DAI Jianwu and his team pioneered complete SCI model by removing spinal tissue with varied lengths in rodents, canine, and non-human primates to verify therapeutic effect of different repair strategies. Moreover, they also started the first clinical study of functional collagen scaffold on patients with acute complete SCI on January 16th, 2015...
June 1, 2018: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902904/-effects-of-tanshinone-%C3%A2-a-sulfonate-on-nerve-regeneration-after-cryopreserved-sciatic-nerve-allograft-in-rats
#5
Zi-Jian Li, Ying-Ru Huang, Huan-Huan Zeng, Xiong Deng, Yi Wang, Song Zhang
In order to investigate the protective effect of tanshinone ⅡA sulfonate on the sciatic nerve activty in rats after cryopreservation as well as the nerve regeneration and functional recovery after allograft and its possible mechanism, Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divded into four groups at different doses of tanshinone ⅡA sulfonate (A 0 mg·L⁻¹, B 80 mg·L⁻¹, C 160 mg·L⁻¹, D 480 mg·L⁻¹) cryopreserved at -80 °C for 24 weeks. Fresh control group nerve segments were harvested without cryopreservation...
May 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899247/history-of-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-gdnf-and-its-use-for-spinal-cord-injury-repair
#6
REVIEW
Melissa J Walker, Xiao-Ming Xu
Following an initial mechanical insult, traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) induces a secondary wave of injury, resulting in a toxic lesion environment inhibitory to axonal regeneration. This review focuses on the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and its application, in combination with other factors and cell transplantations, for repairing the injured spinal cord. As studies of recent decades strongly suggest that combinational treatment approaches hold the greatest therapeutic potential for the central nervous system (CNS) trauma, future directions of combinational therapies will also be discussed...
June 13, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896153/the-molecular-and-cellular-mechanisms-of-axon-guidance-in-mossy-fiber-sprouting
#7
REVIEW
Ryuta Koyama, Yuji Ikegaya
The question of whether mossy fiber sprouting is epileptogenic has not been resolved; both sprouting-induced recurrent excitatory and inhibitory circuit hypotheses have been experimentally (but not fully) supported. Therefore, whether mossy fiber sprouting is a potential therapeutic target for epilepsy remains under debate. Moreover, the axon guidance mechanisms of mossy fiber sprouting have attracted the interest of neuroscientists. Sprouting of mossy fibers exhibits several uncommon axonal growth features in the basically non-plastic adult brain...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896101/activation-of-a2a-receptor-by-pdrn-reduces-neuronal-damage-and-stimulates-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-driven-neurogenesis-in-spinal-cord-injury
#8
Natasha Irrera, Vincenzo Arcoraci, Federica Mannino, Giovanna Vermiglio, Giovanni Pallio, Letteria Minutoli, Gianluca Bagnato, Giuseppe Pio Anastasi, Emanuela Mazzon, Placido Bramanti, Francesco Squadrito, Domenica Altavilla, Alessandra Bitto
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a complex clinical and progressive condition characterized by neuronal loss, axonal destruction and demyelination. In the last few years, adenosine receptors have been studied as a target for many diseases, including neurodegenerative conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an adenosine receptor agonist, PDRN, in an experimental model of SCI. Moreover, since adenosine receptors stimulation may also activate the Wnt pathway, we wanted to study PDRN effects on Wnt signaling following SCI...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893910/brief-electrical-stimulation-promotes-nerve-regeneration-following-experimental-in-continuity-nerve-injury
#9
Yuval Shapira, Vanessa Sammons, Joanne Forden, Gui Fang Guo, Alexander Kipp, Jill Girgulis, Tanmay Mishra, Jacob Daniel de Villers Alant, Rajiv Midha
BACKGROUND: Brief electrical stimulation (ES) therapy to the nerve may improve outcome in lacerated, repaired nerves. However, most human nerve injuries leave the nerve in continuity with variable and often poor functional recovery from incomplete axon regeneration and reinnervation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of brief ES in an experimental model for neuroma-in-continuity (NIC) injuries in rodents. METHODS: Lewis rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: NIC injury immediately followed by brief (1 h) ES; NIC injury without ES; sham-operated controls; sciatic nerve transection without repair...
