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Mental myths

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459272/a-longitudinal-study-of-the-aftermath-of-rape-among-rural-south-african-women
#1
Gail E Wyatt, Mashudu Davhana-Maselesele, Muyu Zhang, Lauren H Wong, Fiona Nicholson, Alissa Der Sarkissian, Lufuno Makhado, Hector F Myers
OBJECTIVE: Sexual assaults against women are a global health crisis, with alarmingly high rates in South Africa. However, we know very little about the circumstances and the aftermath of these experiences. Further, there is limited information about how factors specific to the rape (e.g., fighting back) versus those that are specific to the individual-and potentially modifiable-influence mental health outcomes. This study examined how situational characteristics of rape as well as individual and situational factors confer risk for symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and dysfunctional sexual behavior at 12-month follow-up...
May 2017: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419879/challenging-the-myth-of-right-non-dominant-hemisphere-lessons-from-cortico-subcortical-stimulation-mapping-in-awake-surgery-and-surgical-implications
#2
REVIEW
Tatiana Vilasboas, Guillaume Herbet, Hugues Duffau
For a long time, the right hemisphere (RH) was considered as "non-dominant", especially in right-handers. In neurosurgical practice, this dogma resulted in the selection of awake procedure with language mapping only for lesions of the left "dominant" hemisphere. Conversely, surgery under general anesthesia (possibly with motor mapping) was usually proposed for right lesions. However, when objective neuropsychological assessments were performed, they frequently revealed cognitive and behavioral deficits following brain surgery, even in the RH...
April 15, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377805/no-such-thing-as-mental-illness-critical-reflections-on-the-major-ideas-and-legacy-of-thomas-szasz
#3
EDITORIAL
Tony B Benning
Enfant terrible of psychiatry and widely known as one of its most indefatigable as well as iconoclastic critics, Thomas Szasz (1961-2012) had a prolific writing career that extended some 51 years beyond the publication of his first book, The Myth of Mental Illness, in 1961. This editorial identifies and critically discusses three major themes in Szasz's writings: his contention that there is no such thing as mental illness, his contention that individual responsibility is never compromised in those suffering from what is generally considered as mental illness, and his perennial interest in calling attention to the political nature of psychiatric diagnosis...
December 2016: BJPsych Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261996/addressing-the-arguments-against-implementation-of-smoke-free-policies-in-psychiatric-facilities
#4
Marguerite Thomas, Robyn Richmond
This essay addresses common arguments against implementing smoke-free policies in mental health facilities drawing on the international research evidence. Key arguments supporting implementation of smoke-free policies in mental health facilities are also outlined. This commentary provides policy makers, researchers, and clinicians with information to dispel myths about smoke-free policies in mental health facilities and provides arguments advocating for implementation of these policies. This article is protected by copyright...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054198/strategies-for-working-with-asian-americans-in-mental-health-community-members-policy-perspectives-and-recommendations
#5
Suzie S Weng, Jennifer Spaulding-Givens
This qualitative study used snowball sampling of individuals known to provide informal assistance to Asian American community members with their mental health problems in a locality in the South where there has been an exponential increase of the Asian American population. The major themes found include: (1) the existence of cultural, language, knowledge, and transportation barriers and the importance of policy in addressing them; (2) the impact of the model minority myth and the need for inclusive policymaking; and (3) the unique service and policy needs of immigrants...
January 4, 2017: Administration and Policy in Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003938/an-interventional-study-on-the-clinical-usefulness-and-outcomes-of-electroconvulsive-therapy-in-medication-resistant-mental-disorders
#6
Rameshwar S Manhas, Raheel Mushtaq, Shah Faisal Ahmad Tarfarosh, Sheikh Shoib, Mohammad Maqbool Dar, Arshad Hussain, Tabindah Shah, Sahil Shah, Mushbiq Manzoor
BACKGROUND: Resistance to recommended medications has been an issue in dealing with a number of psychiatric ailments, and it is showing up as an ongoing challenge for contemporary mental health experts. Resistant psychiatric disorders not only increase the morbidity of patients suffering from such severe conditions but also intensify the problems of their caretakers. This has vigorously started to cause the costs to increase for healthcare services. Thanks to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), we now have an effective method that is proving to be a fruitful final course of action in this micro-epidemic of resistant psychiatric diseases...
October 17, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000985/the-myth-of-color-sensations-or-how-not-to-see-a-yellow-banana
#7
Pete Mandik
I argue against a class of philosophical views of color perception, especially insofar as such views posit the existence of color sensations. I argue against the need to posit such nonconceptual mental intermediaries between the stimulus and the eventual conceptualized perceptual judgment. Central to my arguments are considerations of certain color illusions. Such illusions are best explained by reference to high-level, conceptualized knowledge concerning, for example, object identity, likely lighting conditions, and material composition of the distal stimulus...
