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Axonal regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454014/detecting-structural-and-inflammatory-response-after-in-vivo-stretch-injury-in-the-rat-median-nerve-via-second-harmonic-generation
#1
Matthew J Gluck, Surabhi Vijayaraghavan, Elaine B Sinclair, Asad Ashraf, Michael R Hausman, Paul J Cagle
BACKGROUND: Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) microscopy is a promising method for visualizing the collagenous structure of peripheral nerves. Assessing collagen continuity and damage after a stretch injury provides inferential insight into the level of axonal damage present. NEW METHODS: This study utilizes SHG microscopy after a calibrated in vivo stretch injury of rat median nerves to evaluate collagen continuity at several time points throughout the recovery process...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453976/cell-type-specific-expression-of-constitutively-active-rheb-promotes-regeneration-of-bulbospinal-respiratory-axons-following-cervical-sci
#2
Mark W Urban, Biswarup Ghosh, Laura R Strojny, Cole G Block, Sara M Blazejewski, Megan C Wright, George M Smith, Angelo C Lepore
Damage to respiratory neural circuitry and consequent loss of diaphragm function is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals suffering from traumatic cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Repair of CNS axons after SCI remains a therapeutic challenge, despite current efforts. SCI disrupts inspiratory signals originating in the rostral ventral respiratory group (rVRG) of the medulla from their phrenic motor neuron (PhMN) targets, resulting in loss of diaphragm function. Using a rat model of cervical hemisection SCI, we aimed to restore rVRG-PhMN-diaphragm circuitry by stimulating regeneration of injured rVRG axons via targeted induction of Rheb (ras homolog enriched in brain), a signaling molecule that regulates neuronal-intrinsic axon growth potential...
February 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453349/ultrasound-and-shock-wave-stimulation-to-promote-axonal-regeneration-following-nerve-surgery-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-preclinical-studies
#3
Simeon C Daeschler, Leila Harhaus, Philipp Schoenle, Arne Boecker, Ulrich Kneser, Konstantin D Bergmeister
Limited regeneration after nerve injury often leads to delayed or incomplete reinnervation and consequently insufficient muscle function. Following nerve surgery, application of low-intensity ultrasound or extracorporeal shock waves may promote nerve regeneration and improve functional outcomes. Because currently clinical data is unavailable, we performed a meta-analysis following the PRISMA-guidelines to investigate the therapeutic effect of ultrasound and shock wave therapies on motor nerve regeneration. Ten ultrasound-studies (N = 445 rats) and three shock-wave studies (N = 110 rats) were identified from multiple databases...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451448/donor-nerve-axotomy-and-axonal-regeneration-after-end-to-side-neurorrhaphy-in-a-rodent-model
#4
Shiwei Wang, Diya Su, Jing Li, Dezhi Li, Hong Wan, Michael Schumacher, Song Liu
OBJECTIVE In this study, the authors used a surgical model of end-to-side neurorrhaphy between a nerve graft and a donor tibial nerve in adult rats to investigate the optimal conditions for axonal regeneration induced by the donor nerve. They also assessed the importance of a more favorable pathway using a predegenerated nerve graft to attract regenerating axons to regrow into the graft and then directing and improving their growth toward the target in comparison with results obtained with a fresh nerve graft...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451438/reinnervation-of-the-rectum-with-transfer-of-the-genital-branch-of-the-genitofemoral-nerve-to-the-pelvic-nerve-in-rats
#5
Chuanjiang Dong, Ping Zhu, Zonglan Xie, Zheqi Fan, Ziqiang Dong
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of rectum reinnervation with transfer of a primarily genitofemoral nerve to the pelvic nerve in the rat. METHODS Thirty-six male rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: rats in the nerve transfer group (n = 12) were subjected to rectal denervation and then bilateral genitofemoral nerve-pelvic nerve transfer; rats in the nerve resection group (n = 12) underwent rectum denervation without nerve transfer; and rats in the control group (n = 12) underwent sham surgery...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451219/low-frequency-pulsed-electromagnetic-field-pretreated-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-the-regeneration-of-crush-injured-rat-mental-nerve
#6
NaRi Seo, Sung-Ho Lee, Kyung Won Ju, JaeMan Woo, BongJu Kim, SoungMin Kim, Jeong Won Jahng, Jong-Ho Lee
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been shown to promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) reportedly promotes the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of BMSCs. Low-frequency PEMF can induce the neuronal differentiation of BMSCs in the absence of nerve growth factors. This study was designed to investigate the effects of low-frequency PEMF pretreatment on the proliferation and function of BMSCs and the effects of low-frequency PEMF pre-treated BMSCs on the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve using in vitro and in vivo experiments...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451218/pten-knockdown-with-the-y444f-mutant-aav2-vector-promotes-axonal-regeneration-in-the-adult-optic-nerve
#7
Zheng-Ru Huang, Hai-Ying Chen, Zi-Zhong Hu, Ping Xie, Qing-Huai Liu