June 11, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29892576/neurotrophin-expression-and-histomorphometric-evaluation-in-wistar-rats-subjected-to-neural-mobilization-after-compression-of-the-median-nerve
#10
Marieli Araujo Rossoni Marcioli, José Luis da Conceição Silva, Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko Ribeiro, Rose Meire Costa Brancalhão, Gladson Ricardo Flor Bertolini
Objective: To evaluate the neurotrophin mRNA expression and axon count in the median nerve of Wistar rats submitted to neural mobilization (NM) after nerve compression. Methods: Eighteen animals were randomly divided into G1 (nerve compression only), G2 (NM for 1 min), and G3 (NM for 3 min). For NM, the animals were anesthetized and the right scapula received the mobilization, adapted as indicated for humans, on alternate days, from the third to the 13th postoperative (PO) day, totaling six days of therapy...
May 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883625/transplantation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-that-overexpress-nt-3-produce-motor-improvements-without-axonal-regeneration-following-complete-spinal-cord-transections-in-rats
#11
Andrew N Stewart, Griffin Kendziorski, Zachary M Deak, Nathanial C Bartosek, Brooke E Rezmer, Kenneth Jenrow, Julien Rossignol, Gary L Dunbar
Transplanting stem cells engineered to overexpress trophic factors can improve motor abilities and facilitate axon regeneration following spinal cord injury. This study compared several transplantation paradigms using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that overexpress the multi-neurotrophin, NT-3/D15A (NT-3-MSCs), to determine if different grafting strategies can elicit improved axon regeneration and/or behavioral outcomes following a complete T9 spinal transection. At one week post-transection, NT-3-MSCs were transplanted above, and at several locations below, the lesion site...
June 5, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881335/cell-adhesion-molecule-close-homolog-of-l1-chl1-guides-the-regrowth-of-regenerating-motor-axons-and-regulates-synaptic-coverage-of-motor-neurons
#12
Daria Guseva, Igor Jakovcevski, Andrey Irintchev, Iryna Leshchyns'ka, Vladimir Sytnyk, Evgeni Ponimaskin, Melitta Schachner
The close homolog of L1 (CHL1) is a cell adhesion molecule involved in regulation of neuronal differentiation and survival, neurite outgrowth and axon guidance during development. In the mature nervous system, CHL1 regulates synaptic activity and plasticity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of CHL1 on peripheral nerve regeneration after trauma. Using the established model of mouse femoral nerve regeneration, CHL1 knock-out mice were investigated in comparison to the wild type littermates...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880643/identification-of-novel-binding-sites-for-heparin-in-rptp%C3%AF-implications-for-proteoglycan-signaling
#13
Yasuhiro Katagiri, Ashlea A Morgan, Panpan Yu, Nathanael J Bangayan, Radoslaw Junka, Herbert M Geller
Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase RPTPσ has important functions in modulating neural development and regeneration. Compelling evidence suggests that both heparan sulfate (HS) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) bind to a series of Lys residues located in the first Ig domain of RPTPσ. However, HS promotes and CS inhibits axonal growth. Mutation of these Lys residues abolished binding and signal transduction of RPTPσ to CS, while HS binding was reduced and signaling persisted. This activity was mediated through novel heparin binding sites identified in the juxtamembrane region...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879365/bone-marrow-stromal-cells-promote-innervation-of-bioengineered-teeth
#14
M Strub, L Keller, Y Idoux-Gillet, H Lesot, F Clauss, N Benkirane-Jessel, S Kuchler-Bopp
Transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMDCs) into a denervated side of the spinal cord was reported to be a useful option for axonal regeneration. The innervation of teeth is essential for their function and protection but does not occur spontaneously after injury. Cultured reassociations between dissociated embryonic dental mesenchymal and epithelial cells and implantation lead to a vascularized tooth organ regeneration. However, when reassociations were coimplanted with a trigeminal ganglion (TG), innervation did not occur...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875625/resveratrol-promotes-nerve-regeneration-via-activation-of-p300-acetyltransferase-mediated-vegf-signaling-in-a-rat-model-of-sciatic-nerve-crush-injury
#15
Zhuofeng Ding, Jiawei Cao, Yu Shen, Yu Zou, Xin Yang, Wen Zhou, Qulian Guo, Changsheng Huang
