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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241626/tunable-wave-plate-based-on-active-plasmonic-metasurfaces
#1
Tianyou Li, Lingling Huang, Juan Liu, Yongtian Wang, Thomas Zentgraf
Polarization conversion is highly desired for numerous valuable applications such as remote detection and high-precision measurement. It is conventionally achieved through utilizing bulky birefringent crystals or by delicate tailored anisotropy materials. However, such schemes are not compatible with both dynamic and compact on-chip applications. We propose an active metasurface that can generate tunable ellipticity for arbitrary incident polarization with a non-volatile and reversible modulation method. The metasurface consists of V-shape plasmonic antenna arrays and an interval modulation layer made of the phase change material GST for active phase control...
February 20, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241606/processing-constraints-resulting-from-heat-accumulation-during-pulsed-and-repetitive-laser-materials-processing
#2
Rudolf Weber, Thomas Graf, Christian Freitag, Anne Feuer, Taras Kononenko, Vitaly I Konov
In any pulsed and repetitive laser process a part of the absorbed laser energy is thermalized and stays in the material as residual heat. This residual heat is accumulating from pulse to pulse, continuously increasing the temperature, if the time between two pulses does not allow the material to sufficiently cool down. Controlling this so-called heat accumulation is one of the major challenges for materials processing with high average power pulsed lasers and repetitive processing. Heat accumulation caused by subsequent pulses (HAP) on the same spot and heat accumulation caused by subsequent scans (HAS) over the same spot can significantly reduce process quality, e...
February 20, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241509/the-association-between-ambient-air-pollution-and-allergic-rhinitis-further-epidemiological-evidence-from-changchun-northeastern-china
#3
Bo Teng, Xuelei Zhang, Chunhui Yi, Yan Zhang, Shufeng Ye, Yafang Wang, Daniel Q Tong, Binfeng Lu
With the continuous rapid urbanization process over the last three decades, outdoors air pollution has become a progressively more serious public health hazard in China. To investigate the possible associations, lag effects and seasonal differences of urban air quality on respiratory health (allergic rhinitis) in Changchun, a city in Northeastern China, we carried out a time-series analysis of the incidents of allergic rhinitis (AR) from 2013 to 2015. Environmental monitoring showed that PM2.5 and PM10 were the major air pollutants in Changchun, followed by SO₂, NO₂ and O₃...
February 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241492/markov-chain-model-based-optimal-cluster-heads-selection-for-wireless-sensor-networks
#4
Gulnaz Ahmed, Jianhua Zou, Xi Zhao, Mian Muhammad Sadiq Fareed
The longer network lifetime of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is a goal which is directly related to energy consumption. This energy consumption issue becomes more challenging when the energy load is not properly distributed in the sensing area. The hierarchal clustering architecture is the best choice for these kind of issues. In this paper, we introduce a novel clustering protocol called Markov chain model-based optimal cluster heads (MOCHs) selection for WSNs. In our proposed model, we introduce a simple strategy for the optimal number of cluster heads selection to overcome the problem of uneven energy distribution in the network...
February 23, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241385/internet-use-online-information-seeking-and-knowledge-among-third-molar-patients-attending-public-dental-services
#5
Kamal Hanna, Paul Sambrook, Jason M Armfield, David S Brennan
BACKGROUND: While Australians are searching the Internet for third molar (TM) information, the usefulness of online sources might be questioned due to quality variation. This study explored: (1) internet use, online information seeking behavior among TM patients attending public dental services and (2) whether patients' TM knowledge scores are associated with the level of internet use and eHealth Literacy Scale (eHEALS) scores. METHODS: Baseline survey data from the "Engaging Patients in Decision-Making" study were used...
February 27, 2017: Australian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241215/effectiveness-of-an-internet-delivered-exercise-and-pain-coping-skills-training-intervention-for-persons-with-chronic-knee-pain-a-randomized-trial
#6
Kim L Bennell, Rachel Nelligan, Fiona Dobson, Christine Rini, Francis Keefe, Jessica Kasza, Simon French, Christina Bryant, Andrew Dalwood, J Haxby Abbott, Rana S Hinman
Background: Effective, accessible biopsychosocial treatments are needed to manage chronic knee pain on a population level. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of Internet-delivered, physiotherapist-prescribed home exercise and pain-coping skills training (PCST). Design: Pragmatic parallel-group randomized, controlled trial. (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12614000243617). Setting: Community (Australia)...
February 21, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241159/timed-light-therapy-for-sleep-and-daytime-sleepiness-associated-with-parkinson-disease-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
Aleksandar Videnovic, Elizabeth B Klerman, Wei Wang, Angelica Marconi, Teresa Kuhta, Phyllis C Zee
Importance: Impaired sleep and alertness are some of the most common nonmotor manifestations of Parkinson disease (PD) and currently have only limited treatment options. Light therapy (LT), a widely available treatment modality in sleep medicine, has not been systematically studied in the PD population. Objective: To determine the safety and efficacy of LT on excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) associated with PD. Design, Settings, and Participants: This randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical intervention study was set in PD centers at Northwestern University and Rush University...
