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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144292/the-response-of-nitrous-oxide-emissions-to-different-operating-conditions-in-activated-sludge-wastewater-treatment-plants-in-southeastern-brazil
#1
Renato P Ribeiro, Rodrigo F Bueno, Roque P Piveli, Débora C Kligerman, William Z de Mello, Jaime L M Oliveira
The continuous measurements of N2O emissions from the aeration tanks of three activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) operated with biological nitrogen removal (BNR) and non-BNR were performed during the different operating conditions of several parameters, such as aeration, dissolved oxygen (DO) profiling and organic shock loading (with landfill leachate). The nitrification process is the main driving force behind N2O emission peaks. There are indications that the variation of the air flow rate influenced N2O emissions; high N2O emissions denote over-aeration conditions or incomplete nitrification, with accumulation of NO2(-) concentrations...
November 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142894/comparison-of-energy-and-nutrient-contents-of-commercial-and-noncommercial-enteral-nutrition-solutions
#2
Nahid Ramezani Jolfaie, Mohammad Hossein Rouhani, Maryam Mirlohi, Mina Babashahi, Saeid Abbasi, Peiman Adibi, Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Leila Azadbakht
Background: Nutritional support plays a major role in the management of critically ill patients. This study aimed to compare the nutritional quality of enteral nutrition solutions (noncommercial vs. commercial) and the amount of energy and nutrients delivered and required in patients receiving these solutions. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 270 enterally fed patients. Demographic and clinical data in addition to values of nutritional needs and intakes were collected...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141979/measurement-errors-in-dietary-assessment-using-self-reported-24-hour-recalls-in-low-income-countries-and-strategies-for-their-prevention
#3
Rosalind S Gibson, U Ruth Charrondiere, Winnie Bell
Securing accurate measurements of dietary intake across populations is challenging. Of the methods, self-reported 24-h recalls are often used in low-income countries (LICs) because they are quick, culturally sensitive, do not require high cognitive ability, and provide quantitative data on both foods and nutrients. Measuring intakes via 24-h recalls involves 1) collecting data on food intakes, 2) the appropriate use of relevant food-composition data for calculating nutrient intakes, and 3) statistically converting observed intakes to "usual intakes" for evaluating nutrient adequacy or relations between foods and nutrients and health outcomes...
November 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141769/turning-attention-to-clinician-engagement-in-victoria
#4
Christine Jorm, Robyn Hudson, Euan Wallace
The engagement of clinicians with employing organisations and with the broader health system results in better safer care for patients. Concerns about the adequacy of clinician engagement in the state of Victoria led the Victorian Department of Health and Human Services to commission a scoping study. During this investigation more than 100 clinicians were spoken with and 1800 responded to surveys. The result was creation of a clear picture of what engagement and disengagement looked like at all levels - from the clinical microsystem to state health policy making...
November 16, 2017: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140966/how-was-your-otology-training-a-survey-of-recent-otolaryngology-residents
#5
Phillip Montague, Donald Bennett, Brian Kellermeyer
OBJECTIVE: To survey graduating residents or recent graduates of otolaryngology residency programs to evaluate their Otology/Neurotology (ON) experience in residency and discern if they had received adequate training in time to decide whether to pursue a fellowship in Otology or Neurotology. STUDY DESIGN: Internet-based survey. METHODS: A survey was distributed to all US otolaryngology residency programs to distribute to 5th year residents and recent graduates in last 4 years...
December 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140535/socioeconomic-disparities-in-small-for-gestational-age-birth-and-preterm-birth
#6
Tracey Bushnik, Seungmi Yang, Jay S Kaufman, Michael S Kramer, Russell Wilkins
BACKGROUND: Maternal socioeconomic disadvantage has been associated with increased risk of small-for-gestational-age birth and preterm birth. Few studies, however, have considered maternal education and income simultaneously to better understand the mechanisms underlying perinatal health disparities. This analysis examines both maternal education and income and their association with the risk of small-for-gestational-age birth and preterm birth. DATA AND METHODS: The study is based on 127,694 singleton live births from the 2006 Canadian Birth-Census Cohort, a national cohort of births registered from May 2004 to May 2006 that were linked to the 2006 long-form Census...
November 15, 2017: Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139376/the-longitudinal-effects-of-peritonitis-on-peritoneal-membrane-function%C3%A2
#7
Christopher S B Sia, Eldho Paul, Peter Tregaskis, Rowan G Walker, Scott G Wilson
BACKGROUND: The longitudinal effects of peritoneal dialysis (PD) peritonitis on small solute clearance and ultrafiltration are controversial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 27 patients with PD peritonitis over a 4-year period at a tertiary hospital. Adequacy tests at an "early" (1 - 3 months), "intermediate" (6 ± 2 months), and a "late" (12 ± 2 months) time period after the episode were compared with a pre-peritonitis baseline. The effect of time on serum albumin, weekly creatinine clearance, Kt/V, and net fluid volume removal was assessed...
