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Carola Stockburger, Davide Miano, Thea Pallas, Kristina Friedland, Walter E Müller
The mitochondrial cascade hypothesis of dementia assumes mitochondrial dysfunction leading to reduced energy supply, impaired neuroplasticity, and finally cell death as one major pathomechanism underlying the continuum from brain aging over mild cognitive impairment to initial and advanced late onset Alzheimer's disease. Accordingly, improving mitochondrial function has become an important strategy to treat the early stages of this continuum. The metabolic enhancer piracetam has been proposed as possible prototype for those compounds by increasing impaired mitochondrial function and related aspects like mechanisms of neuroplasticity...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Rostislav Horacek, Barbora Krnacova, Jan Prasko, Klara Latalova
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of somatic illnesses, electrolyte imbalance, red blood cell count, hypotension, and antipsychotic and opioid treatment on the duration of delirium in Central Intensive Care Unit for Surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who were admitted to the Department of Central Intensive Care Unit for Surgery in the University Hospital Olomouc from February 2004 to November 2008 were evaluated using Riker sedation-agitation scale...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Namrata Singh, Jana Hroudová, Zdeněk Fišar
Impairment of mitochondrial metabolism, particularly the electron transport chain (ETC), as well as increased oxidative stress might play a significant role in pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Some effects of drugs used for symptomatic AD treatment may be related to their direct action on mitochondrial function. In vitro effects of pharmacologically different cognitives (galantamine, donepezil, rivastigmine, 7-MEOTA, memantine) and nootropic drugs (latrepirdine, piracetam) were investigated on selected mitochondrial parameters: activities of ETC complexes I, II + III, and IV, citrate synthase, monoamine oxidase (MAO), oxygen consumption rate, and hydrogen peroxide production of pig brain mitochondria...
September 23, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Roberto Michelucci, Elena Pasini, Patrizia Riguzzi, Eva Andermann, Reetta Kälviäinen, Pierre Genton
Generalized motor seizures, usually tonic-clonic, tonic-vibratory, myoclonic or clonic, and stimulus-sensitive/action myoclonus are typical features of progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PMEs). Despite the introduction of many anticonvulsants, the treatment of these symptoms, particularly myoclonus, remains challenging, due to the incomplete and often transitory effects of most drugs. Moreover, treatment is only symptomatic, since therapy targeting the underlying aetiology for these genetic conditions is in its infancy...
September 1, 2016: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
T A Gudasheva, K N Koliasnikova, T A Antipova, S B Seredenin
It was shown for the first time that the endogenous cyclic dipeptide cycloprolylglycine (CPG) at concentrations of 10(-7) and 10(-3) M and piracetam at a concentration of 10(-3) M increased the content of brainderived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the culture of neuronal cells in normal state and under conditions of glutamate and 6-oxydopamine neurotoxicity. This may indicate the possible involvement of BDNF in the mechanism of action of neuropeptide CPG and piracetam.
July 2016: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
Shruti Pandey, Debapriya Garabadu
Piracetam exhibits anti-amnesic activity in several animal models of dementia. However, its anti-amnesic potential has yet to be evaluated in type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)-induced encephalopathy. Therefore, in the present study, piracetam (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) was screened for anti-amnesic and anti-diabetic activity in T2DM-induced encephalopathic male rats. Subsequently, anti-amnesic and anti-diabetic activities were evaluated for piracetam, metformin and their combination in T2DM-induced encephalopathic animals...
September 1, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Nada S Abdelwahab, Amal B Ahmed, Maha M Abdelrahman, Fathy M Salama
Newly established TLC-densitometric and RP-HPLC methods were developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of Piracetam (PIR) and Vincamine (VINC) in their pharmaceutical formulation and in the presence of PIR and VINC degradation products, PD and VD, respectively. The proposed TLC-densitometric method is based on the separation and quantitation of the studied components using a developing system that consists of chloroform-methanol-glacial acetic acid-triethylamine (8 + 2 + 0.1 + 0.1, v/v/v/v) on TLC silica gel 60 F254 plates, followed by densitometric scanning at 230 nm...