February 20, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241153/effect-of-magnesium-oxide-supplementation-on-nocturnal-leg-cramps-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#8
Noga Roguin Maor, Mordechai Alperin, Elena Shturman, Hassan Khairaldeen, Moran Friedman, Khaled Karkabi, Uzi Milman
Importance: Magnesium supplements are widely marketed for prophylaxis of nocturnal leg cramps (NLC) despite no evidence of significant benefit. Objective: To determine whether magnesium oxide is better than placebo for NLC prophylaxis. Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of 2 weeks eligibility screening followed by 4 weeks of treatment was conducted in northern Israel, from February to October 2013...
February 20, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241114/a-novel-approach-to-improve-efficiency-of-block-freeze-concentration-using-ice-nucleation-proteins-with-altered-ice-morphology
#9
Jue Jin, Edward J Yurkow, Derek Adler, Tung-Ching Lee
Freeze concentration is a separation process with high success in product quality. The remaining challenge is to achieve high efficiency with low cost. This study aims to evaluate the potential of using ice nucleation proteins (INPs) as an effective method to improve the efficiency of block freeze concentration while also exploring the related mechanism of ice morphology. Our results show that INPs are able to significantly improve the efficiency of block freeze concentration in a desalination model. Using this experimental system, we estimate that approximately 50% of the energy cost can be saved by the inclusion of INPs in desalination cycles while still meeting the EPA standard of drinking water (<500ppm)...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241090/plasma-exchange-for-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#10
REVIEW
Sylvie Chevret, Richard Ac Hughes, Djillali Annane
BACKGROUND: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute paralysing disease caused by peripheral nerve inflammation. This is an update of a review first published in 2001 and last updated in 2012. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of plasma exchange for treating GBS. SEARCH METHODS: On 18 January 2016 we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and Embase. We also searched clinical trials registries. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials of plasma exchange versus sham exchange or supportive treatment, or comparing different regimens or techniques of plasma exchange...
February 27, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241037/randomized-controlled-trial-standard-versus-supplemental-bowel-preparation-in-patients-with-bristol-stool-form-1-and-2
#11
Yueyue Li, Xinyong Jia, Baozhen Liu, Yanmei Qi, Xiubin Zhang, Rui Ji, Yanbo Yu, Xiuli Zuo, Yanqing Li
BACKGROUND: Bristol stool form 1 and 2 is an important predictor of inadequate bowel preparation. AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of supplemental preparation in bowel cleansing quality among patients with Bristol stool form 1 and 2, as well as the feasibility of tailored bowel preparation guided by Bristol stool form scale. METHODS: Patients with Bristol stool form 1 and 2 from 3 Chinese tertiary hospitals randomly received either 2 L PEG-ELP (group A) or 10 mg bisacodyl plus 2 L PEG-ELP (group B); patients with Bristol stool form 3 to 7 received 2 L PEG-ELP (group C) for bowel preparation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240981/working-memory-sleep-and-hearing-problems-in-patients-with-tinnitus-and-hearing-loss-fitted-with-hearing-aids
#12
Reza Zarenoe, Mathias Hällgren, Gerhard Andersson, Torbjörn Ledin
BACKGROUND: Tinnitus is a common condition and there is a need to evaluate effects of tinnitus management in relation to moderating factors such as degree of hearing loss. As it is possible that tinnitus influences concentration, and thus is likely to disturb cognitive processing, the role of cognitive functioning also needs to be investigated. PURPOSE: To compare a group of patients with sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus to a control group with only sensorineural hearing loss (and no tinnitus)...
February 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240966/efficacy-of-internet-based-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-in-improving-sexual-functioning-of-breast-cancer-survivors-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Susanna B Hummel, Jacques J D M van Lankveld, Hester S A Oldenburg, Daniela E E Hahn, Jacobien M Kieffer, Miranda A Gerritsma, Marianne A Kuenen, Nina Bijker, Paul J Borgstein, Gijsbert Heuff, Alexander M F Lopes Cardozo, Peter W Plaisier, Herman Rijna, Suzan van der Meij, Eric J van Dulken, Bart C Vrouenraets, Eva Broomans, Neil K Aaronson
Purpose We evaluated the effect of Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) on sexual functioning and relationship intimacy (primary outcomes) and body image, menopausal symptoms, marital functioning, psychological distress, and health-related quality of life (secondary outcomes) in breast cancer survivors (BCSs) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of a sexual dysfunction. Patients and Methods We randomly assigned 169 BCSs to either Internet-based CBT or a waiting-list control group. The CBT consisted of weekly therapist-guided sessions, with a maximum duration of 24 weeks...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240855/solution-based-processing-of-monodisperse-two-dimensional-nanomaterials
#14
Joohoon Kang, Vinod K Sangwan, Joshua D Wood, Mark C Hersam
Exfoliation of single-layer graphene from bulk graphite and the subsequent discovery of exotic physics and emergent phenomena in the atomically thin limit has motivated the isolation of other two-dimensional (2D) layered nanomaterials. Early work on isolated 2D nanomaterial flakes has revealed a broad range of unique physical and chemical properties with potential utility in diverse applications. For example, the electronic and optical properties of 2D nanomaterials depend strongly on atomic-scale variations in thickness, enabling enhanced performance in optoelectronic technologies such as light emitters, photodetectors, and photovoltaics...
