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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820724/neurologic-complications-in-persons-with-hiv-infection-in-the-era-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#1
Dennis Kolson
Neurologic complications in persons with HIV infection are less severe in the era of potent antiretroviral therapy but remain highly prevalent. Prior to the use of antiretroviral therapy, opportunistic infections of the central nervous system (CNS) and CNS malignancy were common. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), however, remains a diagnostic challenge in HIV-infected individuals, and no effective antiviral treatment for PML is currently available. Primary neurologic complications of acute HIV infection include aseptic meningitis and acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy...
July 2017: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818505/schizophrenia-with-prominent-catatonic-features-a-selective-review
#2
Gabor S Ungvari, Jozsef Gerevich, Rozália Takács, Gábor Gazdag
A widely accepted consensus holds that a variety of motor symptoms subsumed under the term 'catatonia' have been an integral part of the symptomatology of schizophrenia since 1896, when Kraepelin proposed the concept of dementia praecox (schizophrenia). Until recently, psychiatric classifications included catatonic schizophrenia mainly through tradition, without compelling evidence of its validity as a schizophrenia subtype. This selective review briefly summarizes the history, psychopathology, demographic and epidemiological data, and treatment options for schizophrenia with prominent catatonic features...
August 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818116/distinct-white-matter-microstructural-abnormalities-and-extracellular-water-increases-relate-to-cognitive-impairment-in-alzheimer-s-disease-with-and-without-cerebrovascular-disease
#3
Fang Ji, Ofer Pasternak, Siwei Liu, Yng Miin Loke, Boon Linn Choo, Saima Hilal, Xin Xu, Mohammad Kamran Ikram, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Christopher Li-Hsian Chen, Juan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Mixed vascular and neurodegenerative dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) with concomitant cerebrovascular disease, has emerged as the leading cause of age-related cognitive impairment. The brain white matter (WM) microstructural changes in neurodegeneration well-documented by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can originate from brain tissue or extracellular free water changes. The differential microstructural and free water changes in AD with and without cerebrovascular disease, especially in normal-appearing WM, remain largely unknown...
August 17, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817967/pimavanserin-a-novel-antipsychotic-for-management-of-parkinson-s-disease-psychosis
#4
Yasaman Kianirad, Tanya Simuni
Parkinson's disease psychosis (PDP) may develop in up to 60% of Parkinson's patients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. It also correlates with depression and dementia, and can contribute to caregiver stress and burnout. Pimavanserin is the first FDA approved drug for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with PDP. Areas covered: For this review, a MEDLINE literature search (via PubMed) and information provided by ACADIA Pharmaceuticals were used. References of our search results were screened for additional studies...
August 18, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817366/trajectory-of-dyspnea-and-respiratory-distress-among-patients-in-the-last-month-of-life
#5
Margaret L Campbell, Jason M Kiernan, John Strandmark, Hossein N Yarandi
BACKGROUND: The trajectory of dyspnea has been reported among patients approaching the end of life. However, patients near death have been dropped from longitudinal studies or excluded altogether because of an inability to self-report; proxy estimates have been reported. It is not known whether dyspnea or respiratory distress remains stable, escalates, or abates as patients reach last days. OBJECTIVE: Determine trajectory of dyspnea (self-reported) and respiratory distress (observed) among patients who were approaching death...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816008/lactuca-capensis-reverses-memory-deficits-in-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-an-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Paula Alexandra Postu, Jaures A K Noumedem, Oana Cioanca, Monica Hancianu, Marius Mihasan, Mitica Ciorpac, Dragos Lucian Gorgan, Brindusa Alina Petre, Lucian Hritcu
We investigated the neuropharmacological effects of the methanolic extract from Lactuca capensis Thunb. leaves (100 and 200 mg/kg) for 21 days on memory impairment in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) rat model produced by direct intraventricular delivery of amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ1-42). Behavioural assays such as Y-maze and radial arm maze test were used for assessing memory performance. Aβ1-42 decreased cognitive performance in the behavioural tests which were ameliorated by pre-treatment with the methanolic extract...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815019/therapeutic-potential-of-systemic-brain-rejuvenation-strategies-for-neurodegenerative-disease