December 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138602/improved-adequacy-of-endometrial-tissue-sampled-from-postmenopausal-women-using-the-myosure-lite-hysteroscopic-tissue-removal-system-versus-conventional-curettage
#8
Peter Rosenblatt, Sara Barcia, Anthony DiSciullo, Hussein Warda
Objective: To compare the diagnostic suitability of endometrial tissues obtained from postmenopausal women using the MyoSure Lite tissue removal system versus conventional curettage. Materials and methods: Endometrial tissue was sampled in hysteroscopically normal extirpated uteri from seven postmenopausal women (65.9±6.6 years old) using both hysteroscopicguided morcellation and curettage (two quadrants/uterus with each method). Endometrial sampling was performed immediately after hysterectomy for benign reasons unrelated to uterine pathology...
2017: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138366/lower-repeat-revascularization-rates-among-patients-with-prior-coronary-artery-bypass-graft-surgery-are-due-to-lack-of-adequate-target-vessels
#9
Anirudh Kumar, John F Wagener, Daniel Wojdyla, W Schuyler Jones, Manesh R Patel, Sunil V Rao
BACKGROUND: Studies comparing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery in patients with multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) have shown lower repeat revascularization rates in patients who undergo CABG. The reason remains unclear. METHODS: We identified patients with multivessel CAD who received CABG or PCI enrolled in the Duke Databank for Cardiovascular Disease (2003 to 2012). We compared the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) between the two groups...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Invasive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137508/health-professional-education-and-universal-health-coverage-a-summary-of-challenges-and-selected-case-studies
#10
Arthika Sripathy, Joachim Marti, Hannah Patel, Javaid I Sheikh, Ara W Darzi
Low- and middle-income countries are experiencing serious shortages in meeting health workforce requirements for universal health coverage. We examine how national-level policies can address these deficiencies and support the development of an appropriately skilled health workforce in line with population needs. We discuss three innovative, government-led solutions that are designed to align health workforce training with the demands of universal health coverage. Specifically, we discuss two initiatives to train and retain doctors in rural areas of Thailand, the large-scale training of community health workers within multidisciplinary primary health care teams in Brazil, and the introduction of a postgraduate diploma program in primary care for nurses in India...
November 2017: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136454/immediate-label-free-ex-vivo-evaluation-of-human-brain-tumor-biopsies-with-confocal-reflectance-microscopy
#11
Jennifer M Eschbacher, Joseph F Georges, Evgenii Belykh, Mohammedhassan Izady Yazdanabadi, Nikolay L Martirosyan, Emily Szeto, Catherine Y Seiler, Michael A Mooney, Jessica K Daniels, Katherine Y Goehring, Kendall R Van Keuren-Jensen, Mark C Preul, Stephen W Coons, Shwetal Mehta, Peter Nakaji
Confocal microscopy utilizing fluorescent dyes is widely gaining use in the clinical setting as a diagnostic tool. Reflectance confocal microscopy is a method of visualizing tissue specimens without fluorescent dyes while relying on the natural refractile properties of cellular and subcellular structures. We prospectively evaluated 76 CNS lesions with confocal reflectance microscopy (CRM) to determine cellularity, architecture, and morphological characteristics. A neuropathologist found that all cases showed similar histopathological features when compared to matched hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136414/quantitative-respirator-fit-face-sizes-and-determinants-of-fit-in-south-african-diagnostic-laboratory-respirator-users
#12
Jeanneth Manganyi, Kerry S Wilson, David Rees
Objectives: Respirators are widely used in health care settings but there is scant information on adequacy of fit and its determinants, particularly in resource-constrained settings. The aim of the study is to describe the proportion of South African diagnostic laboratory respirator users with adequate quantitative respirator fit while wearing their currently selected respirators which were generally supplied without regard to face size, and to identify determinants of fit test pass and fail...
November 10, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135640/neuromechanical-considerations-for-postconcussion-musculoskeletal-injury-risk-management
#13
Gary B Wilkerson, Dustin R Grooms, Shellie N Acocello
Recent epidemiological studies have documented increased susceptibility to musculoskeletal injury after sport-related concussion, which raises questions about the adequacy of current clinical practices to ensure safe return to sport. A growing body of evidence derived from advanced neuroimaging and neurological assessment methods strongly suggests that mild traumatic brain injury has long-lasting adverse effects that persist beyond resolution of clinical symptoms. Plausible interrelationships among postconcussion changes in brain structure and function support the rationale for specific methods of clinical assessment and training to target the interaction of cognitive and motor function for reduction of musculoskeletal injury risk after concussion...