August 27, 2016: Journal of AOAC International
Ruchi Malik, Richa Gupta, Shubham Srivastava, Bhanwar Singh Choudhary, Manish Sharma
The present paper describes design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of a series of some 3-[3-(amino)propoxy]benzenamines as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors using mice as a model and piracetam as a reference drug. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectral analysis and compounds were tested for memory enhancing activity using elevated plus maze test and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory assay. The inhibitory range of synthesized compounds was from 8.99 to 28.31 μM. The synthesized compounds possessed higher or equivalent percent retention as compared to piracetam at 1 mg/kg with no other CNS-related activities (locomotor and muscle relaxant, analgesic and anticonvulsant activities)...
August 19, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Iman El Sayed, Adel Zaki, Akram M Fayed, Gihan M Shehata, Sherif Abdelmonem
Traumatic brain injury is a major problem worldwide. Our objective is to synthesize available evidence in the literature concerning the effectiveness of neuroprotective drugs (cerebrolysin, citicoline, and piracetam) on Glasgow outcome score (GOS), cognitive performance, and survival in traumatic brain injury patients. Comprehensive search of electronic databases, search engines, and conferences proceedings; hand search journals; searching reference lists of relevant articles, theses, and local publications; and contact of authors for incomplete data were performed...
August 18, 2016: Neurosurgical Review
Changping Dun, Junqian Liu, Fucheng Qiu, Xueda Wu, Yakun Wang, Yongyan Zhao, Ping Gu
OBJECTIVE: Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) are active constituents of Astragalus membranaceus. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of APS on memory impairment in a diabetic rat model and their mechanisms. METHODS: A diabetic model was established in 50 male Wistar rats with streptozotocin intra-peritoneal injection. A blood glucose level higher than 16.7 mmol/L obtained 72 hours after the injection was regarded as a successful diabetic model. The modeled rats were divided into model group, high, medium, and low doses of APS, and piracetam groups (positive control)...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
V V Yasnetsov, E G Tsublova, Vic V Yasnetsov, S Ya Skachilova, S K Karsanova, Yu V Ivanov
It was established that a new 3-hydroxypyridine (3-HP) derivative, 2-ethyl-6-methyl-3-hydroxypyridine L-aspartate (3-HP), in small doses (1 and 5 mg/kg) increased physical performance in treadmill and swimming tests on rats. The new substance showed greater or equal effects compared to the reference actoprotector drugs metaprot and ladasten in much higher doses. The gluconeogenesis inhibitor tryptophan significantly (74 ± 5%, p < 0.01) prevented this stimulatory effect of 3-HPA in the treadmill test on rats...
2016: Eksperimental'naia i Klinicheskaia Farmakologiia
Huseyin Akcay, Murat Ulu, Seyfi Kelebek, Ibrahim Aladag
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is an unfamiliar and rare complication occurring following osteotome sinus floor elevation (OSFE) and simultaneous implant placement. Etiology of this disorder is commonly displacement of otoliths by vibratory forces transmitted by osteotomes and mallet along with the hyperextension of the head during the operation, causing them to float around in the endolymph. This report presents a case of protracted BPPV following OSFE and simultaneous implant placement. A 43-year-old female suffered intense vertigo and nausea immediately after implant placement using an OSFE procedure...
July 2016: Journal of Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery
Gyorgy Pinter, Krisztina Borbely, Laszlo Peter
Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD) is caused by damage of the corpus callosum. There are acute, subacute and chronic forms, it occurs most frequently among alcoholic patients. A variety of neurological symptoms, epileptic seizures, and coma may be associated with the disease, but the chronic form may start with acute confusion and dementia, interhemispherial disconnection syndrome or with slow progressive changes in behavior. In 2001, only 250 cases were reported, of which 200 died, 30 cases contributed to severe dementia or bed rest, and favorable outcome occured in only 20 cases...
