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Dementia treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457487/dementia-management-strategies-associated-with-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-of-elderly-people-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Lais Lopes Delfino, Ricardo Shoiti Komatsu, Caroline Komatsu, Anita Liberalesso Neri, Meire Cachioni
This study aims to investigate the association between management and communication strategies and the presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms presented by elderly people with Alzheimer's disease. One hundred and thirty-four family caregivers answered a questionnaire with socio-demographic data and questions regarding the care context, the Small Communication Strategies Scale, the Dementia Management Strategy Scale, and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory. Caregivers used the criticism management strategy more when the elderly presented hallucination, agitation, depression, anxiety, irritability, nighttime behavior, and appetite abnormalities...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456869/cognitive-fluctuations-in-parkinson-s-disease-dementia-blood-pressure-lability-as-an-underlying-mechanism
#2
David E Riley, Alberto J Espay
Background: Cognitive fluctuations refer to alterations in cognition, attention, or arousal occurring over minutes to hours, most commonly in patients with dementias associated with advanced Lewy body pathology. Their pathophysiologic underpinning remains undetermined. Case presentation: We documented serial blood pressure (BP) measurements in an 86-year-old man with Parkinson's disease dementia experiencing cognitive fluctuations during an office visit. This patient's associated dysautonomia included labile BP with orthostatic hypotension and nocturnal hypertension...
2018: Journal of Clinical Movement Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454581/emerging-roles-of-microglial-cathepsins-in-neurodegenerative-disease
#3
REVIEW
Jessica R Lowry, Andis Klegeris
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the leading causes of dementia, and its prevalence is expected to increase dramatically due to the aging global population. Microglia-driven neuroinflammation may contribute to the progression of AD. Microglia, the immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS), become chronically activated by the pathological proteins of AD including amyloid-β peptides (Aβ). Such adversely activated microglia secrete mediators that promote inflammation and damage neurons. Cathepsins are proteases that are expressed by all brain cell types, and most of them are found both intra- and extra-cellularly...
February 15, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454305/psychotropic-and-anti-dementia-treatment-in-elderly-persons-with-clinical-signs-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-a-cross-sectional-study-in-40-nursing-homes-in-sweden
#4
Iris Zahirovic, Gustav Torisson, Carina Wattmo, Elisabet Londos
BACKGROUND: Elderly persons with a dementia diagnosis often suffer from different neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) such as delusions, hallucinations, depression, anxiety, irritability and agitation. Currently, the medical treatment for NPS consists mostly of psychotropic medication such as hypnotics/sedatives, anxiolytics and antipsychotics. In elderly persons with dementia, usage of antipsychotics is less appropriate because of the risk of side effects such as parkinsonism, rapid cognitive decline, cerebrovascular events and finally mortality...
February 17, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453873/association-between-pemphigus-and-neurologic-diseases
#5
Khalaf Kridin, Shira Zelber-Sagi, Doron Comaneshter, Arnon D Cohen
Importance: The association between pemphigus and neurologic diseases was not evaluated systematically in the past. In a recent uncontrolled cross-sectional study, Parkinson disease was found to be significantly associated with pemphigus; in the same study, epilepsy had a nonsignificant association with pemphigus. Several case reports have suggested that pemphigus coexists with multiple sclerosis and dementia. Objective: To estimate the association between pemphigus and 4 neurologic conditions (dementia, epilepsy, Parkinson disease, and multiple sclerosis), using one of the largest cohorts of patients with pemphigus...
February 16, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453339/a-role-for-tau-in-learning-memory-and-synaptic-plasticity
#6
Fabrizio Biundo, Dolores Del Prete, Hong Zhang, Ottavio Arancio, Luciano D'Adamio
Tau plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders: mutations in the gene encoding for tau (MAPT) are linked to Fronto-temporal Dementia (FTD) and hyper-phosphorylated aggregates of tau forming neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) that constitute a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD) and FTD. Accordingly, tau is a favored therapeutic target for the treatment of these diseases. Given the criticality of tau to dementia's pathogenesis and therapy, it is important to understand the physiological function of tau in the central nervous system...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450105/infection-versus-hematoma-following-surgical-treatment-of-proximal-femoral-fractures-in-geriatric-patients
#7
Franz Müller, Michael Galler, Christina Roll, Bernd Füchtmeier
Introduction: The surgical treatment of proximal femoral fractures predominantly involves geriatric patients and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. However, analyses on postoperative infections or hematoma are rare. Methods: Patients requiring surgical revision due to infection (n = 90) or hematoma (n = 77) in the postoperative phase were identified from an electronic database of 2000 consecutive patients surgically treated for proximal femoral fractures between 2006 and 2014...
