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Axonal regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228020/transplantation-of-canine-olfactory-ensheathing-cells-producing-chondroitinase-abc-promotes-chondroitin-sulphate-proteoglycan-digestion-and-axonal-sprouting-following-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Darren Carwardine, Jonathan Prager, Jacob Neeves, Elizabeth M Muir, James Uney, Nicolas Granger, Liang-Fong Wong
Olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) transplantation is a promising strategy for treating spinal cord injury (SCI), as has been demonstrated in experimental SCI models and naturally occurring SCI in dogs. However, the presence of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans within the extracellular matrix of the glial scar can inhibit efficient axonal repair and limit the therapeutic potential of OECs. Here we have used lentiviral vectors to genetically modify canine OECs to continuously deliver mammalian chondroitinase ABC at the lesion site in order to degrade the inhibitory chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans in a rodent model of spinal cord injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226485/immunohistologic-analysis-of-spontaneous-recurrent-laryngeal-nerve-reinnervation-in-a-rat-model
#2
Andrew J Rosko, Robbi A Kupfer, Sang S Oh, Catherine T Haring, Eva L Feldman, Norman D Hogikyan
OBJECTIVE: After recurrent laryngeal nerve injury (RLN), spontaneous reinnervation of the larynx occurs with input from multiple sources. The purpose of this study was to determine the timing and efficiency of reinnervation across a resected RLN segment in a rat model of RLN injury. STUDY DESIGN: Animal study. METHODS: Twelve male 60-day-old Sprague Dawley rats underwent resection of a 5-mm segment of the right RLN. Rats were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, and 12 weeks after nerve injury to harvest the larynx and trachea for immunohistologic analysis...
December 11, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224279/-overexpression-of-trpv1-after-periphery-nerve-injury-attenuates-nerve-regeneration-in-rats
#3
J Bai, Y Zhang, Y F Wang, J Lan, X Q Li
Objective: To observe the effect of the expressive or functional blockage of TRPV1 on nerve regeneration after sciatic trans-section injury. Methods: AMG-517, a kind of TRPV1 inhibitor, was injected into the surrounding area of the ipsilateral lumbar dorsal root ganglia while unilateral sciatic nerve was transected. A total of 24 healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: control group, injury only group, injury+ AMG-517 150 μg/kg group, injury+ AMG-517 300 μg/kg group. The injury only group was injected the same volume of medium...
December 8, 2017: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223350/%C3%AE-6-and-%C3%AE-1-integrin-heterodimer-mediates-schwann-cell-interactions-with-axons-and-facilitates-axonal-regeneration-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#4
In Ae Chang, Ki Joong Kim, Uk Namgung
Several isoforms of integrin subunits are expressed in Schwann cells and mediate Schwann cell interactions with axons. Here, we identify α6 and β1 integrins as heterodimeric proteins expressed in Schwann cells and define their functions in axonal regeneration. α6 and β1 integrins are induced in Schwann cells in the sciatic nerve after a crush injury, and the blocking of integrin activity by siRNA expression and by treatment with anti-integrin antibodies attenuates Schwann cell contact with cultured neurons and decreases neurite outgrowth...
December 6, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223322/systemic-administration-of-epothilone-d-improves-functional-recovery-of-walking-after-rat-spinal-cord-contusion-injury
#5
Jörg Ruschel, Frank Bradke
Central nervous system (CNS) injuries cause permanent impairments of sensorimotor functions as mature neurons fail to regenerate their severed axons. The poor intrinsic growth capacity of adult CNS neurons and the formation of an inhibitory lesion scar are key impediments to axon regeneration. Systemic administration of the microtubule stabilizing agent epothilone B promotes axon regeneration and recovery of motor function by activating the intrinsic axonal growth machinery and by reducing the inhibitory fibrotic lesion scar...
