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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072635/a-systematic-review-of-neuroprotective-strategies-during-hypovolemia-and-hemorrhagic-shock
#1
REVIEW
Marius Nistor, Wilhelm Behringer, Martin Schmidt, René Schiffner
Severe trauma constitutes a major cause of death and disability, especially in younger patients. The cerebral autoregulatory capacity only protects the brain to a certain extent in states of hypovolemia; thereafter, neurological deficits and apoptosis occurs. We therefore set out to investigate neuroprotective strategies during haemorrhagic shock. This review was performed in accordance to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Before the start of the search, a review protocol was entered into the PROSPERO database...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054451/phenolic-alkaloid-oleracein-e-attenuates-oxidative-stress-and-neurotoxicity-in-alcl3-treated-mice
#2
Lingyu Li, Yanni Jiao, Tianyun Jin, Hongxiang Sun, Shaoqiang Li, Cuirong Jin, Shuiyao Hu, Jianbo Ji, Lan Xiang
AIMS: Chelation therapy and antioxidant supplements have been demonstrated to be useful in ameliorating aluminum (Al) induced neurotoxicity. Oleracein E (OE) is a phenolic antioxidant alkaloid which possesses a rare tetrahydroisoquinoline/pyrrolidone tricyclic skeleton and a catechol moiety. The aim of this study was to investigate whether OE can chelate with Al and alleviate AlCl3-induced oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. MAIN METHODS: Kunming mice were administered AlCl3 (40mg/kg/d, i...
October 17, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978781/crystal-structure-of-pharmaceutical-cocrystals-of-2-6-diaminopyridine-with-piracetam-and-theophylline
#3
Melissa Hidekel Durán-Palma, Sonia Sanet Mendoza-Barraza, Nancy Evelyn Magaña-Vergara, Francisco Javier Martínez-Martínez, Juan Saulo González-González
Pharmaceutical cocrystals are crystalline solids formed by an active pharmaceutical ingredient and a cocrystal former. The cocrystals 2,6-diaminopyridine (DAP)-piracetam [PIR; systematic name: 2-(2-oxopyrrolidin-1-yl)acetamide] (1/1), C5H7N3·C6H10N2O2, (I), and 2,6-diaminopyridine-theophylline (TEO; systematic name: 1,3-dimethyl-7H-purine-2,6-dione) (1/1), C5H7N3·C7H8N4O2, (II), were prepared by the solvent-assisted grinding method and were characterized by IR spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction. Cocrystal (I) crystallized in the orthorhombic space group Pbca and showed a 1:1 stoichiometry...
October 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section C, Structural Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916907/pharmacokinetic-study-of-piracetam-in-focal-cerebral-ischemic-rats
#4
Pankaj Paliwal, Debabrata Dash, Sairam Krishnamurthy
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cerebral ischemia affects hepatic enzymes and brain permeability extensively. Piracetam was investigated up to phase III of clinical trials and there is lack of data on brain penetration in cerebral ischemic condition. Thus, knowledge of the pharmacokinetics and brain penetration of piracetam during ischemic condition would aid to improve pharmacotherapeutics in ischemic stroke. METHODS: Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h in male Wistar rats followed by reperfusion...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912059/piracetam-inhibits-ethanol-etoh-induced-memory-deficit-by-mediating-multiple-pathways
#5
Yifan Yang, Jian Feng, Fangyuan Xu, Jianglin Wang
Excessive ethanol (EtOH) intake, especially to prenatal exposure, can significantly affect cognitive function and cause permanent learning and memory injures in children. As a result, how to protect children from EtOH neurotoxicity has gained increasing attention in recent years. Piracetam (Pir) is a nootropic drug derived from c-aminobutyric acid and can manage cognition impairments in multiple neurological disorders. Studies have shown that Pir can exert therapeutic effects on EtOH-induced memory impairments, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown...
December 1, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809398/precision-medicine-for-suicidality-from-universality-to-subtypes-and-personalization
#6
A B Niculescu, H Le-Niculescu, D F Levey, P L Phalen, H L Dainton, K Roseberry, E M Niculescu, J O Niezer, A Williams, D L Graham, T J Jones, V Venugopal, A Ballew, M Yard, T Gelbart, S M Kurian, A Shekhar, N J Schork, G E Sandusky, D R Salomon
Suicide remains a clear, present and increasing public health problem, despite being a potentially preventable tragedy. Its incidence is particularly high in people with overt or un(der)diagnosed psychiatric disorders. Objective and precise identification of individuals at risk, ways of monitoring response to treatments and novel preventive therapeutics need to be discovered, employed and widely deployed. We sought to investigate whether blood gene expression biomarkers for suicide (that is, a 'liquid biopsy' approach) can be identified that are more universal in nature, working across psychiatric diagnoses and genders, using larger cohorts than in previous studies...