June 2016: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
Hong-yan Wu, Hai-long Li, Chang-sheng Yang, Hu-ping Wang, Jing Gu
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of Guiqicongzhi Decoction on expression of HSP27 and HSP70 in brain tissue of VD model rats. METHODS: The method of "repeatedly clip carotid artery join with injection of sodium nitroprusside and with permanent unilateral carotid artery ligation" was used to prepare the vascular dementia model. And then the effect of Guiqicongzhi Decoction on the model rats from rats praxiology, histopathological and the molecules expression of heat shock protein (HSP) were observed...
December 2015: Zhong Yao Cai, Zhongyaocai, Journal of Chinese Medicinal Materials
Izabela Witek, Sławomir Kroczka, Marek Kaciński
BACKGROUND: Ischemic strokes in children are rare. The etiology and risk factors for ischemic stroke in children and adolescence differ from those typical in adults. Clinical symptoms depend on the location, extent of damage of the central nervous system and age. The aim of the study was to compare the clinical picture of ischemic stroke in children at two periods. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included children who had a stroke: 32 children (group I) in the years 1968-1998 and 27 children (group II) in 2010-2015...
2016: Przegla̧d Lekarski
T A Antipova, S V Nikolaev, P U Ostrovskaya, T A Gudasheva, S B Seredenin
Effect of noopept (N-phenylacetyl-prolylglycine ethyl ester) on viability of neurons exposed to neurotoxic action of glutamic acid (5 mM) was studied in vitro in immortalized mouse hippocampal HT-22 neurons. Noopept added to the medium before or after glutamic acid improved neuronal survival in a concentration range of 10-11-10-5 M. Comparison of the effective noopept concentrations determined in previous studies on cultured cortical and cerebellar neurons showed that hippocampal neurons are more sensitive to the protective effect of noopept...
May 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Venugopalan Rajesh, Sakthivel Ilanthalir
Several epidemiological studies have shown that consumption of large quantities of vegetables especially cruciferous vegetables (Broccoli and Brussels sprouts) can protect against chronic diseases. Sulforaphane, an isothiocynate found in cruciferous vegetables has been demonstrated to have neuroprotective effects in several experimental paradigms. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of sulforaphane on cognitive impairment in zebra fish model using a novel method of fear conditioning. Initially, the normal behaviour of zebra fishes was studied in light-dark tank for 10 min daily for 10 days...
June 2, 2016: Neurochemical Research
E A Antipenko, A V Deryugina, A V Gustov
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the mechanisms of the action of anti-stress antioxidant agent (mexidol) in patients with chronic cerebral ischemia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty-seven patients with chronic cerebral ischemia (TE stage II),48 women and 19 men, mean age 48.2 years, were examined. To assess the stateof multilevel stress system, the level of anxiety and depression, degree of autonomic imbalance, adaptive reactions of the blood and functional properties of erythrocyte membranes, level of average weight molecules in the blood plasma were studied...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Jie Zhang, Ruili Wei, Zhongqin Chen, Benyan Luo
BACKGROUND: Aphasia is a common symptom in post-stroke patients. Piracetam is a commonly used nootropic agent that promises various benefits to brain function, including language improvement. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether piracetam facilitates the rehabilitation of language performance in post-stroke patients. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of piracetam treatment in post-stroke patients published in any language were included, excluding those involving pre-existing cognitive disorders such as dementia and mood disturbances...
July 2016: CNS Drugs
E D Bazhanova, Yu O Kozlova, V N Anisimov, D S Sukhanov, D L Teply
Neurodegenerative changes and neuronal death are the basis for development of the nervous system aging. We investigated the mechanism of apoptosis of the sensorimotor cortex neurons of transgenic mice HER2/neu during aging, changes in the cortex function and the participation of exogenous neurometabolites (cytoflavin, piracetam) in regulation of neuronal death and locomotor and psycho-emotional status of mice. The level of apoptosis and expression of apoptosis markers (TUNEL, immunohistochemistry, Western blotting) in HER2/neu transgenic mice as compared to wild type mice (FBV line) were determined...
January 2016: Zhurnal Evoliutsionnoĭ Biokhimii i Fiziologii
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