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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236302/recovery-of-hepatitis-c-specific-t-cell-responses-after-rituximab-therapy-in-hepatitis-c-mixed-cryoglobulinemic-vasculitis
#1
Poonam Mathur, Benjamin Emmanuel, Michael Sneller, Xiaozhen Zhang, Bhawna Poonia, Shyamasundaran Kottilil
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Mixed cryoglobulinemic vasculitis is associated with monoclonal B cell expansion in patients with chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection. B cell depletion therapy using rituximab, a CD20 monoclonal antibody, has been successful in achieving remission from symptomatic disease. This study investigated whether B cell depletion therapy has an impact on activation of HCV-specific T cell phenotype and function. METHODS: Nineteen patients with Hepatitis C mixed cryoglobulinemic vasculitis were treated with 4 cycles of rituximab (375mg/m2 ) and variables were measured 6 months after therapy...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235226/reduced-therapeutic-effect-of-antiviral-drugs-in-patients-with-hepatitis-b-virus-reactivation-after-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#2
Masamichi Kimura, Koji Nishikawa, Hisashi Sakamaki, Masashi Mizokami, Kiminori Kimura
BACKGROUND: Patients with resolved Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are potentially at high risk of HBV reactivation. Although anti-viral drug therapy is recommended when HBV DNA reappears in the serum, drug efficacy after HBV reactivation remains unclear. METHODS: Host immune response against HBV was investigated via immunological analyses at 12 months after entecavir (ETV) treatment in six HSCT-treated and five non-HSCT-treated patients with HBV reactivation, and 18 patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB)...
December 13, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234060/heat-killed-lactobacillus-casei-confers-broad-protection-against-influenza-a-virus-primary-infection-and-develops-heterosubtypic-immunity-against-future-secondary-infection
#3
Yu-Jin Jung, Young-Tae Lee, Vu Le Ngo, Young-Hee Cho, Eun-Ju Ko, Sung-Moon Hong, Ki-Hye Kim, Ji-Hun Jang, Joon-Suk Oh, Min-Kyung Park, Cheol-Hyun Kim, Jun Sun, Sang-Moo Kang
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the common probiotics. Here, we investigated the antiviral protective effects of heat-killed LAB strain Lactobacillus casei DK128 (DK128) on influenza viruses. Intranasal treatment of mice with DK128 conferred protection against different subtypes of influenza viruses by lessening weight loss and lowering viral loads. Protection via heat-killed DK128 was correlated with an increase in alveolar macrophage cells in the lungs and airways, early induction of virus specific antibodies, reduced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and innate immune cells...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233903/clinical-significance-of-pd-l1-exosomes-in-plasma-of-head-and-neck-cancer-patients
#4
Marie-Nicole Theodoraki, Saigopalakrishna Yerneni, Thomas K Hoffmann, William E Gooding, Theresa L Whiteside
PURPOSE: The microenvironment of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) is highly immunosuppressive. HNSCCs expressing elevated levels of PD-L1 have especially poor outcome. Exosomes that carry PD-L1 and suppress T-cell functions have been isolated from plasma of patients with HNSCC. The potential contributions of PD-L1+ exosomes to immune suppression and disease activity are evaluated. METHODS: Exosomes isolated from plasma of 40 HNSCC patients by size exclusion chromatography were captured on beads using anti-CD63 Abs, stained for PD-1 and PD-L1 and analyzed by flow cytometry...
December 12, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232837/a-burkholderia-pseudomallei-outer-membrane-vesicle-vaccine-provides-cross-protection-against-inhalational-glanders-in-mice-and-non-human-primates
#5
Sarah M Baker, Christopher J H Davitt, Natalya Motyka, Nicole L Kikendall, Kasi Russell-Lodrigue, Chad J Roy, Lisa A Morici
Burkholderia mallei is a Gram-negative, non-motile, facultative intracellular bacillus and the causative agent of glanders, a highly contagious zoonotic disease. B. mallei is naturally resistant to multiple antibiotics and there is concern for its potential use as a bioweapon, making the development of a vaccine against B. mallei of critical importance. We have previously demonstrated that immunization with multivalent outer membrane vesicles (OMV) derived from B. pseudomallei provide significant protection against pneumonic melioidosis...
