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Axonal regeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429407/spinal-cord-injury-induces-widespread-chronic-changes-in-cerebral-white-matter
#1
Tero Ilvesmäki, Eerika Koskinen, Antti Brander, Teemu Luoto, Juha Öhman, Hannu Eskola
Traumatic spinal cord injuries (SCIs) lead to axonal damage at the trauma site, as well as disconnections within the central nervous system. While the exact mechanisms of the long-term pathophysiological consequences of SCIs are not fully understood, it is known that neuronal damage and degeneration are not limited to the direct proximity of the trauma. Instead, the effects can be detected even in the cerebrum. We examined SCI-induced chronic brain changes with a case-control design using 32 patients and 70 control subjects...
April 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426967/an-intrinsic-epigenetic-barrier-for-functional-axon-regeneration
#2
Yi-Lan Weng, Ran An, Jessica Cassin, Jessica Joseph, Ruifa Mi, Chen Wang, Chun Zhong, Seung-Gi Jin, Gerd P Pfeifer, Alfonso Bellacosa, Xinzhong Dong, Ahmet Hoke, Zhigang He, Hongjun Song, Guo-Li Ming
Mature neurons in the adult peripheral nervous system can effectively switch from a dormant state with little axonal growth to robust axon regeneration upon injury. The mechanisms by which injury unlocks mature neurons' intrinsic axonal growth competence are not well understood. Here, we show that peripheral sciatic nerve lesion in adult mice leads to elevated levels of Tet3 and 5-hydroxylmethylcytosine in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Functionally, Tet3 is required for robust axon regeneration of DRG neurons and behavioral recovery...
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426953/methylock-dna-demethylation-is-the-epigenetic-key-to-axon-regeneration
#3
Scarlett J Barker, Li-Huei Tsai
In this issue of Neuron, Weng et al. (2017) reveal a role for active DNA demethylation in allowing axon regeneration to occur in the mature nervous system following axonal injury.
April 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426158/a-novel-technique-for-decellularization-of-allogenic-nerves-and-in-vivo-study-of-their-use-for-peripheral-nerve-reconstruction
#4
F Boriani, N Fazio, C Fotia, L Savarino, N Nicoli Aldini, L Martini, N Zini, M Bernardini, N Baldini
Autografts represent the gold standard for peripheral nerve reconstruction but their limited availability, the discrepancy of nerve caliber and long surgical times are drawbacks. Allografts have therefore become a valid alternative option. In particular, acellular nerve allografts (ANAs) rather than fresh allografts do not need immunosuppression and appear to be safe and effective based on recent studies. An innovative method was conceived to obtain ANAs, so as to speed up nerve decellularization, without compromising nerve architecture, and without breaking the asepsis chain...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425503/nerve-degeneration-and-regeneration-in-the-cephalopod-mollusc-octopus-vulgaris-the-case-of-the-pallial-nerve
#5
Pamela Imperadore, Sameer B Shah, Helen P Makarenkova, Graziano Fiorito
Regeneration is a process that restores structure and function of tissues damaged by injury or disease. In mammals complete regeneration is often unsuccessful, while most of the low phyla animals can re-grow many parts of their body after amputation. Cephalopod molluscs, and in particular Octopus vulgaris, are well known for their capacity to regenerate their arms and other body parts, including central and peripheral nervous system. To better understand the mechanism of recovery following nerve injury in this species we investigated the process of axon regrowth and nerve regeneration after complete transection of the Octopus pallial nerves...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421195/role-of-demyelination-efficiency-within-acellular-nerve-scaffolds-during-nerve-regeneration-across-peripheral-defects
#6
Meiqin Cai, Tengchao Huang, Bo Hou, Ying Guo