December 6, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222774/preparation-of-adult-rat-sensory-neuron-cultures-and-their-application-to-growth-cone-turning-assays
#6
Christine A Webber, Douglas W Zochodne
The directional trajectory of growing peripheral nerve axons in the adult impacts their successful regeneration to denervated target tissues. Misdirected axons in neuromas, injured nerve trunks, or nerves with attempted repair diminish the success of regeneration. The behavior of adult rodent peripheral sensory neurons in vitro, in turn, is helpful in predicting axonal behavior in vivo. Here, we describe the adaptation of embryonic neuron growth cone turning assays, an important technique in developmental neurobiology, to adult rat sensory neurons...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220373/can-nerve-regeneration-on-an-artificial-nerve-conduit-be-enhanced-by-ethanol-induced-cervical-sympathetic-ganglion-block
#7
Yoshiki Shionoya, Katsuhisa Sunada, Keiji Shigeno, Akira Nakada, Michitaka Honda, Tatsuo Nakamura
This study aimed to determine whether nerve regeneration by means of an artificial nerve conduit is promoted by ethanol-induced cervical sympathetic ganglion block (CSGB) in a canine model. This study involved two experiments-in part I, the authors examined the effect of CSGB by ethanol injection on long-term blood flow to the orofacial region; part II involved evaluation of the effect of CSGB by ethanol injection on inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) repair using polyglycolic acid-collagen tubes. In part I, seven Beagles were administered left CSGB by injection of 99...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217688/sustained-mapk-erk-activation-in-adult-schwann-cells-impairs-nerve-repair
#8
Ilaria Cervellini, Jorge Galino, Ning Zhu, Shannen Allen, Carmen Birchmeier, David L Bennett
The MAPK/ERK pathway has a critical role in PNS development. It is required for Schwann cell (SC) differentiation and myelination; sustained embryonic MAPK/ERK activation in SCs enhances myelin growth overcoming signals that normally end myelination. Excess activation of this pathway can be maladaptive as in adulthood acute strong activation of MAPK/ERK has been shown to cause SC dedifferentiation and demyelination. We used a mouse model (including male and female animals) in which gain of function Mek1DD allele produces sustained MAPK/ERK activation in adult SCs and we determined the impact of such activation on nerve repair...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214379/dual-contribution-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-employed-for-tissue-engineering-of-peripheral-nerves-trophic-activity-and-differentiation-into-connective-tissue-cells
#9
F Evaristo-Mendonça, A Carrier-Ruiz, R de Siqueira-Santos, R M P Campos, B Rangel, T H Kasai-Brunswick, V T Ribeiro-Resende
Adult peripheral nerves in vertebrates can regrow their axons and re-establish function after crush lesion. However, when there is extensive loss of a nerve segment, due to an accident or compressive damage caused by tumors, regeneration is strongly impaired. In order to overcome this problem, bioengineering strategies have been employed, using biomaterials formed by key cell types combined with biodegradable polymers. Many of these strategies are successful, and regenerated nerve tissue can be observed 12 weeks after the implantation...
December 7, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212232/the-effects-of-fk1706-on-nerve-regeneration-and-bladder-function-recovery-following-an-end-to-side-neurorrhaphy-in-rats
#10
Wansheng Gao, Xiangfei He, Yunlong Li, Jianguo Wen
Background: Immunophilin ligands are neuroregenerative agents binding to FK506 binding proteins, by which stimulate recovery of neurons in a variety of injury nerves. FK1706 is a novel immunophilin ligand which has neuroprotective and neuroregenerative effects but without immunosuppressive activity. At present, most reports about FK1706 in ameliorating nerve injury and functional recovery are limited to cavernous nerve injury and erectile function recovery. This study aimed to demonstrate the effects of FK1706 on nerve regeneration and bladder function recovery following an end-to-side neurorrhaphy in rat models...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211920/miconazole-enhances-nerve-regeneration-and-functional-recovery-after-sciatic-nerve-crush-injury
#11
Tao Lin, Shuai Qiu, Liwei Yan, Shuang Zhu, Canbin Zheng, Qingtang Zhu, Xiaolin Liu
Introduction Improving axonal outgrowth and remyelination are crucial for peripheral nerve regeneration. Miconazole appears to enhance remyelination in the central nervous system. This study aims to evaluate the effect of miconazole on axonal regeneration using a sciatic nerve crush injury model in rats. Methods Fifty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control and miconazole groups. Nerve regeneration and myelination were determined using histological and electrophysiological assessments. Evaluation of sensory and motor recovery was performed using the pinprick assay and sciatic functional index...