September 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756557/effects-of-central-nervous-system-drugs-on-recovery-after-stroke-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#7
REVIEW
See-Hwee Yeo, Zheng-Jie Ian Lim, Jia Mao, Wai-Ping Yau
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pilot trials have suggested that pharmacotherapy may aid stroke recovery. The aim of this study was to systematically review the effects of antidepressants, anti-Alzheimer drugs, anti-Parkinson drugs, central nervous system (CNS) stimulants and piracetam on gross motor function, cognition, disability, dependency and quality of life (QOL) after stroke. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched, and 44 randomized controlled trials that compared outcomes of interest between drug treatment and placebo or no treatment were included...
October 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727483/pharmacological-treatment-of-tardive-dyskinesia-recent-developments
#8
Stanley N Caroff, E Cabrina Campbell, Benjamin Carroll
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) occurs in patients receiving antipsychotic treatment with dopamine receptor antagonists. Despite the prevalence of TD and its negative impact on patients' lives, there has been a lack of approved treatments and limited evidence from controlled trials of pharmacological treatment. Areas covered: PubMed was searched for English-language papers published during 2007-2016 using terms 'tardive dyskinesia' or 'drug-induced movement disorder', and 'treatment'. Studies evaluating pharmacological agents for the treatment of TD were selected...
September 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720419/isolation-of-two-ochrobactrum-sp-strains-capable-of-degrading-the-nootropic-drug-piracetam
#9
Marta Woźniak-Karczewska, Monika Čvančarová, Łukasz Chrzanowski, Boris Kolvenbach, Philippe F-X Corvini, Danuta Cichocka
Piracetam (2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetamide) is a popular cognitive enhancer, which has recently been detected in waste and drinking water. Nootropic drugs are designed to affect human metabolism and act on the nervous system, but their environmental effects have yet to be the subject of detailed studies. In this report, we present the efficient biodegradation of the cognitive enhancer, piracetam. Two bacterial strains capable of using this compound as the sole carbon source were isolated and later identified as Ochrobactrum anthropi strain MW6 and Ochrobactrum intermedium strain MW7...
July 16, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686997/management-of-epilepsy-in-merrf-syndrome
#10
REVIEW
Josef Finsterer, Sinda Zarrouk-Mahjoub
Myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF) syndrome is a rare syndromic mitochondrial disorder (MID) with a broad phenotypic but narrow genotypic heterogeneity. One of the predominant phenotypic features in addition to myopathy is epilepsy. The most frequent seizure type in MERRF is generalised myoclonic seizure but also focal myoclonic, focal atonic, generalised tonic-clonic, generalised atonic, generalised myoclonic-atonic, typical absences, or tonic-clonic seizures of unknown onset have been reported...
August 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657424/heroin-piracetam-mixture-suggested-mechanisms-of-action-and-risks-of-misinterpretation-for-drug-users
#11
Simone Cappelletti, Francesco Lombardo, Pasquale Vitale, Giuseppe Vallone, Costantino Ciallella
Piracetam is a positive allosteric modulator of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor that has been frequently used in the treatment of cognitive disorders. Press and internet reports indicate that the use of piracetam, as a heroin adulterant, has spread rapidly in some countries, especially in Asia and Europe. Its use, as adulterant, is believed to produce more profound desirable effects, while decreasing hangover. Recent surveys demonstrated that piracetam protects neurons from heroin-induced apoptosis...
January 1, 2017: Medico-legal Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616433/medication-errors-in-patients-with-enteral-feeding-tubes-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#12
Seyed Mojtaba Sohrevardi, Mohammad Hossein Jarahzadeh, Ehsan Mirzaei, Mahtabalsadat Mirjalili, Arefeh Dehghani Tafti, Behrooz Heydari
OBJECTIVE: Most patients admitted to Intensive Care Units (ICU) have problems in using oral medication or ingesting solid forms of drugs. Selecting the most suitable dosage form in such patients is a challenge. The current study was conducted to assess the frequency and types of errors of oral medication administration in patients with enteral feeding tubes or suffering swallowing problems. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed in the ICU of Shahid Sadoughi Hospital, Yazd, Iran...
April 2017: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587997/long-term-follow-up-of-two-siblings-with-adult-onset-neuronal-ceroid-lipofuscinosis-kufs-type-a
#13
Çiğdem Özkara, Ayşegül Gündüz, Tülin Coşkun, Bengi Gül Alpaslan, Burcu Zeydan, Şakir Delil, Mikko Muona, Anna-Elina Lehesjoki, Meral E Kızıltan
Reports on the clinical presentation of adult-onset neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) are scarce compared to infantile- and childhood-onset forms. Here, we aimed to present detailed temporal evolution of clinical and electrophysiological features of two siblings with adult-onset NCL and homozygous mutation in the CLN6 gene. We retrospectively analysed medical records and electrophysiological data in order to delineate evolution of clinical and electrophysiological findings. Electrophysiological studies included routine EEG and video-EEG, as well as polymyographic analysis of myoclonus and brainstem reflex studies...