Peripheral nerve injuries are generally associated with incomplete restoration of motor function. The slow rate of nerve regeneration after injury may account for this. Although many benefits of resveratrol have been shown in the nervous system, it is not clear whether resveratrol could promote fast nerve regeneration and motor repair after peripheral nerve injury. This study showed that the motor deficits caused by sciatic nerve crush injury were alleviated by daily systematic resveratrol treatment within 10 days...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29872421/guiding-device-for-precision-grafting-of-peripheral-nerves-in-complete-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury-design-and-sizing-for-clinical-trial
#16
Arvid Frostell, Per Mattsson, Mikael Svensson
Background: In an effort to translate preclinical success in achieving spinal cord regeneration through peripheral nerve grafts, this study details the design and sizing of a guiding device for precision grafting of peripheral nerves for use in a clinical trial in complete (AIS-A) thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI). The device's design and sizing are compared to a simulation of human spinal cord sizes based on the best available data. Methods: Spinal cord segmental sizes were generated by computer simulation based on data from a meta-analysis recently published by our group...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869196/nerve-growth-factor-role-on-retinal-ganglion-cell-survival-and-axon-regrowth-effects-of-ocular-administration-in-experimental-model-of-optic-nerve-injury
#17
Louise A Mesentier-Louro, Pamela Rosso, Valentina Carito, Rosalia Mendez-Otero, Marcelo F Santiago, Paolo Rama, Alessandro Lambiase, Paola Tirassa
Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration occurs within 2 weeks following optic nerve crush (ONC) as a consequence of reduced retro-transport of growth factors including nerve growth factor (NGF). The hypothesis that intravitreal (ivt) and eye drop (ed) administration of recombinant human NGF (rhNGF) might counteract ONC in adult rats is explored in this study. We found that both ivt- and ed-rhNGF reduced RGC loss and stimulated axonal regrowth. Chiefly, survival and regenerative effects of rhNGF were associated with a reduction of cells co-expressing Nogo-A/p75NTR at crush site borders, which contribute to glia scar formation following nerve injury, and induce further degeneration...
June 4, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863021/nogo-receptor-expression-in-microglia-macrophages-during-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-progression
#18
Amani A Alrehaili, Jae Young Lee, Maha M Bakhuraysah, Min Joung Kim, Pei-Mun Aui, Kylie A Magee, Steven Petratos
Myelin-associated inhibitory factors within the central nervous system (CNS) are considered to be one of the main obstacles for axonal regeneration following disease or injury. The nogo receptor 1 (NgR1) has been well documented to play a key role in limiting axonal regrowth in the injured and diseased mammalian CNS. However, the role of nogo receptor in immune cell activation during CNS inflammation is yet to be mechanistically elucidated. Microglia/macrophages are immune cells that are regarded as pathogenic contributors to inflammatory demyelinating lesions in multiple sclerosis (MS)...
May 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863017/phrenic-and-intercostal-nerves-with-rhythmic-discharge-can-promote-early-nerve-regeneration-after-brachial-plexus-repair-in-rats
#19
Jing Rui, Ya-Li Xu, Xin Zhao, Ji-Feng Li, Yu-Dong Gu, Jie Lao
Exogenous discharge can positively promote nerve repair. We, therefore, hypothesized that endogenous discharges may have similar effects. The phrenic nerve and intercostal nerve, controlled by the respiratory center, can emit regular nerve impulses; therefore these endogenous automatically discharging nerves might promote nerve regeneration. Action potential discharge patterns were examined in the diaphragm, external intercostal and latissimus dorsi muscles of rats. The phrenic and intercostal nerves showed rhythmic clusters of discharge, which were consistent with breathing frequency...
May 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863016/validation-of-a-novel-animal-model-for-sciatic-nerve-repair-with-an-adipose-derived-stem-cell-loaded-fibrin-conduit
#20
Maximilian M Saller, Rosa-Eva Huettl, Julius M Mayer, Annette Feuchtinger, Christian Krug, Thomas Holzbach, Elias Volkmer
Despite the regenerative capabilities of peripheral nerves, severe injuries or neuronal trauma of critical size impose immense hurdles for proper restoration of neuro-muscular circuitry. Autologous nerve grafts improve re-establishment of connectivity, but also comprise substantial donor site morbidity. We developed a rat model which allows the testing of different cell applications, i.e., mesenchymal stem cells, to improve nerve regeneration in vivo. To mimic inaccurate alignment of autologous nerve grafts with the injured nerve, a 20 mm portion of the sciatic nerve was excised, and sutured back in place in reversed direction...
May 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
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