#7
REVIEW
Alana M Horowitz, Saul A Villeda
Neurodegenerative diseases are a devastating group of conditions that cause progressive loss of neuronal integrity, affecting cognitive and motor functioning in an ever-increasing number of older individuals. Attempts to slow neurodegenerative disease advancement have met with little success in the clinic; however, a new therapeutic approach may stem from classic interventions, such as caloric restriction, exercise, and parabiosis. For decades, researchers have reported that these systemic-level manipulations can promote major functional changes that extend organismal lifespan and healthspan...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814845/texture-modified-food-and-fluids-in-dementia-and-residential-aged-care-facilities
#8
REVIEW
Virginia Painter, David G Le Couteur, Louise M Waite
INTRODUCTION: Dysphagia is common in people living with dementia and associated with increased risk of aspiration pneumonia, dehydration, malnutrition, and death. Treatment options are limited and the use of texture-modified food and fluids (TMF) is a widespread clinical practice. This review aimed to evaluate the evidence for TMF in dementia. METHODS: A literature search using terms "dysphagia," "texture-modified food and fluids," "dementia," and "aged care" was performed by using three electronic databases from 1990 to March 2017...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814330/novel-remote-electronic-medication-supply-model-for-opioid-dependent-outpatients-with-polypharmacy-first-long-term-case-study
#9
Samuel S Allemann, Kenneth M Dürsteler, Johannes Strasser, Marc Vogel, Marcel Stoeckle, Kurt E Hersberger, Isabelle Arnet
BACKGROUND: Patients with substance use disorders grow older thanks to effective treatments. Together with a high prevalence of comorbidities, psychological problems, and low social support, these patients are at high risk for medication non-adherence. Established treatment facilities face challenges to accommodate these complex patients within their setting. Electronic medication management aids (e-MMAs) might be appropriate to simultaneously monitor and improve adherence for these patients...
August 16, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813240/when-does-therapeutic-misconception-affect-surrogates-or-subjects-decision-making-about-whether-to-participate-in-dementia-research
#10
Laura B Dunn, Barton W Palmer
"Therapeutic misconception" (TM) refers to inappropriate assumptions and beliefs on the part of research participants regarding key distinctions between the purpose, methods, intended benefits, and potential disadvantages of research compared to those of clinical care. Despite an extensive literature describing TM across varied types of research and populations, minimal work has addressed TM in the context of dementia research. This is a serious gap, for several reasons: people with dementia are at significant risk of diminished capacity; surrogate decision makers are typically asked to provide consent on behalf of the person with dementia; and available treatments for dementia are quite limited...
July 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812541/systematic-review-of-interventions-for-treating-or-preventing-antipsychotic-induced-tardive-dyskinesia
#11
Hanna Bergman, Dawn-Marie Walker, Adriani Nikolakopoulou, Karla Soares-Weiser, Clive E Adams
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic medication can cause tardive dyskinesia (TD) - late-onset, involuntary, repetitive movements, often involving the face and tongue. TD occurs in > 20% of adults taking antipsychotic medication (first-generation antipsychotics for > 3 months), with this proportion increasing by 5% per year among those who continue to use these drugs. The incidence of TD among those taking newer antipsychotics is not different from the rate in people who have used older-generation drugs in moderate doses...
August 2017: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811228/curcumin-in-alzheimer-s-disease-can-we-think-to-new-strategies-and-perspectives-for-this-molecule
#12
REVIEW
Serafini Melania Maria, Catanzaro Michele, Rosini Michela, Racchi Marco, Lanni Cristina
Population aging is an irreversible global trend with economic and socio-political consequences. One of the most invalidating outcomes of aging in the elderly is cognitive decline, leading to dementia and often related to neurodegenerative disorders. Among these latter, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the major cause of dementia, affecting more than 30 million of individuals worldwide. To date, the treatment of AD remains a challenge because of an incomplete understanding of the events that lead to the selective neurodegeneration typical of Alzheimer's brains...