February 27, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240840/liver-transplant-modulates-gut-microbial-dysbiosis-and-cognitive-function-in-cirrhosis
#15
Jasmohan S Bajaj, Andrew Fagan, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Melanie B White, Richard K Sterling, HoChong Gilles, Douglas Heuman, R T Stravitz, Scott C Matherly, Mohammed S Siddiqui, Puneet Puri, Arun J Sanyal, Velimir Luketic, Binu John, Michael Fuchs, Vishwadeep Ahluwalia, Patrick M Gillevet
: Liver transplant (LT) improves daily function and cognition in cirrhosis but a subset can remain impaired. Unfavorable microbiota or dysbiosis is observed in cirrhosis but the effect of LT on microbial composition; especially with poor post-LT cognition, is unclear. AIMS: (1) determine the effect of LT on gut microbiota and (b) to determine whether gut microbiota are associated with cognitive dysfunction post-LT. We enrolled outpatient cirrhotics on the LT list and followed them till 6 months post-LT...
February 27, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240703/physical-activity-is-related-with-cartilage-quality-in-women-with-knee-osteoarthritis
#16
Matti Munukka, Benjamin Waller, Arja Häkkinen, Miika T Nieminen, Eveliina Lammentausta, Urho M Kujala, Juha Paloneva, Hannu Kautiainen, Ilkka Kiviranta, Ari Heinonen
PURPOSE: To study the relationship between 12-month leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) level and changes in estimated biochemical composition of tibiofemoral cartilage in postmenopausal women with mild knee osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Originally 87 volunteer postmenopausal women, aged 60-68 years, with mild knee OA (Kellgren Lawrence I/II and knee pain) participated in a randomised controlled, 4-month aquatic training trial (RCT), after which 76 completed the 12-month post-intervention follow-up period...
February 25, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240598/feedback-for-reinforcement-learning-based-brain-machine-interfaces-using-confidence-metrics
#17
Noeline Prins, Justin Sanchez, Abhishek Prasad
OBJECTIVE: For Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMI) to be used in activities of daily living by paralyzed individuals, the BMI should be as autonomous as possible. One of the challenges is how the feedback is extracted and utilized in the BMI. Our long-term goal is to create autonomous BMIs that can utilize an evaluative feedback from the brain to update the decoding algorithm and use it intelligently in order to adapt the decoder. In this study, we show how to extract the necessary evaluative feedback from a biologically realistic (synthetic) source, use both the quantity and the quality of the feedback, and how that feedback information can be incorporated into a reinforcement learning (RL) controller architecture to maximize its performance...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240353/carbamazepine-versus-phenytoin-monotherapy-for-epilepsy-an-individual-participant-data-review
#18
REVIEW
Sarah J Nevitt, Anthony G Marson, Jennifer Weston, Catrin Tudur Smith
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in Issue 2, 2002 and its subsequent updates in 2010 and 2015.Epilepsy is a common neurological condition in which recurrent, unprovoked seizures are caused by abnormal electrical discharges from the brain. It is believed that with effective drug treatment, up to 70% of individuals with active epilepsy have the potential to become seizure-free and go into long-term remission shortly after starting drug therapy with a single antiepileptic drug in monotherapy...
February 27, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240218/an-anthropomorphic-breathing-phantom-of-the-thorax-for-testing-new-motion-mitigation-techniques-for-pencil-beam-scanning-proton-therapy
#19
R L Perrin, M Zakova, M Peroni, K Bernatowicz, C Bikis, A K Knopf, S Safai, P Fernandez-Carmona, N Tscharner, D C Weber, T C Parkel, A J Lomax
Motion-induced range changes and incorrectly placed dose spots strongly affect the quality of pencil-beam-scanned (PBS) proton therapy, especially in thoracic tumour sites, where density changes are large. Thus motion-mitigation techniques are necessary, which must be validated in a realistic patient-like geometry. We report on the development and characterisation of a dynamic, anthropomorphic, thorax phantom that can realistically mimic thoracic motions and anatomical features for verifications of proton and photon 4D treatments...
February 27, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239989/advance-male-urethral-sling-medium-term-results-in-an-australian-cohort
#20
Alexander Papachristos, Sarah Mann, Kay Talbot, Daniel Moon
BACKGROUND: Since 2008, the AdVance male urethral sling has emerged as a minimally invasive option for stress urinary incontinence. We aimed to evaluate the success of the AdVance sling using validated continence outcome measures. METHODS: A total of 72 patients treated with the AdVance sling completed validated questionnaires reporting on quality of life and functional outcomes. Incontinence was assessed according to pad weight, pad usage per day (PPD), International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire scores and Patient Global Impression of Improvement scores...
February 27, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
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