November 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134396/comparing-perceived-adequacy-of-help-received-among-different-classes-of-individuals-with-severe-mental-disorders-at-five-year-follow-up-a-longitudinal-cluster-analysis
#14
Marie-Josée Fleury, Guy Grenier, Jean-Marie Bamvita
This study developed a typology describing change in the perceived adequacy of help received among 204 individuals with severe mental disorders, 5 years after transfer to the community following a major mental health reform in Quebec (Canada). Participant typologies were constructed using a two-step cluster analysis. There were significant differences between T0 and T2 for perceived adequacy of help received and other independent variables, including seriousness of needs, help from services or relatives, and care continuity...
November 13, 2017: Community Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133422/nutritional-and-greenhouse-gas-impacts-of-removing-animals-from-us-agriculture
#15
Robin R White, Mary Beth Hall
As a major contributor to agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, it has been suggested that reducing animal agriculture or consumption of animal-derived foods may reduce GHGs and enhance food security. Because the total removal of animals provides the extreme boundary to potential mitigation options and requires the fewest assumptions to model, the yearly nutritional and GHG impacts of eliminating animals from US agriculture were quantified. Animal-derived foods currently provide energy (24% of total), protein (48%), essential fatty acids (23-100%), and essential amino acids (34-67%) available for human consumption in the United States...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132365/socioeconomic-inequalities-in-under-five-mortality-in-rural-bangladesh-evidence-from-seven-national-surveys-spreading-over-20%C3%A2-years
#16
Asiful Haidar Chowdhury, Syed Manzoor Ahmed Hanifi, Mohammad Nahid Mia, Abbas Bhuiya
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic inequality in health and mortality remains a disturbing reality across nations including Bangladesh. Inequality drew renewed attention globally. Bangladesh though made impressive progress in health, it makes an interesting case for learning. This paper examined the trends and changing pattern of socioeconomic inequalities in under-five mortality in rural Bangladesh. It also examined whether mother's education had any effect in reducing socioeconomic inequalities...
November 13, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131539/molecular-testing-on-endobronchial-ultrasound-ebus-fine-needle-aspirates-fna-impact-of-triage
#17
Simon Sung, John P Crapanzano, David DiBardino, David Swinarski, William A Bulman, Anjali Saqi
BACKGROUND: Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) is performed to diagnose and stage lung cancer. Multiple studies have described the value of Rapid On-Site Evaluation (ROSE), but often the emphasis is upon diagnosis than adequacy for molecular testing (MT). The aim was to identify variable(s), especially cytology-related, that can improve MT. METHODS: A search for EBUS-FNAs with ROSE was conducted for lung adenocarcinomas or when this diagnosis could not be excluded...
November 12, 2017: Diagnostic Cytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130340/adherence-to-the-mediterranean-diet-in-a-sicilian-student-population
#18
Daniela Metro, Roberta Tardugno, Mattia Papa, Carlo Bisignano, Luigi Manasseri, Giorgio Calabrese, Teresa Gervasi, Giacomo Dugo, Nicola Cicero
Since the last decades, socio-economic changes have a key role on eating habits affecting the nutritional status and health of people, in particular children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to compare the diet of student population both normal weight and overweight and obese in order to understand their eating habits by comparing the different diets of the student referring to the Mediterranean diet. The study comprised 337 Sicilian students aged 9 to 13 years, 96 in primary schools and 241 in secondary schools, respectively, in three Sicilian cities namely, Messina, San Piero Patti and Ragusa...
November 13, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128176/back-so-soon-is-early-recurrence-of-papillary-thyroid-cancer-really-just-persistent-disease
#19
Maria F Bates, Marcos R Lamas, Reese W Randle, Kristin L Long, Susan C Pitt, David F Schneider, Rebecca S Sippel
BACKGROUND: Papillary thyroid carcinoma has excellent survival, yet recurrence remains a challenge. We sought to determine the proportion of reoperations performed for persistent, rather than truly recurrent, disease. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database. Patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma who underwent reoperation for disease from 2000-2016 were included. We defined recurrence as disease that developed after a patient had an undetectable thyroglobulin and a negative ultrasonography within 1 year of operation...
November 8, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126818/composite-y-grafts-from-the-left-internal-mammary-artery-current-considerations
#20
EDITORIAL
Hugh S Paterson, Paul G Bannon
The use of composite coronary artery bypass grafts from the left internal mammary artery (LIMA) has increased over the last 20 years. Total arterial revascularisation can be achieved with two arterial conduits and is associated with a reduced risk of stroke. However, the traditional coronary bypass graft configurations of the in situ LIMA and aorto-coronary saphenous vein grafts remain as the mainstay of coronary bypass surgery in most centres. Concerns regarding composite Y grafts relate to (1) the adequacy of a single inflow for all coronary bypass grafts; (2) the risk of compromising the LIMA flow to the left anterior descending coronary artery; (3) the effects of competitive flow on graft patency; and (4) the use of sequential coronary anastomoses...
October 28, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
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