2018: Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448852/memantine-in-japanese-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-alzheimer-s-disease-meta-analysis-of-multiple-index-responder-analyses
#8
Kaoru Okuizumi, Teruyoshi Kamata, Daiju Matsui, Kengo Saito, Takuyuki Matsumoto, Yoshikazu Fukuchi
BACKGROUND: Responder analyses assessing clinical worsening have attempted to clarify clinically meaningful drug efficacy enhancements in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a meta-analysis of two multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, 24-week studies of 633 Japanese patients with moderate to severe AD receiving memantine 20 mg/day (n = 318) or placebo (n = 315). The clinical trial registration number is UMIN000026013...
February 16, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446769/vascular-cognitive-impairment
#9
REVIEW
Wiesje M van der Flier, Ingmar Skoog, Julie A Schneider, Leonardo Pantoni, Vincent Mok, Christopher L H Chen, Philip Scheltens
The term vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) was introduced around the start of the new millennium and refers to the contribution of vascular pathology to any severity of cognitive impairment, ranging from subjective cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment to dementia. Although vascular pathology is common in elderly individuals with cognitive decline, pure vascular dementia (that is, dementia caused solely by vascular pathology) is uncommon. Indeed, most patients with vascular dementia also have other types of pathology, the most common of which is Alzheimer disease (specifically, the diffuse accumulation of amyloid-β plaques and neurofibrillary tangles composed of tau)...
February 15, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445414/effects-of-a-new-nutraceutical-combination-on-cognitive-function-in-hypertensive-patients
#10
Giuseppe Giugliano, Alessia Salemme, Sara De Longis, Marialuisa Perrotta, Valentina D'Angelosante, Alessandro Landolfi, Raffaele Izzo, Valentina Trimarco
Background: Chronic increased arterial blood pressure has been associated with executive dysfunction, slowing of attention and mental processing speed, and later with memory deficits. Due to the absence of a concrete therapeutic approach to this pathophysiological process, in the last decades there has been an increasing interest in the use of nutraceuticals, especially those with antioxidant properties, which own strong neuroprotective potential, that may help to improve cognitive function and to delay the onset of dementia...
2018: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439581/association-between-dementia-severity-and-recommended-lifestyle-changes-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#11
Timothy Thoits, Alison Dutkiewicz, Sarah Raguckas, Michael Lawrence, Jessica Parker, Jacob Keeley, Nicholas Andersen, Martha VanDyken, Maegan Hatfield-Eldred
OBJECTIVE: Early diagnosis of dementia leads to early treatment which is beneficial to patients and the community. We reviewed initial evaluations from the Spectrum Health Medical Group Neurocognitive Clinic (SHMGNC) to evaluate dementia stage at the time of diagnosis. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 110 randomly chosen initial evaluations from September 2008 to December 2015 at the SHMGNC. Patients underwent a neurological examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, and a battery of neuropsychological testing...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439352/linking-atrial-fibrillation-with-alzheimer-s-disease-epidemiological-pathological-and-mechanistic-evidence
#12
Masafumi Ihara, Kazuo Washida
Many studies have shown a relationship between atrial fibrillation (AF) and vascular dementia. AF is a major risk factor for stroke, and stroke is the greatest risk factor for vascular dementia. However, the relationship between Alzheimer's disease (AD), the leading cause of dementia, and AF remains unclear. At least four epidemiological studies have reported AF significantly raises the risk of AD 1.5- to 2.5-fold. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, resulting from persistent AF, could explain the link as hypoperfusion may mechanistically exacerbate amyloid-β (Aβ) neuropathology, such as senile plaques and amyloid angiopathy, by upregulating Aβ-producing enzymes and lowering Aβ clearance efficiency...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439347/quantifying-the-diagnostic-pathway-for-patients-with-cognitive-impairment-real-world-data-from-seven-european-and-north-american-countries
#13
Craig W Ritchie, Christopher M Black, Rezaul K Khandker, Robert Wood, Eddie Jones, Xiaohan Hu, Baishali M Ambegaonkar
To ensure that patients with dementia and their caregivers receive appropriate treatment and support, early diagnosis is essential but remains challenging. Real-world data from a multi-national, cross-sectional survey of physicians and their patients were analyzed to quantify the diagnostic pathway for dementia, including a focus on severity of patients' cognitive impairment (CI) at the time of symptom onset, referral and subsequent diagnosis. Data were collected for 7,620 patients with CI. Most patients saw a healthcare professional within 1 year of first symptoms and received a diagnosis within 3-7 months of initial consultation...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439346/chinese-herbal-medicine-for-vascular-dementia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-high-quality-randomized-controlled-trials
#14
Qing-Qing Xu, Chun-Shuo Shan, Yong Wang, Yi-Hua Shi, Qi-Hao Zhang, Guo-Qing Zheng
