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Mental myths

Maurilio Giuseppe Maria Tavormina, Giuseppe Tavormina, Eugenio Nemoianni, Francesco Franza, Immacolata d'Errico, Maria Grazia Spurio, Romina Tavormina, Nicolas Zdanowicz, Stephanie De Mesmaeker, Judit Harangozó, Anna Nyulászi, Tünde Bulyáki, Ivan Urlic, Andrea Russo, Mark Agius
Prejudice and stigma about mental illness is still present in society. Patients suffer both from the disease, and from the marginalization behavior exhibited by others towards them and their families. Psychiatric professionals may also become ill and suffer for the same reason. The authors of this international multicenter study have set themselves the question of whether there may be prejudice and/or stigma among psychiatric professionals towards their suffering colleagues, among patients towards nursing staff affected by the same disease and between patients themselves...
September 2016: Psychiatria Danubina
Matteo F Olivieri, Francesca Marzari, Andreas J Kesel, Laura Bonalume, Francesco Saettini
Melampus is a seer-healer of Greek myth attributed with having healed the young princesses of Argos of madness. Analysis of this legend and its sources sheds light on the early stages of the "medicalizing" shift in the history of ancient Greek medicine. Retrospective psychological diagnosis suggests that the descriptions of the youths' madness rose from actual observation of behavioral and mental disorders. Melampus is credited with having healed them by administering hellebore. Pharmacological analysis of botanical specimens proves that Helleborus niger features actual neurological properties effective in the treatment of mental disorders...
September 13, 2016: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
Keng-Yen Huang, Esther Calzada, Sabrina Cheng, R Gabriela Barajas-Gonzalez, Laurie Miller Brotman
Contrary to the "model minority" myth, Asian American children, especially those from low-income immigrant families, are at risk for both behavioral and emotional problems early in life. Little is known, however, about the underlying developmental mechanisms placing Asian American children at risk, including the role of cultural adaptation and parenting. This study examined cultural adaptation, parenting practices and culture related parenting values and child mental health in a sample of 157 English speaking Asian American immigrant families of children enrolled in early childhood education programs in low-income, urban neighborhoods...
September 9, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Celia Hynes, Mike Thomas
This paper reports on a systematic review undertaken in 2013 aimed at identifying evidence and dismissing some of the myths surrounding the needs of the veteran community. Papers were retrieved from a wide range of sources to ensure that literature covered the key areas of health concerns and focused also on time spent in service. Of the twenty eight papers reviewed categories relating to mental health (including PTSD and suicide), the use of alcohol, trauma, hearing loss, cancer and obesity were identified...
August 12, 2016: Nurse Education Today
Denise M Eckerlin, Andrea Kovalesky, Matthew Jakupcak
: The experience of military sexual trauma (MST), which can result from assault, battery, or harassment of a sexual nature, may jeopardize the mental health of service members as well as that of their family members, colleagues, and community members. Although a greater proportion of female than male service members are subjected to MST, the Department of Defense estimates that the absolute numbers of affected men and women, across all ranks and branches of military service, are nearly equal because roughly 85% of military members are men...
September 2016: American Journal of Nursing
Rodrigo Luiz Vancini, Claudio Andre Barbosa de Lira, Cássia Regina Vancini-Campanharo, Dulce Aparecida Barbosa, Ricardo Mario Arida
OBJECTIVE: to present a brief history of Spiritism, the vision of epilepsy by Spiritism, and the potential of spirituality and religiosity care as complementary and coadjutants treatments in epilepsy. METHOD: this is a brief review about the impact of faith, spirituality, and religiosity, particularly the Spiritism philosophy as complementary treatment to neurological disorders (particularly focusing on epilepsy) and mental health. We conduct a review of published articles (about religion/spirituality and epilepsy) in the Pubmed and SciELO databases...