Hudson's optimized chemical processing method is the most commonly used chemical method to prepare acellular nerve scaffolds for the reconstruction of large peripheral nerve defects. However, residual myelin attached to the basal laminar tube has been observed in acellular nerve scaffolds prepared using Hudson's method. Here, we describe a novel method of producing acellular nerve scaffolds that eliminates residual myelin more effectively than Hudson's method through the use of various detergent combinations of sulfobetaine-10, sulfobetaine-16, Triton X-200, sodium deoxycholate, and peracetic acid...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420967/organization-and-plasticity-of-sodium-channel-expression-in-the-mouse-olfactory-and-vomeronasal-epithelia
#7
Florian Bolz, Stephanie Kasper, Bernd Bufe, Frank Zufall, Martina Pyrski
To understand the molecular basis of neuronal excitation in the mammalian olfactory system, we conducted a systematic analysis of the organization of voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channel subunits in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and vomeronasal organ (VNO) of adult mice. We also analyzed changes in Nav channel expression during development in these two systems and during regeneration of the MOE. Quantitative PCR shows that Nav1.7 is the predominant isoform in both adult MOE and VNO. We detected pronounced immunoreactivity for Nav1...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420963/rna-seq-analysis-of-microglia-reveals-time-dependent-activation-of-specific-genetic-programs-following-spinal-cord-injury
#8
Harun N Noristani, Yannick N Gerber, Jean-Charles Sabourin, Marine Le Corre, Nicolas Lonjon, Nadine Mestre-Frances, Hélène E Hirbec, Florence E Perrin
Neurons have inherent competence to regrow following injury, although not spontaneously. Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces a pronounced neuroinflammation driven by resident microglia and infiltrating peripheral macrophages. Microglia are the first reactive glial population after SCI and participate in recruitment of monocyte-derived macrophages to the lesion site. Both positive and negative influence of microglia and macrophages on axonal regeneration had been reported after SCI, raising the issue whether their response depends on time post-lesion or different lesion severity...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414769/creation-of-an-intramedullary-cavity-by-hemorrhagic-necrosis-removal-24-h-after-spinal-cord-contusion-in-rats-for-eventual-intralesional-implantation-of-restorative-materials
#9
Gabriel Guizar-Sahagun, Angelina Martinez-Cruz, Rebecca E Franco-Bourland, Eduardo Cruz-García, Alvaro Corona-Juarez, Araceli Diaz-Ruiz, Israel Grijalva, Horacio J Reyes-Alva, Ignacio Madrazo
Intramedullary hemorrhagic necrosis occurs early after spinal cord injury at the site of injury and adjacent segments. It is considered harmful because of its potential to aggravate secondary injury, and to interfere with axonal regeneration; it might also lead to an unfavorable environment for intralesional implants. Removal of hemorrhagic necrosis has been attempted before with variable results. The invasive nature of these procedures carries the risk of exacerbating damage to the injured cord. The overall objective for this study was to test several strategies for non-damaging removal of hemorrhagic necrosis and characterize the resulting cavity looking for a space for future intralesional therapeutic implants in rats with acute cord injury...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412554/prompt-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-induced-by-a-hierarchically-aligned-fibrin-nanofiber-hydrogel
#10
Jinrong Du, Jianheng Liu, Shenglian Yao, Haiquan Mao, Jiang Peng, Xun Sun, Zheng Cao, Yongdong Yang, Bo Xiao, Yiguo Wang, Peifu Tang, Xiumei Wang
Fibrin plays a crucial role in peripheral nerve regeneration, which could occur spontaneously in the format of longitudinally oriented fibrin cables during the initial stage of nerve regeneration. This fibrin cable can direct migration and proliferation of Schwann cells and axonal regrowth, which is very important to nerve regeneration. In the present study, we prepared a three-dimensional hierarchically aligned fibrin nanofiber hydrogel (AFG) through electrospinning and molecular self-assembly to resemble the architecture and biological function of the native fibrin cable...