December 21, 2016: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933098/psychosomatic-problems-among-medical-students-a-myth-or-reality
#8
J M Chinawa, Ada R C Nwokocha, Pius C Manyike, Awoere Tamunosiki Chinawa, Elias C Aniwada, Appolos Chidi Ndukuba
BACKGROUND: Medical students are exposed to stress and this can predispose them to psychological and behavioral consequences. METHODS: Psychosomatic disorders were investigated among 385 medical students from two teaching hospitals using a stratified random sampling. The Enugu somatization Scale (ESS) was used to evaluate for presence of somatization in the participants. Statistical analysis was done with the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPPS) version 19 (Chicago IL)...
2016: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663822/thinking-of-psychiatric-disorders-as-normal-illness-data-from-a-questionnaire-on-social-stigma-a-multicenter-study
#9
Maurilio Giuseppe Maria Tavormina, Giuseppe Tavormina, Eugenio Nemoianni, Francesco Franza, Immacolata d'Errico, Maria Grazia Spurio, Romina Tavormina, Nicolas Zdanowicz, Stephanie De Mesmaeker, Judit Harangozó, Anna Nyulászi, Tünde Bulyáki, Ivan Urlic, Andrea Russo, Mark Agius
Prejudice and stigma about mental illness is still present in society. Patients suffer both from the disease, and from the marginalization behavior exhibited by others towards them and their families. Psychiatric professionals may also become ill and suffer for the same reason. The authors of this international multicenter study have set themselves the question of whether there may be prejudice and/or stigma among psychiatric professionals towards their suffering colleagues, among patients towards nursing staff affected by the same disease and between patients themselves...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27625080/pharmacology-and-psychiatry-at-the-origins-of-greek-medicine-the-myth-of-melampus-and-the-madness-of-the-proetides
#10
Matteo F Olivieri, Francesca Marzari, Andreas J Kesel, Laura Bonalume, Francesco Saettini
Melampus is a seer-healer of Greek myth attributed with having healed the young princesses of Argos of madness. Analysis of this legend and its sources sheds light on the early stages of the "medicalizing" shift in the history of ancient Greek medicine. Retrospective psychological diagnosis suggests that the descriptions of the youths' madness rose from actual observation of behavioral and mental disorders. Melampus is credited with having healed them by administering hellebore. Pharmacological analysis of botanical specimens proves that Helleborus niger features actual neurological properties effective in the treatment of mental disorders...
September 13, 2016: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27612477/cultural-adaptation-parenting-and-child-mental-health-among-english-speaking-asian-american-immigrant-families
#11
Keng-Yen Huang, Esther Calzada, Sabrina Cheng, R Gabriela Barajas-Gonzalez, Laurie Miller Brotman
Contrary to the "model minority" myth, Asian American children, especially those from low-income immigrant families, are at risk for both behavioral and emotional problems early in life. Little is known, however, about the underlying developmental mechanisms placing Asian American children at risk, including the role of cultural adaptation and parenting. This study examined cultural adaptation, parenting practices and culture related parenting values and child mental health in a sample of 157 English speaking Asian American immigrant families of children enrolled in early childhood education programs in low-income, urban neighborhoods...
September 9, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539501/what-does-the-literature-say-about-the-needs-of-veterans-in-the-areas-of-health
#12
REVIEW
Celia Hynes, Mike Thomas
This paper reports on a systematic review undertaken in 2013 aimed at identifying evidence and dismissing some of the myths surrounding the needs of the veteran community. Papers were retrieved from a wide range of sources to ensure that literature covered the key areas of health concerns and focused also on time spent in service. Of the twenty eight papers reviewed categories relating to mental health (including PTSD and suicide), the use of alcohol, trauma, hearing loss, cancer and obesity were identified...
December 2016: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513073/ce-military-sexual-trauma-in-male-service-members
#13
Denise M Eckerlin, Andrea Kovalesky, Matthew Jakupcak
: The experience of military sexual trauma (MST), which can result from assault, battery, or harassment of a sexual nature, may jeopardize the mental health of service members as well as that of their family members, colleagues, and community members. Although a greater proportion of female than male service members are subjected to MST, the Department of Defense estimates that the absolute numbers of affected men and women, across all ranks and branches of military service, are nearly equal because roughly 85% of military members are men...