July 2016: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Katherine Sanchez, Brittany H Eghaneyan, Madhukar H Trivedi
BACKGROUND: Barriers to depression treatment among Hispanic populations include persistent stigma, inadequate doctor patient communication (DPC) and resultant sub-optimal use of anti-depressant medications. Stigma is primarily perpetuated due to inadequate disease literacy and cultural factors. Common concerns about depression treatments among Hispanics include fears about the addictive and harmful properties of antidepressants, worries about taking too many pills, and the stigma attached to taking psychotropic medications...
2016: BMC Health Services Research
Deborah B Gardner
Politics in a democracy requires governance through debate. Nurses are an important part of the voting public and we need to assess our own anger, expectations, and values for this election. Recognizing four myths during this election season can improve the political conversation. This conversation must acknowledge different groups, interests, and opinions and then seek ways to balance or reconcile those interests. Using this as a mental model to define our politics rather than succumbing to divisive rhetoric, we can take a major step toward building a better political system...
May 2016: Nursing Economic$
Nfn Scout
This article discusses gains and opportunities in policy and law in the United States related to transgender health and well-being. Topics include (1) how the bathroom myth has been used every time a trans nondiscrimination bill is considered, (2) transgender nondiscrimination laws and policies, (3) the expansion of gender discrimination, (4) strategies for promoting mental health and well-being among trans people, (5) policy developments supporting the mental health and well-being of trans people, and (6) opportunities for action...
2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Montse Ballbè, Antoni Gual, Gemma Nieva, Esteve Saltó, Esteve Fernández
Life expectancy for people with severe mental disorders is up to 25 years less in comparison to the general population, mainly due to diseases caused or worsened by smoking. However, smoking is usually a neglected issue in mental healthcare settings. The aim of this article is to describe a strategy to improve tobacco control in the hospital mental healthcare services of Catalonia (Spain). To bridge this gap, the Catalan Network of Smoke-free Hospitals launched a nationwide bottom-up strategy in Catalonia in 2007...
September 2016: Gaceta Sanitaria
Sophie Durieux-Paillard
The migratory crisis currently faced by Europe is of exceptional magnitude since the Second World War. It is mainly related to the conflict in Syria, as well as recurring violations of human rights in other regions of the world. Widely relayed by the media, the unusual number of refugee applicants and the precariousness of their migration routes raise the question of the health risk. From the old concept of quarantine to the new paradigm of migrants' health, it is important to contextualize the screening measures, taking into account the epidemiology of communicable diseases in the countries of origin and of the regions crossed, the ruptures of access to treatments for chronic diseases, but also the impact of multiple trauma (war, violence) on the mental health of refugees...
May 4, 2016: Revue Médicale Suisse
Niall McCrae
The history of the National Health Service in Britain is a history of immigration. Many of the hospitals taken over by the NHS in 1948 were in a dilapidated state, and staff shortages were reaching critical levels. From the 1950s onwards, thousands of young women and men were lured to nursing in Britain from the pink-shaded areas of the globe - the former colonies of the West Indies, the Indian subcontinent, Mauritius, Malaysia and great swaths of Africa. As nurse training places were decreasingly filled by local people, by the 1970s a high proportion of the workforce in general hospitals was of black or Asian ethnicity...
June 20, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
So Hyun Kim, Young Shin Kim, Yun-Joo Koh, Eun-Chung Lim, Soo-Jeong Kim, Bennett L Leventhal
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether Asian (Korean children) populations can be validly diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using Western-based diagnostic instruments and criteria based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual on Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association 2013 ). METHODS: Participants included an epidemiologically ascertained 7-14-year-old (N = 292) South Korean cohort from a larger prevalence study (N = 55,266)...
June 17, 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
L E Magor-Blatch, A R Rugendyke
UNLABELLED: WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: While smoking rates within the general population in Australia are dropping, 32% of Australians with a mental illness smoke, increasing to 73% among those with severe or chronic mental illness. In Australia and elsewhere, smoking bans within mental health facilities have been implemented. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: We surveyed 98 mental health professionals in Australia to gather information on attitudes toward smoke-free policies in mental health/psychiatric units within Australia...