April 12, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405806/rearrangement-of-potassium-ions-and-kv1-1-kv1-2-potassium-channels-in-regenerating-axons-following-end-to-end-neurorrhaphy-ionic-images-from-tof-sims
#11
Chiung-Hui Liu, Hung-Ming Chang, Tsung-Huan Wu, Li-You Chen, Yin-Shuo Yang, To-Jung Tseng, Wen-Chieh Liao
The voltage-gated potassium channels Kv1.1 and Kv1.2 that cluster at juxtaparanodal (JXP) regions are essential in the regulation of nerve excitability and play a critical role in axonal conduction. When demyelination occurs, Kv1.1/Kv1.2 activity increases, suppressing the membrane potential nearly to the equilibrium potential of K(+), which results in an axonal conduction blockade. The recovery of K(+)-dependent communication signals and proper clustering of Kv1.1/Kv1.2 channels at JXP regions may directly reflect nerve regeneration following peripheral nerve injury...
April 12, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392569/multichannel-polymer-scaffold-seeded-with-activated-schwann-cells-and-bone-mesenchymal-stem-cells-improves-axonal-regeneration-and-functional-recovery-after-rat-spinal-cord-injury
#12
Er-Zhu Yang, Guo-Wang Zhang, Jian-Guang Xu, Shuai Chen, Hua Wang, Liang-Liang Cao, Bo Liang, Xiao-Feng Lian
The adult mammalian CNS has a limited capacity to regenerate after traumatic injury. In this study, a combinatorial strategy to promote axonal regeneration and functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) was evaluated in adult rats. The rats were subjected to a complete transection in the thoracic spinal cord, and multichannel scaffolds seeded with activated Schwann cells (ASCs) and/or rat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were acutely grafted into the 3-mm-wide transection gap. At 4 weeks post-transplantation and thereafter, the rats receiving scaffolds seeded with ASCs and MSCs exhibited significant recovery of nerve function as shown by the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan (BBB) score and electrophysiological test results...
April 10, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389905/fibrin-glue-as-a-stabilization-strategy-in-peripheral-nerve-repair-when-using-porous-nerve-guidance-conduits
#13
Divya Bhatnagar, Jared S Bushman, N Sanjeeva Murthy, Antonio Merolli, Hilton M Kaplan, Joachim Kohn
Porous conduits provide a protected pathway for nerve regeneration, while still allowing exchange of nutrients and wastes. However, pore sizes >30 µm may permit fibrous tissue infiltration into the conduit, which may impede axonal regeneration. Coating the conduit with Fibrin Glue (FG) is one option for controlling the conduit's porosity. FG is extensively used in clinical peripheral nerve repair, as a tissue sealant, filler and drug-delivery matrix. Here, we compared the performance of FG to an alternative, hyaluronic acid (HA) as a coating for porous conduits, using uncoated porous conduits and reverse autografts as control groups...
May 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388831/estrogen-signaling-is-necessary-for-exercise-mediated-enhancement-of-motoneuron-participation-in-axon-regeneration-after-peripheral-nerve-injury-in-mice
#14
Melina C Acosta, Patricia A Copley, Jamie R Harrell, Jennifer C Wilhelm
Thousands of people each year suffer from peripheral nerve injury. Treatment options are limited, and recovery is often incomplete. Treadmill exercise can enhance nerve regeneration; however, this appears to occur in a sex-dependent manner. Females respond best to short duration, high speed interval training; whereas, males respond best to slower, continuous training. Previous studies have shown a role for testosterone in this process, but the role of estrogen is unknown. To evaluate the role of estrogen signaling in treadmill exercise, we blocked estrogen receptor (ER) signaling during treadmill exercise in males and female wild type mice...