December 9, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232699/cxcr4-blockade-decreases-cd4-t-cell-exhaustion-and-improves-survival-in-a-murine-model-of-polymicrobial-sepsis
#6
Kimberly M Ramonell, Wenxiao Zhang, Annette Hadley, Ching-Wen Chen, Katherine T Fay, John D Lyons, Nathan J Klingensmith, Kevin W McConnell, Craig M Coopersmith, Mandy L Ford
Sepsis is a dysregulated systemic response to infection involving many inflammatory pathways and the induction of counter-regulatory anti-inflammatory processes that results in a state of immune incompetence and can lead to multi-organ failure. CXCR4 is a chemokine receptor that, following ligation by CXCL12, directs cells to bone marrow niches and also plays an important role in T cell cosignaling and formation of the immunological synapse. Here, we investigated the expression and function of CXCR4 in a murine model of polymicrobial sepsis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232408/immunodominant-cytomegalovirus-specific-cd8-t-cell-responses-in-sub-saharan-african-populations
#7
Amna Malik, Emily Adland, Leana Laker, Henrik Kløverpris, Rabiah Fardoos, Julia Roider, Mai C Severinsen, Fabian Chen, Lynn Riddell, Anne Edwards, Søren Buus, Pieter Jooste, Philippa C Matthews, Philip J R Goulder
More than 90% of children in Africa are infected with cytomegalovirus (CMV) by the age of 12 months. However, the high-frequency, immunodominant CD8+ T-cell responses that control CMV infection have not been well studied in African populations. We therefore sought to define the immunodominant CMV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses within sub-Saharan African study subjects. Among 257 subjects, we determined the CD8+ T-cell responses to overlapping peptides spanning three of the most immunogenic CMV proteins, pp65, IE-1 and IE-2, using IFN-γ ELISpot assays...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231339/-efficacy-of-acupoint-catgut-embedding-combined-with-ginger-partitioned-moxibustion-on-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-of-spleen-kidney-yang-deficiency-syndrome-and-its-effects-on-t-lymphocyte-subsets-and-activity-of-nk-cell
#8
Depeng Xia, Peifang Chen, Peixue Du, Lijun Ding, Anli Liu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the efficacy differences between acupoint catgut embedding combined with ginger-partitioned moxibustion and regular acupuncture on chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) of spleen-kidney yang deficiency syndrome, and to explore its effects on T lymphocyte subsets and activity of NK cell. METHODS: A total of 60 patients with CFS of spleen-kidney yang deficiency syndrome were randomly divided into a catgut embedding combined with ginger-partitioned moxibustion (CECGP) group and a regular acupuncture group, 30 cases in each one...
August 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230639/conserved-peptides-enhance-immune-efficiency-of-inactive-vaccines-against-emerging-avian-influenza-viruses-in-chicken
#9
Jin Xiao, Lei Zhang, Zhenbao Wang, Wangzhen Xiang, Ping Lu, Yingze Zhao, Min Han, Airong Ma, Peng Qi, Ming Wang, George F Gao, William J Liu
Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) such as H5N1 and H7N9 are a great threat to poultry economics and public health. Vaccination can effectively inhibit the spread of AIV in poultry, which is also a viable strategy for controlling virus transmission from poultry to human. Adjuvants that are commonly used in current inactivated vaccines to provide stronger anti-AIV immune responses are often limited in their capacity to quantitatively induce both humoral and cellular immune responses. Herein, we assessed the levels of immune responses generated by a vaccine formulation comprising inactivated H5N1 antigen and synthetic peptides covering conserved CD4+, CD8+ T cell, and B cell epitopes...