December 6, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209165/microrna-133b-negatively-regulates-zebrafish-single-mauthner-cell-axon-regeneration-through-targeting-tppp3-in-vivo
#12
Rongchen Huang, Min Chen, Leiqing Yang, Mahendra Wagle, Su Guo, Bing Hu
Axon regeneration, fundamental to nerve repair, and functional recovery, relies on rapid changes in gene expression attributable to microRNA (miRNA) regulation. MiR-133b has been proved to play an important role in different organ regeneration in zebrafish, but its role in regulating axon regeneration in vivo is still controversial. Here, combining single-cell electroporation with a vector-based miRNA-expression system, we have modulated the expression of miR-133b in Mauthner-cells (M-cells) at the single-cell level in zebrafish...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209164/differential-expression-of-sox11-and-bdnf-mrna-isoforms-in-the-injured-and-regenerating-nervous-systems
#13
Felix L Struebing, Jiaxing Wang, Ying Li, Rebecca King, Olivia C Mistretta, Arthur W English, Eldon E Geisert
In both the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS), axonal injury induces changes in neuronal gene expression. In the PNS, a relatively well-characterized alteration in transcriptional activation is known to promote axonal regeneration. This transcriptional cascade includes the neurotrophin Bdnf and the transcription factor Sox11. Although both molecules act to facilitate successful axon regeneration in the PNS, this process does not occur in the CNS. The present study examines the differential expression of Sox11 and Bdnf mRNA isoforms in the PNS and CNS using three experimental paradigms at different time points: (i) the acutely injured CNS (retina after optic nerve crush) and PNS (dorsal root ganglion after sciatic nerve crush), (ii) a CNS regeneration model (retina after optic nerve crush and induced regeneration); and (iii) the retina during a chronic form of central neurodegeneration (the DBA/2J glaucoma model)...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207059/therapeutic-effect-of-adipose%C3%A2-derived-stem-cell-transplantation-on-optic-nerve-injury-in-rats
#14
Xu Li, Shanyao Zhao, Liangjun Wang
Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are mesenchymal stem cells in adipose tissue. ADSCs may differentiate into cells and tissues of different embryonic germ layers under specific inducing conditions. Previous studies have demonstrated that Schwann cells transformed from ADSCs can express nerve growth factors, generate nerve fibers and promote axonal regeneration in models of peripheral nerve injury. Stem cell transplantation is one of the potential techniques for the treatment of retinal ganglion cell injury...
November 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203228/mild-fluid-percussion-injury-induces-diffuse-axonal-damage-and-reactive-synaptic-plasticity-in-the-mouse-olfactory-bulb
#15
Melissa A Powell, Raiford T Black, Terry L Smith, Thomas M Reeves, Linda L Phillips
Despite the regenerative capacity of the olfactory bulb (OB), head trauma causes olfactory disturbances in up to 30% of patients. While models of olfactory nerve transection, olfactory receptor neuron (ORN) ablation, or direct OB impact have been used to examine OB recovery, these models are severe and not ideal for study of OB synaptic repair. We posited that a mild fluid percussion brain injury (mFPI), delivered over mid-dorsal cortex, would produce diffuse OB deafferentation without confounding pathology...