The lack of axonal regeneration is the major cause of vision loss after optic nerve injury in adult mammals. Activating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway has been shown to enhance the intrinsic growth capacity of neurons and to facilitate axonal regeneration in the central nervous system after injury. The deletion of the mTOR negative regulator phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) enhances regeneration of adult corticospinal neurons and ganglion cells. In the present study, we used a tyrosine-mutated (Y444F) AAV2 vector to efficiently express a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) for silencing PTEN expression in retinal ganglion cells...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451216/does-combined-therapy-of-curcumin-and-epigallocatechin-gallate-have-a-synergistic-neuroprotective-effect-against-spinal-cord-injury
#8
Jiri Ruzicka, Lucia Machova Urdzikova, Barbora Svobodova, Anubhav G Amin, Kristyna Karova, Jana Dubisova, Kristyna Zaviskova, Sarka Kubinova, Meic Schmidt, Meena Jhanwar-Uniyal, Pavla Jendelova
Systematic inflammatory response after spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the factors leading to lesion development and a profound degree of functional loss. Anti-inflammatory compounds, such as curcumin and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) are known for their neuroprotective effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of combined therapy of curcumin and EGCG in a rat model of acute SCI induced by balloon compression. Immediately after SCI, rats received curcumin, EGCG, curcumin + EGCG or saline [daily intraperitoneal doses (curcumin, 6 mg/kg; EGCG 17 mg/kg)] and weekly intramuscular doses (curcumin, 60 mg/kg; EGCG 17 mg/kg)] for 28 days...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451213/bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-versus-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#9
Marcela Fernandes, Sandra Gomes Valente, Rodrigo Guerra Sabongi, João Baptista Gomes Dos Santos, Vilnei Mattioli Leite, Henning Ulrich, Arthur Andrade Nery, Maria José da Silva Fernandes
Studies have confirmed that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be used for treatment of several nervous system diseases. However, isolation of bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs) is an invasive and painful process and the yield is very low. Therefore, there is a need to search for other alterative stem cell sources. Adipose-derived MSCs (ADSCs) have phenotypic and gene expression profiles similar to those of BMSCs. The production of ADSCs is greater than that of BMSCs, and ADSCs proliferate faster than BMSCs...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451204/conundrums-and-confusions-regarding-how-polyethylene-glycol-fusion-produces-excellent-behavioral-recovery-after-peripheral-nerve-injuries
#10
REVIEW
George D Bittner, Dale R Sengelaub, Cameron L Ghergherehchi
Current Neuroscience dogma holds that transections or ablations of a segment of peripheral nerves produce: (1) Immediate loss of axonal continuity, sensory signaling, and motor control; (2) Wallerian rapid (1-3 days) degeneration of severed distal axons, muscle atrophy, and poor behavioral recovery after many months (if ever, after ablations) by slowly-regenerating (1 mm/d), proximal-stump outgrowths that must specifically reinnervate denervated targets; (3) Poor acceptance of microsutured nerve allografts, even if tissue-matched and immune-suppressed...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451203/a-growing-field-the-regulation-of-axonal-regeneration-by-wnt-signaling
#11
REVIEW
Armando L Garcia, Adanna Udeh, Karthik Kalahasty, Abigail S Hackam
The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a highly conserved signaling cascade that plays critical roles during embryogenesis. Wnt ligands regulate axonal extension, growth cone guidance and synaptogenesis throughout the developing central nervous system (CNS). Recently, studies in mammalian and fish model systems have demonstrated that Wnt/β-catenin signaling also promotes axonal regeneration in the adult optic nerve and spinal cord after injury, raising the possibility that Wnt could be developed as a therapeutic strategy...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446228/integrins-promote-axonal-regeneration-after-injury-of-the-nervous-system
#12
Bart Nieuwenhuis, Barbara Haenzi, Melissa R Andrews, Joost Verhaagen, James W Fawcett
Integrins are cell surface receptors that form the link between extracellular matrix molecules of the cell environment and internal cell signalling and the cytoskeleton. They are involved in several processes, e.g. adhesion and migration during development and repair. This review focuses on the role of integrins in axonal regeneration. Integrins participate in spontaneous axonal regeneration in the peripheral nervous system through binding to various ligands that either inhibit or enhance their activation and signalling...
February 15, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443831/assessment-of-the-effect-of-autograft-orientation-on-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#13
Ashkan Afshari, Lyly Nguyen, Nathaniel D Kelm, Justine S Kim, Nancy L Cardwell, Alonda C Pollins, Ravinder Bamba, R Bruce Shack, Mark D Does, Wesley P Thayer
PURPOSE: Given no definite consensus on the accepted autograft orientation during peripheral nerve injury repair, we compare outcomes between reverse and normally oriented autografts using an advanced magnetic resonance imaging technique, diffusion tensor imaging. METHODS: Thirty-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: sham-left sciatic nerve isolation without injury, reverse autograft-10-mm cut left sciatic nerve segment reoriented 180° and used to coapt the proximal and distal stumps, or normally oriented autograft-10-mm cut nerve segment kept in its normal orientation for coaptation...