September 8, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230212/a-novel-function-for-the-streptococcus-pneumoniae-aminopeptidase-n-inhibition-of-t-cell-effector-function-through-regulation-of-tcr-signaling
#10
Lance K Blevins, Derek Parsonage, Melissa B Oliver, Elizabeth Domzalski, W Edward Swords, Martha A Alexander-Miller
Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) causes a variety of disease states including fatal bacterial pneumonia. Our previous finding that introduction of Spn into an animal with ongoing influenza virus infection resulted in a CD8+ T cell population with reduced effector function gave rise to the possibility of direct regulation by pneumococcal components. Here, we show that treatment of effector T cells with lysate derived from Spn resulted in inhibition of IFNγ and tumor necrosis factor α production as well as of cytolytic granule release...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230018/a-pck1-directed-glycogen-metabolic-program-regulates-formation-and-maintenance-of-memory-cd8-t-cells
#11
Ruihua Ma, Tiantian Ji, Huafeng Zhang, Wenqian Dong, Xinfeng Chen, Pingwei Xu, Degao Chen, Xiaoyu Liang, Xiaonan Yin, Yuying Liu, Jingwei Ma, Ke Tang, Yi Zhang, Yue'e Peng, Jinzhi Lu, Yi Zhang, Xiaofeng Qin, Xuetao Cao, Yonghong Wan, Bo Huang
CD8+ memory T (Tm) cells are fundamental for protective immunity against infections and cancers 1-5 . Metabolic activities are crucial in controlling memory T-cell homeostasis, but mechanisms linking metabolic signals to memory formation and survival remain elusive. Here we show that CD8+ Tm cells markedly upregulate cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck1), the hub molecule regulating glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle and gluconeogenesis, to increase glycogenesis via gluconeogenesis. The resultant glycogen is then channelled to glycogenolysis to generate glucose-6-phosphate and the subsequent pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) that generates abundant NADPH, ensuring high levels of reduced glutathione in Tm cells...
December 11, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229919/migratory-dendritic-cells-acquire-and-present-lymphatic-endothelial-cell-archived-antigens-during-lymph-node-contraction
#12
Ross M Kedl, Robin S Lindsay, Jeffrey M Finlon, Erin D Lucas, Rachel S Friedman, Beth A Jirón Tamburini
Antigens derived from viral infection or vaccination can persist within a host for many weeks after resolution of the infection or vaccine responses. We previously identified lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) as the repository for this antigen archival, yet LECs are unable to present their archived antigens to CD8+ T cells, and instead transfer their antigens to CD11c+ antigen-presenting cells (APC). Here we show that the exchange of archived antigens between LECs and APCs is mediated by migratory dendritic cells (DC)...
December 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228683/lenalidomide-overcomes-the-immunosuppression-of-regulatory-cd8-cd28-t-cells
#13
Brigitte Neuber, Jingying Dai, Wjahat A Waraich, Mohamed H S Awwad, Melanie Engelhardt, Michael Schmitt, Sergej Medenhoff, Mathias Witzens-Harig, Anthony D Ho, Hartmut Goldschmidt, Michael Hundemer
Although lenalidomide and pomalidomide are well-established treatment options in patients with multiple myeloma, their immune-modulating effects are not fully understood. While CD8+CD28- regulatory T-cells in patients with hematologic disorders display a known immune-escape mechanism, we show that lenalidomide can overcome the immunosuppressive impact of CD8+CD28- T-cells. We analyzed in vitro the antigen-specific T-cell responses of healthy donors and patients with multiple myeloma with or without the addition of autologous CD8+CD28- T-cells in the absence and presence of lenalidomide...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228429/peripheral-blood-cd8-t-cell-profiles-in-patients-with-psoriatic-arthritis-a-cross-sectional-case-control-study
#14
E Colombo, G Galleri, G L Erre, C Piras, G Biondi, L Taras, A Zinellu, A A Mangoni, R Manetti, M Montesu, G Passiu
OBJECTIVE: While CD4+ T-cells are traditionally regarded as the main pathogenic T-cell subpopulation in psoriatic arthritis (PsA), the role of circulating CD8+ T-cells remains poorly characterized. We evaluated the differential representation of CD8+ T-cell subpopulations in peripheral blood (PB) of PsA patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: CD8+IL-17+, CD8+IFNγ+ and CD8+IL-17-IL-22+ T-cells were evaluated by flow-cytometry in 25 consecutive PsA patients, 7 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, 16 patients with psoriasis, and 26 healthy controls (HC)...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226183/in-vitro-homeostatic-proliferation-of-human-cd8-t-cells
#15
Hossam A Abdelsamed, Caitlin C Zebley, Ben Youngblood
Long-lived T-cell-mediated immunity requires persistence of memory T cells in an antigen-free environment while also maintaining a heightened capacity to recall effector functions. Such antigen-independent homeostatic proliferation is mediated in part by the common gamma-chain cytokines IL-7 and IL-15. To further explore the mechanisms governing maintenance of effector functions in long-lived memory T cells during antigen-independent proliferation, human naïve and memory CD8 T cells can be sorted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), labeled with the proliferation-tracking dye carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE), and then purified based on their levels of cell division...