June 6, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565938/n-4-hydroxyphenyl-3-4-5-trimethoxybenzamide-derivatives-as-potential-memory-enhancers-synthesis-biological-evaluation-and-molecular-simulation-studies
#14
Poonam Piplani, Manish Sharma, Pakhuri Mehta, Ruchi Malik
The present paper describes the synthesis, biological evaluation and molecular simulation studies of a series of N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzamide derivatives with N,N-dialkylaminoethoxy/propoxy moiety as potential memory enhancers with acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting activity having IC50 in low micromolar range (4.0-16.5 μM). All the compounds showed a good degree of agreement between in vivo and in vitro results as most of these derivatives showed dose-dependent increase in percent retention...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559112/investigation-of-polymorphic-transitions-of-piracetam-induced-during-wet-granulation
#15
Catherine B Potter, Gayathri Kollamaram, Jacek Zeglinski, Darren A Whitaker, Denise M Croker, Gavin M Walker
Piracetam was investigated as a model API which is known to exhibit a number of different polymorphic forms. It is freely soluble in water so the possibility exists for polymorphic transformations to occur during wet granulation. Analysis of the polymorphic form present during lab-scale wet granulation, using water as a granulation liquid, was studied with powder X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy as off-line and inline analysis tools respectively. Different excipients with a range of hydrophilicities, aqueous solubilities and molecular weights were investigated to examine their influence on these solution-mediated polymorphic transitions and experimental results were rationalised using molecular modelling...
October 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534431/ameliorating-effect-of-anti-alzheimer-s-drugs-on-the-bidirectional-association-between-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Amira S Ahmed, Rehab M Elgharabawy, Amal H Al-Najjar
Mild to severe forms of nervous system damage were exhibited by approximately 60-70% of diabetics. It is important to understand the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the present work is to understand the bidirectional association between type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, that was monitored by glycaemic status, lipid profile, amyloid beta 40 and 42 (Aβ40 and Aβ42), C-reactive protein, total creatine kinase, total lactate dehydrogenase, D-dimer and magnesium measurements, to assess the association between theses biochemical markers and each other, to estimate the possibility of utilizing the amyloid beta as biochemical marker of T2D in Alzheimer's patients, and to evaluate the effect of piracetam and memantine drugs on diabetes mellitus...
July 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514338/-a-comparative-chemoreactome-analysis-of-mexidol
#17
I Yu Torshin, O A Gromova, I S Sardaryan, L E Fedotova
AIM: To compare mexidol with control molecules (choline alfoscerate, piracetam, glycine, semax) using chemoreactome analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The chemical structure of mexidol was compared to molecule metabolites extracted from the Human Metabolome Database (HMDB) and a drug database. More than 40 000 of metabolites from HMDB were used as a model of human metabolome. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The chemoreactome analysis showed that mexidol may be (1) an agonist of acetylcholine and GABA-A receptors; (2) an anti-inflammatory agent, the effects of which are carried out by inhibiting the synthesis of pro-inflammatory prostaglandins; (3) a neurotrophic agent with neuroprotective properties; (4) a coagulation inhibitor; (5) a diabetes medication and (6) a hypolipidemic agent...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388810/hemilability-driven-water-activation-a-ni-ii-catalyst-for-base-free-hydration-of-nitriles-to-amides
#18
Kuldeep Singh, Abir Sarbajna, Indranil Dutta, Pragati Pandey, Jitendra K Bera
The Ni(II) complex 1 containing pyridyl- and hydroxy-functionalized N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) is synthesized and its catalytic utility for the selective nitrile hydration to the corresponding amide under base-free conditions is evaluated. The title compound exploits a hemilabile pyridyl unit to interact with a catalytically relevant water molecule through hydrogen-bonding and promotes a nucleophilic water attack to the nitrile. A wide variety of nitriles is hydrated to the corresponding amides including the pharmaceutical drugs rufinamide, Rifater, and piracetam...
April 7, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363525/protective-effect-of-a-phenolic-extract-containing-indoline-amides-from-portulaca-oleracea-against-cognitive-impairment-in-senescent-mice-induced-by-large-dose-of-d-galactose-nano2
#19
Peipei Wang, Hongxiang Sun, Dianyu Liu, Zezhao Jiao, Su Yue, Xiuquan He, Wen Xia, Jianbo Ji, Lan Xiang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Portulaca oleracea L. is a potherb and also a widely used traditional Chinese medicine. In accordance with its nickname "longevity vegetable", pharmacological study demonstrated that this plant possessed antioxidant, anti-aging, and cognition-improvement function. Active principles pertaining to these functions of P. oleracea need to be elucidated. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study evaluated the effect of a phenolic extract (PAAs) from P...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176051/piracetam-attenuates-lps-induced-neuroinflammation-and-cognitive-impairment-in-rats
#20
Alok Tripathi, Pankaj Paliwal, Sairam Krishnamurthy
The present study was performed to investigate the effect of piracetam on neuroinflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and resulting changes in cognitive behavior. Neuroinflammation was induced by a single dose of LPS solution infused into each of the lateral cerebral ventricles in concentrations of 1 μg/μl, at a rate of 1 μl/min over a 5-min period, with a 5-min waiting period between the two infusions. Piracetam in doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg i.p. was administered 30 min before LPS infusion and continued for 9 days...
February 7, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
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