April 7, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387110/femoral-nerve-repair-using-an-h-type-nerve-regeneration-chamber-in-rats
#15
X Y Hong, X Hong, W W Gu, J Lin, W T Yin
Peripheral nerve injury in surgical trauma patients is very common. The femoral nerve can be divided into two branches: one regarding the quadricep muscles, and one the skin. After nerve transection and suture, the motor axons have an equal opportunity to regenerate into the original muscle branch, or regenerate into the sensory skin nerves. These anatomical features of femoral nerve have made it important in nerve regeneration research. Thus, this study was designed to examine the effects of an H-type nerve regeneration chamber on motor nerve regeneration after femoral nerve injury...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382924/fascicular-nerve-stimulation-and-recording-using-a-novel-double-aisle-regenerative-electrode
#16
Ignacio Delgado-Martínez, Martina Righi, Daniel Santos, Annarita Cutrone, Silvia Bossi, Silvia D'Amico, Jaume Del Valle, Silvestro Micera, Xavier Navarro
OBJECTIVE: As artificial prostheses become more refined, they are most often used as a therapeutic option for hand amputation. Differently from extra- or intraneural interfaces, regenerative nerve electrodes are designed to enable electrical interface with regrowing axonal bundles of injured nerves, aiming to achieve high selectivity for recording and stimulation. However, most of the developed designs pose an obstacle to the regrowth mechanisms due to low transparency and cause an impairment of the nerve regeneration...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380694/nerve-stepping-stone-has-minimal-impact-in-aiding-regeneration-across-long-acellular-nerve-allografts
#17
Ying Yan, Daniel A Hunter, Lauren Schellhardt, Xueping Ee, Alison K Snyder-Warwick, Amy M Moore, Susan E Mackinnon, Matthew D Wood
INTRODUCTION: Acellular nerve allografts (ANAs) yield less consistent favorable outcomes compared to autografts for long gap reconstructions. We evaluated whether a hybrid ANA can improve 6cm gap reconstruction. METHODS: Rat sciatic nerve was transected and repaired with either 6cm hybrid or control ANAs. Hybrid ANAs were generated using a 1cm cellular isograft between 2.5cm ANAs, while control ANAs had no isograft. Outcomes were assessed by graft gene and marker expression (n=4; at 4 weeks) and motor recovery and nerve histology (n=10; at 20 weeks)...
April 5, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377585/messenger-rnas-localized-to-distal-projections-of-human-stem-cell-derived-neurons
#18
Rebecca L Bigler, Joyce W Kamande, Raluca Dumitru, Mark Niedringhaus, Anne Marion Taylor
The identification of mRNAs in distal projections of model organisms has led to the discovery of multiple proteins that are locally synthesized for functional roles such as axon guidance, injury signaling and regeneration. The extent to which local protein synthesis is conserved in human neurons is unknown. Here we used compartmentalized microfluidic chambers to characterize the transcriptome of distal projections of human embryonic stem cells differentiated using a protocol which enriched for glutamatergic neurons (hESC-neurons)...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371231/chitosan-conduits-filled-with-simvastatin-pluronic-f-127-hydrogel-promote-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-in-rats
#19
Qi Guo, Can Liu, Bao Hai, Teng Ma, Wen Zhang, Jie Tan, Xin Fu, Hong Wang, Yingsheng Xu, Chunli Song
Treating peripheral nerve defects represents a clinical challenge, and nerve conduits lacking an internal scaffold lead to limited large nerve gap regeneration. Here, we bridged 10-mm sciatic nerve defects in rats with a chitosan conduit filled with 0, 0.5, or 1.0 mg of simvastatin in Pluronic F-127 hydrogel. We assessed subsequent nerve regeneration using the sciatic functional index (SFI), electrophysiological assessments, Fluoro-Gold (FG) retrograde tracing, gastrocnemius muscle mass measurements, and histological and immunohistochemical assessments of nerve regeneration...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362972/prevention-of-axonal-degeneration-by-perineurium-injection-of-mitochondria-in-a-sciatic-nerve-crush-injury-model
#20
Chi-Chung Kuo, Hong-Lin Su, Tzu-Lin Chang, Chien-Yi Chiang, Meei-Ling Sheu, Fu-Chou Cheng, Chun-Jung Chen, Jason Sheehan, Hung-Chuan Pan
BACKGROUND: Axon degeneration leads to cytoskeletal disassembly, metabolism imbalance, and mitochondrial dysfunction during neurodegeneration or nerve injury. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we assess the possibility of mitigating axon degeneration by local injection of mitochondria in a crushed sciatic nerve. METHODS: Sciatic nerve explants cocultured with mitochondria were assessed for the optimal dosage in local injection and nerve regeneration potential...
March 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
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