September 2016: American Journal of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27508488/the-spiritism-as-therapy-in-the-health-care-in-the-epilepsy
#14
Rodrigo Luiz Vancini, Claudio Andre Barbosa de Lira, Cássia Regina Vancini-Campanharo, Dulce Aparecida Barbosa, Ricardo Mario Arida
OBJECTIVE: to present a brief history of Spiritism, the vision of epilepsy by Spiritism, and the potential of spirituality and religiosity care as complementary and coadjutants treatments in epilepsy. METHOD: this is a brief review about the impact of faith, spirituality, and religiosity, particularly the Spiritism philosophy as complementary treatment to neurological disorders (particularly focusing on epilepsy) and mental health. We conduct a review of published articles (about religion/spirituality and epilepsy) in the Pubmed and SciELO databases...
July 2016: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473569/depression-screening-and-education-options-to-reduce-barriers-to-treatment-deseo-protocol-for-an-educational-intervention-study
#15
Katherine Sanchez, Brittany H Eghaneyan, Madhukar H Trivedi
BACKGROUND: Barriers to depression treatment among Hispanic populations include persistent stigma, inadequate doctor patient communication (DPC) and resultant sub-optimal use of anti-depressant medications. Stigma is primarily perpetuated due to inadequate disease literacy and cultural factors. Common concerns about depression treatments among Hispanics include fears about the addictive and harmful properties of antidepressants, worries about taking too many pills, and the stigma attached to taking psychotropic medications...
July 29, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27439251/the-2016-presidential-election-reality-vs-myths
#16
Deborah B Gardner
Politics in a democracy requires governance through debate. Nurses are an important part of the voting public and we need to assess our own anger, expectations, and values for this election. Recognizing four myths during this election season can improve the political conversation. This conversation must acknowledge different groups, interests, and opinions and then seek ways to balance or reconcile those interests. Using this as a mental model to define our politics rather than succumbing to divisive rhetoric, we can take a major step toward building a better political system...
May 2016: Nursing Economic$
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27380152/transgender-health-and-well-being-gains-and-opportunities-in-policy-and-law
#17
Nfn Scout
This article discusses gains and opportunities in policy and law in the United States related to transgender health and well-being. Topics include (1) how the bathroom myth has been used every time a trans nondiscrimination bill is considered, (2) transgender nondiscrimination laws and policies, (3) the expansion of gender discrimination, (4) strategies for promoting mental health and well-being among trans people, (5) policy developments supporting the mental health and well-being of trans people, and (6) opportunities for action...
2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27325123/deconstructing-myths-building-alliances-a-networking-model-to-enhance-tobacco-control-in-hospital-mental-health-settings
#18
Montse Ballbè, Antoni Gual, Gemma Nieva, Esteve Saltó, Esteve Fernández
Life expectancy for people with severe mental disorders is up to 25 years less in comparison to the general population, mainly due to diseases caused or worsened by smoking. However, smoking is usually a neglected issue in mental healthcare settings. The aim of this article is to describe a strategy to improve tobacco control in the hospital mental healthcare services of Catalonia (Spain). To bridge this gap, the Catalan Network of Smoke-free Hospitals launched a nationwide bottom-up strategy in Catalonia in 2007...
September 2016: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27323478/-health-risks-linked-to-recent-migratory-patterns-myth-or-reality
#19
Sophie Durieux-Paillard
The migratory crisis currently faced by Europe is of exceptional magnitude since the Second World War. It is mainly related to the conflict in Syria, as well as recurring violations of human rights in other regions of the world. Widely relayed by the media, the unusual number of refugee applicants and the precariousness of their migration routes raise the question of the health risk. From the old concept of quarantine to the new paradigm of migrants' health, it is important to contextualize the screening measures, taking into account the epidemiology of communicable diseases in the countries of origin and of the regions crossed, the ruptures of access to treatments for chronic diseases, but also the impact of multiple trauma (war, violence) on the mental health of refugees...
May 4, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27323311/let-s-celebrate-contemporary-black-nurses-not-create-a-modern-myth
#20
Niall McCrae
The history of the National Health Service in Britain is a history of immigration. Many of the hospitals taken over by the NHS in 1948 were in a dilapidated state, and staff shortages were reaching critical levels. From the 1950s onwards, thousands of young women and men were lured to nursing in Britain from the pink-shaded areas of the globe - the former colonies of the West Indies, the Indian subcontinent, Mauritius, Malaysia and great swaths of Africa. As nurse training places were decreasingly filled by local people, by the 1970s a high proportion of the workforce in general hospitals was of black or Asian ethnicity...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
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