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Exercise induced immune suppression

Barbara Strasser, Daniela Geiger, Markus Schauer, Johanna M Gostner, Hannes Gatterer, Martin Burtscher, Dietmar Fuchs
BACKGROUND: Prolonged intense exercise has been associated with transient suppression of immune function and an increased risk of infections. In this context, the catabolism of amino acid tryptophan via kynurenine may play an important role. The present study examined the effect of a probiotic supplement on the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) and the metabolism of aromatic amino acids after exhaustive aerobic exercise in trained athletes during three months of winter training...
November 23, 2016: Nutrients
Hui-Ying Luk, Danielle E Levitt, Elaine C Lee, Matthew S Ganio, Brendon P McDermott, Brian R Kupchak, Brian K McFarlin, David W Hill, Lawrence E Armstrong, Jakob L Vingren
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the circulating cytokine response to a recreational 164-km road cycling event in a high ambient temperature and to determine if this response was affected by self-paced exercise time to completion. METHODS: Thirty-five men and five women were divided into tertiles based on time to complete the cycling event: slowest (SLOW), moderate (MOD), and fastest (FAST) finishers. Plasma samples were obtained 1-2 h before (PRE) and immediately after (IP) the event...
October 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Jacob A Siedlik, Stephen H Benedict, Evan J Landes, Joseph P Weir, John P Vardiman, Philip M Gallagher
OBJECTIVE: Lymphocyte proliferative responses are commonly used to assess immune function in clinical settings, yet it is unclear how proliferative capacity is altered by exercise. This analysis aims to quantitatively assess the proliferative response of lymphocytes following an acute bout of exercise. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for articles containing the keywords "exercise" OR "acute" OR "aerobic" OR "resistance training" OR "immune function" AND "proliferation" AND "lymphocyte...
August 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Li Alemo Munters, Ingela Loell, Elena Ossipova, Joan Raouf, Maryam Dastmalchi, Eva Lindroos, Yi-Wen Chen, Mona Esbjörnsson, Marina Korotkova, Helene Alexanderson, Kanneboyina Nagaraju, Leslie J Crofford, Per-Johan Jakobsson, Ingrid E Lundberg
OBJECTIVE: Endurance exercise demonstrates beneficial effects in polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM); however, the molecular effects of exercise on skeletal muscle are incompletely understood. We undertook this controlled pilot study to investigate the effects of a 12-week endurance exercise training program on the molecular profile of skeletal muscle in patients with established PM/DM compared to a nonexercised control group of patients with established PM/DM. METHODS: Fifteen patients (7 in the exercise group and 8 in the control group) with paired baseline and 12-week follow-up muscle biopsy samples were included...
July 2016: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Qishi Zheng, Guangying Cui, Jianing Chen, Hainv Gao, Yingfeng Wei, Toshimitsu Uede, Zhi Chen, Hongyan Diao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Regular physical exercise can enhance resistance to many microbial infections. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying the changes in the immune system induced by regular exercise. METHODS: We recruited members of a university badminton club as the regular exercise (RE) group and healthy sedentary students as the sedentary control (SC) group. We investigated the distribution of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) subsets and functions in the two groups...
2015: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Noriaki Kawanishi, Hiroyuki Niihara, Tsubasa Mizokami, Koichi Yada, Katsuhiko Suzuki
The innate immune system is associated with the development of local inflammation. Neutrophils play an essential role in the development of the adipose tissue (AT) inflammation associated with obesity by producing elastase, which can promote the activation and infiltration of macrophages. Exercise training attenuates AT inflammation via suppression of macrophage infiltration. However, the mechanisms driving this phenomenon remains to be elucidated. Here, we evaluated the effects of exercise training on the infiltration of neutrophils and elastase expression in an obese mouse model...
September 2015: Physiological Reports
Yi-Yen Lee, Yi-Ping Yang, Pin-I Huang, Wen-Cheng Li, Ming-Chao Huang, Chung-Lan Kao, Yann-Jang Chen, Ming-Teh Chen
Migraine and dizziness are relatively common disorders. Patients with dizziness have a higher incidence of migraines than the general population. The discomfort experienced by these patients is often poorly controlled by medication. However, the pathophysiology of vestibular migraine (VM) remains unclear. We hypothesized that patients with VM would experience remission from symptoms after exercise training and that this effect may be mediated through the suppression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-mediated inflammation...