November 20, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226090/inhibition-of-il-18-mediated-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cell-accumulation-enhances-anti-pd1-efficacy-against-osteosarcoma-cancer
#16
Ying Guan, Rui Zhang, Zhibin Peng, Daming Dong, Guojun Wei, Yansong Wang
Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are very important in tumor immune evasion and they dramatically increased in peripheral blood of patients with osteosarcoma cancer. The association between MDSC and various cytokines has been studied in the peripheral blood. However, little is known about the mechanism drawing MDSC into tumor parenchyma. This study was to analyze the correlation between MDSC subsets and interleukin 18 (IL-18) level in osteosarcoma tumor model and its effect on the immunotherapy. MDSC were isolated from the blood and parenchyma and analyzed in the osteosarcoma tumor model...
November 2017: Journal of Bone Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225479/density-of-cd8-lymphocytes-in-biopsy-samples-combined-with-the-circulating-lymphocyte-ratio-predicts-pathologic-complete-response-to-chemoradiotherapy-for-rectal-cancer
#17
Binyi Xiao, Jianhong Peng, Rongxin Zhang, Jing Xu, Yongchun Wang, Yujing Fang, Junzhong Lin, Zhizhong Pan, Xiaojun Wu
Objectives: The systemic status and local immune status, as determined by the neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) or the lymphocyte ratio (LYMR) and tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) count, respectively, have been suggested as predictors of the tumor response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) in rectal cancer, although the utility of these measures remains controversial. We aimed to investigate the values of the LYMR, NLR and TIL count and their combinations (TIL-LYMR/TIL-NLR) in predicting pathologic complete response (pCR) after nCRT...
2017: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224674/drivers-of-the-immunopathogenesis-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#18
REVIEW
Thomas Rose, Thomas Dörner
This review summarises a number of current insights into the pathogenesis of SLE. On the basis of the interaction of environmental factors within a predisposed host, a chronic autoimmune process gains function with a positive feed-forward loop between innate and adaptive immunity. A current focus of SLE pathogenesis is on the enhanced production of certain cytokines, such as type I interferons and BLyS/BAFF, suggesting continuous plasmacytoid dendritic and myeloid cell activity together with disturbances of B lineage cells (increased autoantibodies, including anti-dsDNA and plasmablasts, which correlate with SLE activity and memory B-cell abnormalities)...
June 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224228/newcastle-disease-virus-ndv-co-expressing-il7-and-il15-modified-tumor-cells-as-a-vaccine-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#19
Xiaojing Xu, Qing Sun, Yu Mei, Yonghao Liu, Lixiang Zhao
IL15 and IL7 are two cytokines essential for T cell development and homeostasis. In order to improve the antitumor activity by Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV)-modified tumor vaccine, we generated a recombinant NDV co-expressing IL15 and IL7 (LX/IL(15+7)) by incorporation of a 2A self-processing peptide into IL15 and IL7 using reverse genetics. B16 cells infected with LX/IL(15+7) expressed both IL15 and IL7 stably. The cytotoxicity assay showed that murine melanoma cells modified with LX/IL(15+7) could significantly enhance the antitumor immune response in vitro...
December 10, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223388/transplantation-in-the-treatment-of-primary-cutaneous-aggressive-epidermotropic-cytotoxic-cd8-positive-t-cell-lymphoma
#20
Benoit M Cyrenne, Juliet Fraser Gibson, Antonio Subtil, Michael Girardi, Iris Isufi, Stuart Seropian, Francine Foss
BACKGROUND: Primary cutaneous aggressive epidermotropic cytotoxic CD8 positive T-cell lymphoma (CD8+ PCAETL) is a rare subtype of peripheral T-cell lymphoma with poor outcomes and without a standardized treatment strategy. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been suggested as a potential curative therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case series. We identified 8 patients with the diagnosis of CD8+ PCAETL, 4 of whom also underwent allogeneic HSCT...
December 6, 2017: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
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