February 13, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442452/the-neuroprotective-effect-of-n-acetylcysteine-in-spinal-cord-injured-rats
#14
Edyta Olakowska, Wiesław Marcol, Adam Właszczuk, Izabella Woszczycka-Korczyńska, Joanna Lewin-Kowalik
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is an important cause of impairment of sensory and motor nerve function. It has been shown that free-radical species play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute tissue trauma after SCI. There are no proven pharmacological therapies that provide neuroprotection and stimulate axonal growth after trauma. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the regeneration of spinal cord injuries in rats...
December 2017: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439367/snrpn-controls-the-ability-of-neurons-to-regenerate-axons
#15
Sonja Mertsch, Katrin Schlicht, Harutyun Melkonyan, Stefan Schlatt, Solon Thanos
BACKGROUND: Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) of mammals lose the ability to regenerate injured axons during postnatal maturation, but little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: It remains of particular importance to understand the mechanisms of axonal regeneration to develop new therapeutic approaches for nerve injuries. METHODS: Retinas from newborn to adult monkeys (Callithrix jacchus)1 were obtained immediately after death and cultured in vitro...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438804/axonal-activation-of-the-unfolded-protein-response-promotes-axonal-regeneration-following-peripheral-nerve-injury
#16
Yosuke Ohtake, Koji Matsuhisa, Masayuki Kaneko, Soshi Kanemoto, Rie Asada, Kazunori Imaizumi, Atsushi Saito
Adult mammalian peripheral neurons have an intrinsic regrowth capacity in response to axonal injury. The induction of calcium ion (Ca 2+ ) oscillations at an injured site is critical for the regulation of regenerative responses. In polarized neurons, distal axonal segments contain a well-developed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network that is responsible for Ca 2+ homeostasis. Although these characteristics implicate the relevance among injury-induced Ca 2+ dynamics, axonal ER-derived signaling, and regenerative responses propagated along the axons, the details are not fully understood...
February 10, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434374/reactive-oxygen-species-regulate-axonal-regeneration-through-the-release-of-exosomal-nadph-oxidase-2-complexes-into-injured-axons
#17
Arnau Hervera, Francesco De Virgiliis, Ilaria Palmisano, Luming Zhou, Elena Tantardini, Guiping Kong, Thomas Hutson, Matt C Danzi, Rotem Ben-Tov Perry, Celio X C Santos, Alexander N Kapustin, Roland A Fleck, José Antonio Del Río, Thomas Carroll, Vance Lemmon, John L Bixby, Ajay M Shah, Mike Fainzilber, Simone Di Giovanni
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to tissue damage and remodelling mediated by the inflammatory response after injury. Here we show that ROS, which promote axonal dieback and degeneration after injury, are also required for axonal regeneration and functional recovery after spinal injury. We find that ROS production in the injured sciatic nerve and dorsal root ganglia requires CX3CR1-dependent recruitment of inflammatory cells. Next, exosomes containing functional NADPH oxidase 2 complexes are released from macrophages and incorporated into injured axons via endocytosis...
February 12, 2018: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433485/safety-and-efficacy-of-platelet-rich-plasma-in-treatment-of-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Seyed Ahmad Raeissadat, Afshin Karimzadeh, Masoud Hashemi, Leila Bagherzadeh
BACKGROUND: Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common peripheral entrapment neuropathy, for which conservative treatments are the first measures taken. However, these measures are not usually sufficient. Recently major attention has been drawn to platelet-rich plasma for its possible effects on axon regeneration and neurological recovery. Although few studies have evaluated the effects of this treatment in carpal tunnel syndrome, further investigation is required to reach concrete conclusion...
February 13, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430446/models-of-disuse-muscle-atrophy-therapeutic-implications-in-critically-ill-patients
#19
REVIEW
Esther Barreiro
Skeletal muscle weakness is common in the intensive care units (ICU). Approximately 50% of patients under mechanical ventilation for more than 7 days show signs of ICU-acquired muscle weakness. In these patients, muscle weakness may be the result of axonal polyneuropathy, myopathy or a combination of both. The commonest risk factors in patients with ICU-acquired weakness (AW) are the severity and duration of the systemic inflammatory response, duration of the stay in the ICU and of mechanical ventilation, hyperglycemia, hypoalbuminemia, parenteral nutrition, and administration of corticosteroids and of neuromuscular blocking agents...
January 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428403/the-sonic-hedgehog-signaling-pathway-regulates-inferior-alveolar-nerve-regeneration
#20
Yurie Yamada, Atsushi Ohazama, Takeyasu Maeda, Kenji Seo
Activation of Shh signaling is known to be observed following injury of the peripheral nerves such as the sciatic nerve. However, the precise role of Shh signaling during peripheral nerve regeneration is not fully understood. The inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) is most commonly injured during oral surgery. Unlike the sciatic nerve, the IAN is isolated from other craniofacial tissues, as it resides in a long bony canal within the mandible. The IAN is thus an excellent experimental model for investigating peripheral nerve regeneration...
February 8, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
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