July 2015: Brain Research Bulletin
M Appukutty, K Ramasamy, S Rajan, S Vellasamy, R Ramasamy, A K Radhakrishnan
Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer health benefits through the gastrointestinal microbiota. This nutritional supplement may benefit athletes who undergo rigorous training by maintaining their gastrointestinal functions and overall health. In this study the influence of moderate physical exercise using a graded treadmill exercise, alone or in combination with the consumption of a soy product fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum LAB12 (LAB12), on tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) responses was investigated in a murine model...
2015: Beneficial Microbes
Yun-Hee Youm, Kim Y Nguyen, Ryan W Grant, Emily L Goldberg, Monica Bodogai, Dongin Kim, Dominic D'Agostino, Noah Planavsky, Christopher Lupfer, Thirumala D Kanneganti, Seokwon Kang, Tamas L Horvath, Tarek M Fahmy, Peter A Crawford, Arya Biragyn, Emad Alnemri, Vishwa Deep Dixit
The ketone bodies β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and acetoacetate (AcAc) support mammalian survival during states of energy deficit by serving as alternative sources of ATP. BHB levels are elevated by starvation, caloric restriction, high-intensity exercise, or the low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet. Prolonged fasting reduces inflammation; however, the impact that ketones and other alternative metabolic fuels produced during energy deficits have on the innate immune response is unknown. We report that BHB, but neither AcAc nor the structurally related short-chain fatty acids butyrate and acetate, suppresses activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in response to urate crystals, ATP and lipotoxic fatty acids...
March 2015: Nature Medicine
Jianping Ye
In obesity, chronic inflammation is believed to induce insulin resistance and impairs adipose tissue function. Although this view is supported by a large body of literature, it has been challenged by growing evidence that pro-inflammatory cytokines may favor insulin sensitivity through induction of energy expenditure. In this review article, interleukin 15 (IL-15) is used as a new example to explain the beneficial effects of the proinflammatory cytokines. IL-15 is secreted by multiple types of cells including macrophages, neutrophils and skeletal muscle cells...
June 2015: Frontiers of Medicine
Jorming Goh, Negin Niksirat, Kristin L Campbell
Observational research suggests that exercise may reduce the risk of breast cancer and improve survival. One proposed mechanism for the protective effect of aerobic exercise related to cancer risk and outcomes, but has not been examined definitively, is the immune response to aerobic exercise. Two prevailing paradigms are proposed. The first considers the host immune response as modifiable by aerobic exercise training. This exercise-modulated immune-tumor crosstalk in the mammary microenvironment may alter the balance between tumor initiation and progression versus tumor suppression...
2014: American Journal of Translational Research
Ian Needleman, Paul Ashley, Peter Fine, Fares Haddad, Mike Loosemore, Akbar de Medici, Nikos Donos, Tim Newton, Ken van Someren, Rebecca Moazzez, Rod Jaques, Glenn Hunter, Karim Khan, Mark Shimmin, John Brewer, Lyndon Meehan, Steve Mills, Stephen Porter
While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden...
January 2015: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Heeok Hong, Chang-Ju Kim, Jae-Deung Kim, Jin-Hee Seo
Immediate-early genes are involved in acute stress responses in the central nervous system. β-glucan stimulates innate immune defenses, exerts an anti-tumor response and increases resistance to a wide variety of types of infection. To date, the effect of β-glucan on the expression of immediate-early genes under stressful conditions has not been elucidated. In the present study, the effects of β-glucan on the expression of the oncogenes c-Fos and c-Jun in the hypothalamus, dentate gyrus and dorsal raphe in rats following exhaustive treadmill running were investigated...
May 2014: Molecular Medicine Reports
Zahra Gholamnezhad, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady, Mahmoud Hosseini, Mojtaba Sankian, Abolfazl Khajavi Rad
OBJECTIVE(S): The effect of prolonged overtraining on cytokine kinetics was compared with moderate exercise in the present study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control sedentary (C), moderate trained (MT), (V=20 m/min, 30 min/day for 6 days a week, 8 weeks), overtrained (OT) (V=25 m/min, 60min/day for 6 days a week, 11 weeks) and recovered overtrained (OR) (OT plus 2 weeks recovery) groups, (n=6 for each group). Immediately, 24 hr and 2 weeks (in OR) after last bout of exercise blood samples were obtained...