December 1, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196317/an-image-based-mirna-screen-identifies-mirna-135s-as-regulators-of-cns-axon-growth-and-regeneration-by-targeting-kr%C3%A3-ppel-like-factor-4
#16
Eljo Y van Battum, Marieke G Verhagen, Vamshidhar R Vangoor, Yuki Fujita, Alwin A H A Derijck, Eoghan O'Duibhir, Giuliano Giuliani, Thijs de Gunst, Youri Adolfs, Daphne Lelieveld, David Egan, Roel Q J Schaapveld, Toshihide Yamashita, R Jeroen Pasterkamp
During embryonic development, axons extend over long distances to establish functional connections. In contrast, axon regeneration in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is limited, in part by a reduced intrinsic capacity for axon growth. Therefore, insight into the intrinsic control of axon growth may provide new avenues for enhancing CNS regeneration. Here, we performed one of the first miRNome-wide functional miRNA screens to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) with robust effects on axon growth. High-content screening identified miR-135a and miR-135b as potent stimulators of axon growth and cortical neuron migration in vitro and in vivo in male and female mice...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192607/modelling-the-impact-of-altered-axonal-morphometry-on-the-response-of-regenerative-nervous-tissue-to-electrical-stimulation-through-macro-sieve-electrodes
#17
Erik Robert Zellmer, Matthew R MacEwan, Daniel W Moran
OBJECTIVE: Regenerated peripheral nervous tissue possesses different morphometric properties compared to undisrupted nerve. It is poorly understood how these morphometric differences alter the response of the regenerated nerve to electrical stimulation. In this work, we use computational modeling to explore the electrophysiological response of regenerated and undisrupted nerve axons to electrical stimulation delivered by macro-sieve electrodes (MSEs). APPROACH: A 3D finite element model of a peripheral nerve segment populated with mammalian myelinated axons and implanted with a macro-sieve electrode has been developed...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192024/eph-ephrin-signaling-modulated-by-polymerization-and-condensation-of-receptors
#18
Samuel Ojosnegros, Francesco Cutrale, Daniel Rodríguez, Jason J Otterstrom, Chi Li Chiu, Verónica Hortigüela, Carolina Tarantino, Anna Seriola, Stephen Mieruszynski, Elena Martínez, Melike Lakadamyali, Angel Raya, Scott E Fraser
Eph receptor signaling plays key roles in vertebrate tissue boundary formation, axonal pathfinding, and stem cell regeneration by steering cells to positions defined by its ligand ephrin. Some of the key events in Eph-ephrin signaling are understood: ephrin binding triggers the clustering of the Eph receptor, fostering transphosphorylation and signal transduction into the cell. However, a quantitative and mechanistic understanding of how the signal is processed by the recipient cell into precise and proportional responses is largely lacking...
November 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190463/genipin-treated-chitosan-nanofibers-as-a-novel-scaffold-for-nerve-guidance-channel-design
#19
Yu-Ting Lau, Lam-Fung Kwok, Kin-Wai Tam, Ying-Shing Chan, Daisy Kwok-Yan Shum, Graham Ka-Hon Shea
Schwann cell-seeded nerve guidance channels are designed to assist post-traumatic nerve regeneration in the PNS. Chitosan is a natural polymer well suited for tissue engineering as it is biocompatible, non-immunogenic, and biodegradable. Electrospun chitosan nanofibers utilized in nerve guidance channels have the capacity for guiding axonal growth within the channel lumen yet are limited in their capacity to maintain structural integrity within physiological environments. To address this, we attempted genipin crosslinking of chitosan nanofibers...
November 23, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190028/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-methods-for-studying-retinal-ganglion-cell-survival-and-optic-nerve-regeneration
#20
Yuqin Yin, Larry I Benowitz
Glaucoma is marked by a progressive degeneration of the optic nerve and delayed loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the projection neurons of the eye. Because RGCs are not replaced and because surviving RGCs cannot regenerate their axons, the visual loss in glaucoma is largely irreversible. Here, we describe methods to evaluate treatments that may be beneficial for treating glaucoma using in vitro cell culture models (immunopanning to isolate neonatal RGCs, dissociated mature retinal neurons, retinal explants) and in vivo models that test potential treatments or investigate underlying molecular mechanisms in an intact system...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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