BACKGROUND: Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second common form of dementia and Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been used for aging-related disorders for thousands of years. However, there is still a lack of scientific evidence using CHM for VaD. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review to assess the current evidence available for the effectiveness and safety of CHM for VaD. METHODS: Six databases were searched for high-quality randomized-controlled clinical trials that met the requirements of at least 4 of the 7 domains of the Cochrane risk of bias tool from their inception to February 2017...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439338/multi-parametric-classification-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-the-impact-of-diverse-cerebrovascular-injury-biomarkers
#15
Brittany Lang, Mark S Kindy, F Andrew Kozel, Susan K Schultz, Saeid Taheri
Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) is a diagnostic term applied to cognitively impaired individuals with heterogeneous cerebrovascular conditions affecting large and/or small vessels. Individual biomarkers have been identified as instrumental in relating VCID to specific underlying pathologies to better characterize this syndrome. Emerging research to refine panels of biomarkers will increase classification sensitivity and specificity. Refined VCID clustering based on the severity and pathology of vascular injury will permit the development of optimal prevention and treatment strategies...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439326/is-there-a-characteristic-clinical-profile-for-patients-with-dementia-and-sundown-syndrome
#16
David Angulo Sevilla, María Teresa Carreras Rodríguez, Patricia Heredia Rodríguez, Marisa Fernández Sánchez, José Aurelio Vivancos Mora, Ana Beatriz Gago-Veiga
BACKGROUND: Sundown syndrome (SS) is the onset or worsening of behavioral symptoms in the evening in patients with dementia. OBJECTIVE: To identify the differential clinical profile of patients with dementia who present SS. METHODS: A cross-sectional, case-control observational study was conducted by retrospectively reviewing the medical records of patients with dementia in a specialized Memory Unit. We compared the characteristics of patients with and without SS, including sociodemographic variables, etiology, and severity of the dementia, behavioral symptoms, sleep disorders (considering insomnia and hypersomnia), other diseases and treatments employed...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439085/idea-intervention-to-prevent-depressive-symptoms-and-promote-well-being-in-early-stage-dementia-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-feasibility-study
#17
Remco Tuijt, Gill Livingston, Rebecca L Gould, Rebecca Jones, Elisabet Sole Verdaguer, Vasiliki Orgeta
OBJECTIVE: Depressive symptoms are common among people with dementia, impacting quality of life and cognitive and functional decline. Currently, little is known about the acceptability and feasibility of psychological interventions for people with mild dementia, with recent reviews identifying the need for further evidence. Developing and evaluating psychological interventions to prevent and treat these symptoms is, therefore, an important clinical and research priority. This protocol describes a study testing the acceptability and feasibility of a manual-based behavioural activation (BA) intervention for preventing and treating depressive symptoms in people with mild dementia...
February 8, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437306/clinical-predictors-of-ceftriaxone-resistance-in-microorganisms-causing-febrile-urinary-tract-infections-in-men
#18
Javier Ramos Lázaro, Alex Smithson, Neus Jovè Vidal, María Teresa Batida Vila
OBJECTIVES: Because of high rates of resistance to fluoroquinolones, ceftriaxone has become one of the main options for treating febrile urinary tract infection (FUTI). This study aimed to identify predictors of ceftriaxone resistance in community-acquired FUTIs in men. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cross-sectional ambispective study enrolling men with FUTIs treated in the emergency department of a local area hospital in Spain. RESULTS: A total of 552 FUTI episodes were studied; 103 (18...
February 2018: Emergencias: revista de la Sociedad Española de Medicina de Emergencias
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437244/epothilone-d-correct-drug-wrong-disease
#19
EDITORIAL
Yazi D Ke, Lars M Ittner
Changes to the neuronal cytoskeleton, and in particular to microtubules, have been implicated in a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). As such, there are growing reports of microtubules-modulating drugs used to treat neurodegeneration in mice. For example, long-term treatment of a mutant tau transgenic mouse model of FTD and AD with low doses of the cancer drug Epothilone D (EpoD), a microtubule stabilizing compound, reduced cognitive deficits in young animals [1] and improved neuropathology in aged animals [2], without overt side effects...
February 13, 2018: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436440/systematic-review-of-the-efficacy-of-statins-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Marta Mejías-Trueba, María Antonia Pérez-Moreno, María Ángeles Fernández-Arche
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia. Recent studies have assessed the possibility of using statins as treatment for AD. However, their efficacy is not clear. In this study, we collected the most relevant information about the efficacy of statins for the treatment of AD. We conducted a systematic literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library. We included clinical trials, meta-analyses and systematic reviews that analysed the efficacy of statins in AD. We also extracted the characteristics and efficacy results of the studies selected...
February 2018: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
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