January 2014: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Mahima, Abhijeet M Ingle, Amit Kumar Verma, Ruchi Tiwari, K Karthik, Sandip Chakraborty, Rajib Deb, S Rajagunalan, Rajesh Rathore, Kuldeep Dhama
There are ongoing trends of immunomodulation to combat a vast range of human and animal diseases including the incurable diseases like viral diseases, cancers, autoimmune diseases and inflammatory conditions. Animate as well as non-animate factors, surrounding us are interacting with our immune system. A balanced diet should contain all essential components from energy to vitamin and trace minerals. Each of these constituent has a very special effect on the immune system starting from their development to active role in immunity therefore, the outcome of their deficiency often ends in disease...
September 1, 2013: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Shigekazu Kurihara, Tetsuro Shibakusa, Kenji Ak Tanaka
The decreases in the glutathione (GSH) level in the mouse spleen and liver after immune stimulation are suppressed by the oral administration of cystine and theanine (CT). GSH is considered to be important for the control of immune responses. Antibody production in mice after infection is enhanced by the oral administration of CT. In humans, also, the oral administration of CT has been confirmed to enhance antibody production after vaccination against Flu and also reduce the incidence of cold. However, the GSH level is reduced by intense exercise and surgery...
2013: SpringerPlus
A J Murton, R Billeter, F B Stephens, S G Des Etages, F Graber, R J Hill, K Marimuthu, P L Greenhaff
We sought to ascertain the time course of transcriptional events that occur in human skeletal muscle at the outset of resistance exercise (RE) training in RE naive individuals and determine whether the magnitude of response was associated with exercise-induced muscle damage. Sixteen RE naive men were recruited; eight underwent two sessions of 5 × 30 maximum isokinetic knee extensions (180°/s) separated by 48 h. Muscle biopsies of the vastus lateralis, obtained from different sites, were taken at baseline and 24 h after each exercise bout...
January 1, 2014: Journal of Applied Physiology
Anna Cywinska, Ewa Szarska, Andrzej Degorski, Maciej Guzera, Renata Gorecka, Katarzyna Strzelec, Sylwester Kowalik, Antoni Schollenberger, Anna Winnicka
Intensive exercise and exertion during competition promote many changes that may result in the impairment of immunity and increased susceptibility to infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of "the first line of defense": neutrophils and monocytes in racing Thoroughbred and Arabian horses after routine training sessions. Twenty-three (12 Thoroughbred and 11 Arabian) horses were examined. Routine haematological (number of red blood cells - RBC, haemoglobin concentration - HGB, haematocrit - HCT, total number of white blood cells - WBC), biochemical (creatine phosphokinase activity - CPK and total protein concentration - TP) parameters, cortisol concentration as well as phagocytic and oxidative burst activity of neutrophils and monocytes were determined...
October 2013: Research in Veterinary Science
Joan Riera, Victoria Pons, Daniel Martinez-Puig, Carlos Chetrit, Josep A Tur, Antoni Pons, Franchek Drobnic
BACKGROUND: Strenuous exercise has been classically associated to immune-suppression and consequently to an increased risk of infections, especially at the upper respiratory tract. The administration of dietary nucleotides has been demonstrated useful to maintain the immune function in situations of stress and thus could be an appropriate strategy to counteract the decline of the immune function associated to strenuous exercise. The aim of the present study was to asses the impact of a specific nucleotide formulation (Inmunactive®) on the markers of immune function of athletes after a heavy exercise bout under cold conditions...
2013: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
H Mangge, K Summers, G Almer, R Prassl, D Weghuber, W Schnedl, D Fuchs
The obesity prevalence is growing worldwide and largely responsible for the increased incidence of cardiovascular disease, the most common cause of death in the western world. Excessive food intake along with insufficient physical exercise is the basic impetus for this development. The obese state is commonly associated with an increase in leptin levels and chronic immune-mediated inflammation. Despite high leptin levels, the leptin response, normally associated with satiety and satiation, seems to be impaired and individuals continue to consume calorie-rich food...
2013: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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