June 2016: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
Ashley K Hagaman, Uden Maharjan, Brandon A Kohrt
BACKGROUND: Despite increasing recognition of the high burden of suicide deaths in low- and middle-income countries, there is wide variability in the type and quality of data collected and reported for suspected suicide deaths. Suicide data are filtered through reporting systems shaped by social, cultural, legal, and medical institutions. Lack of systematic reporting may underestimate public health needs or contribute to misallocation of resources to groups most at risk. METHODS: The goal of this study was to explore how institutional structures, cultural perspectives on suicide, and perceived criminality of self-harm influence the type and quality of suicide statistics, using Nepal as an example because of its purported high rate of suicide in the public health literature...
2016: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
Heloiza Maria Siqueira Rennó, Flávia Regina Souza Ramos, Maria José Menezes Brito
INTRODUCTION: During their education process, nursing undergraduates experience ethical conflicts and dilemmas that can lead to moral distress. Moral distress can deprive the undergraduates of their working potential and may cause physical and mental health problems. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the experiences of the undergraduates in order to identify the existence of moral distress caused by ethical conflict and dilemmas experienced during their nursing education...
May 18, 2016: Nursing Ethics
Derek Kenji Iwamoto, Aylin Kaya, Margaux Grivel, Lauren Clinton
Asian Americans represent the fastest- growing population in the United States (Le 2010). At the same time, there is evidence that problematic drinking rates are increasing among young-adult Asian Americans (Grant et al. 2004). Accordingly, it is essential to understand the etiological determinants and mechanisms of risk that may help explain this growth in problematic alcohol use among this group. The high prevalence of the ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 alleles in a large percentage of Asian subgroups has been studied as a potential protective factors against alcohol abuse, yet some individuals who possess these genes still engage in problematic alcohol use (Wall et al...
2016: Alcohol Research: Current Reviews
H Steinberg
This is the first of a 2-part study on the history of psychiatry in Eastern Germany, i. e. the Soviet Occupied Zone and later German Democratic Republic. It mainly covers the years post World War II up until the beginning of the 1970s. The first post-war years were determined by the new power holders' attempts to overcome National Socialist (Nazi) heritage and to re-organize mental health and care in general. The doctrine of a strict denazifization in East Germany must, however, be regarded as a myth. Promoted by centralized organization, there was an increase in communist party-ideological influence and harassment as well as aligning scientific views and research with Soviet paradigms (Pavlovization) during the 1950s and early 1960s...
April 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Jessica L Barnack-Tavlaris, Jessica R Serpico, Monisha Ahluwalia, Katie A Ports
PURPOSE: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted virus worldwide. Our purpose was to examine people's experiences with HPV using narratives posted on a website entitled, Experience Project. METHOD: We conducted a content analysis of 127 HPV narratives to identify stigma, emotion-focused and problem-focused coping, and misinformation. RESULTS: Negative self-image was the most commonly identified type of stigma. There were more instances of problem-focused than emotion-focused coping...
May 2016: Applied Nursing Research: ANR
Bernice A Pescosolido, Jack K Martin, Sigrun Olafsdottir, J Scott Long, Karen Kafadar, Tait R Medina
The WHO's International Studies of Schizophrenia conclude that schizophrenia may have a more benign course in "developing" societies than in the West. The authors focus on this finding's most common corollary: cultural schemata are shaped by the transition from agrarian to industrial society. Developing societies are viewed as traditional, gemeinschaft cultures lacking the stigmatizing beliefs about persons with mental illness held in modern, gesellschaft cultures of developed societies. The Stigma in Global Context-Mental Health Study formalized the cultural myth of public stigma (CMPS) with propositions linking level of development to intolerant, exclusionary, and individualistic attitudes...
November 2015: AJS; American Journal of Sociology
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