August 12, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810593/carotid-atherosclerosis-promotes-the-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-three-year-prospective-study
#13
Jing Xiang
Although cerebrovascular diseases have been considered as risk factors for cognitive decline and dementia, the associations between atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have not been fully examined and remain controversial. The aim of this three-year prospective study was to investigate whether arotid artery atherosclerosis accelerates cognitive impairment in AD patients. The association of carotid intimal medial thickness (IMT) with prospective trajectories of cognitive function was assessed among 521 patients with light to moderate AD, and 437 AD patients were followed up annually for 3 years...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807498/vascular-pathology-and-trajectories-of-late-life-major-depressive-disorder-in-secondary-psychiatric-care
#14
Katherine L Musliner, Peter P Zandi, Xiaoqin Liu, Thomas M Laursen, Trine Munk-Olsen, Preben B Mortensen, William W Eaton
OBJECTIVE: To examine 5-year trajectories of psychiatrist-treated late-life major depressive disorder (MDD), and evaluate whether previous vascular pathology is associated with more severe trajectories of late-life MDD. METHODS: Data were obtained from nationally representative civil, psychiatric, hospital, and prescription registers in Denmark. The sample included 11,092 older adults (≥60 years) who received their first diagnosis of MDD in a psychiatric facility in Denmark between 2000 and 2007...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807457/identification-of-pseudobulbar-affect-symptoms-in-the-nursing-home-setting-development-and-assessment-of-a-screening-tool
#15
Carrie Allen, Barbara Zarowitz, Terrence O'Shea, Edward Peterson, Charles Yonan, Fanta Waterman
Pseudobulbar Affect (PBA) is a neurologic condition characterized by involuntary outbursts of crying and/or laughing disproportionate to patient mood or social context. Although an estimated 9% of nursing home residents have symptoms suggestive of PBA, they are not routinely screened. Our goal was to develop an electronic screening tool based upon characteristics common to nursing home residents with PBA identified through medical record data. Nursing home residents with PBA treated with dextromethorphan hydrobromide/quinidine sulfate (n = 140) were compared to age-, gender-, and dementia-diagnosis-matched controls without PBA or treatment (n = 140)...
August 11, 2017: Geriatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807223/gts40-an-active-fraction-of-gou-teng-san-gts-protects-pc12-from-h2o2-induced-cell-injury-through-antioxidative-properties
#16
Lei Chen, Meng-Lin Wei, Jiao-Jiao Zhao, Hao Hong, Wei Qu, Feng Feng, Wen-Yuan Liu
Oxidative stress, a predominant cause of apoptosis cascades triggered in neurodegenerative disorders, has been regarded as a critical inducement in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Gou Teng-San (GTS) is a traditional Chinese herbs preparation commonly utilized to alleviate cognitive dysfunction and psychological symptoms of patients with dementia. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of GTS40, an active fraction of GTS, on H2O2-induced oxidative damage and identify the potential active ingredients...
July 2017: Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807163/effect-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-on-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Melanie-Jayne R Howes, Rui Fang, Peter J Houghton
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is reaching epidemic proportions yet treatment strategies are limited and are restricted to providing symptomatic relief for the cognitive and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been a valuable source of medicines for centuries and research has burgeoned in recent years to understand the scientific basis for their use. Some plants have been used in CHM for AD symptoms (e.g., Polygala tenuifolia), while others are CHMs for different conditions, but they show mechanistic effects relevant to AD (e...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806332/linking-deafness-and-dementia-challenges-and-opportunities
#18
Vincent Y W Lin, Sandra E Black
: The rising incidence of dementia locally and worldwide has now reached a critical level. The associated costs associated with these individuals will ultimately be untenable to most societies. Furthermore there is a paucity of highly effective treatments. However, the recent discovery of the association of hearing loss and dementia may open many potential opportunities. Although we still are acquiring knowledge on the pathophysiology of this association, clinicians are hopeful that our current highly effective treatments of hearing loss may ultimately be shown to have a positive effect on those with dementia...
September 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805587/osteoporosis-a-hidden-nonmotor-face-of-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Vinod Metta, Tamara C Sanchez, Chandrasekhara Padmakumar
Osteoporosis is a "hidden nonmotor face" of Parkinson's disease and a cause of considerable morbidity in the older general population and in Parkinson's disease patients. Some regard this as a "hidden epidemic." Women are overrepresented and have considerable problems related to osteoporosis. In general osteoporosis leads to reduced mobility aggravating the motor syndrome of PD. The nonmotor aspects and impact of osteoporosis in PD have remained unexplored. Possible nonmotor consequences include a range of pain syndromes related to local pain, fractures, falls, and injuries as well as pathological fractures and radiculopathy...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805571/palliative-care-and-nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-parkinsonism
#20
Nataliya Titova, K Ray Chaudhuri
The term palliative care (PC) is defined as a collection of interventions and strategies that helps to improve and sustain the quality of life of patients and caregivers in situations and scenarios associated with life-threatening illness. This is usually implemented by means of early identification and treatment of relevant motor and nonmotor issues such as pain, sleep, and autonomic dysfunction, dementia, and depression. In addition, a holistic PC program also includes delivery of physical, psychosocial, and spiritual support...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
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