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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222544/association-of-age-related-hearing-loss-with-cognitive-function-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
David G Loughrey, Michelle E Kelly, George A Kelley, Sabina Brennan, Brian A Lawlor
Importance: Epidemiologic research on the possible link between age-related hearing loss (ARHL) and cognitive decline and dementia has produced inconsistent results. Clarifying this association is of interest because ARHL may be a risk factor for outcomes of clinical dementia. Objectives: To examine and estimate the association between ARHL and cognitive function, cognitive impairment, and dementia through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Data Sources and Study Selection: A search of PubMed, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and SCOPUS from inception to April 15, 2016, with cross-referencing of retrieved studies and personal files for potentially eligible studies was performed...
December 7, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221491/a-phase-iii-randomized-trial-of-gantenerumab-in-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Susanne Ostrowitzki, Robert A Lasser, Ernest Dorflinger, Philip Scheltens, Frederik Barkhof, Tania Nikolcheva, Elizabeth Ashford, Sylvie Retout, Carsten Hofmann, Paul Delmar, Gregory Klein, Mirjana Andjelkovic, Bruno Dubois, Mercè Boada, Kaj Blennow, Luca Santarelli, Paulo Fontoura
BACKGROUND: Gantenerumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that binds aggregated amyloid-β (Aβ) and removes Aβ plaques by Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis. In the SCarlet RoAD trial, we assessed the efficacy and safety of gantenerumab in prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study, we investigated gantenerumab over 2 years. Patients were randomized to gantenerumab 105 mg or 225 mg or placebo every 4 weeks by subcutaneous injection...
December 8, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220880/development-of-a-new-biochip-array-for-apoe4-classification-from-plasma-samples-using-immunoassay-based-methods
#3
Sigrun Badrnya, Tara Doherty, Ciaran Richardson, Robert I McConnell, John V Lamont, Michael Veitinger, Stephen P FitzGerald, Maria Zellner, Ellen Umlauf
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is a key player in lipid transport and metabolism and exists in three common isoforms: APOE2, APOE3 and APOE4. The presence of the E4 allelic variant is recognized as a major genetic risk factor for dementia and other chronic (neuro)degenerative diseases. The availability of a validated assay for rapid and reliable APOE4 classification is therefore advantageous. METHODS: Biochip array technology (BAT) was successfully applied to identify directly the APOE4 status from plasma within 3 h, through simultaneous immunoassay-based detection of both specific APOE4 and total APOE levels...
December 7, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219936/end-of-life-care-discussion-for-residents-with-dementia-in-long-term-care-facilities
#4
Hsiu-Li Huang, Li-Chueh Weng, WeWen-Yu Hu, Yea-Ing Lotus Shyu, Wen-Pin Yu, Kang-Hua Chen
BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals play an important role in end-of-life care decisions. Although the factors affecting end-of-life care in long-term care facilities have been well studied in Western contexts, few studies have examined factors affecting end-of-life care discussions for residents with dementia among multidisciplinary professionals in Asian or Taiwanese contexts. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to explore the factors related to the end-of-life care discussions of registered nurses, social workers, and physicians with residents with dementia and their families...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216341/use-and-importance-of-nonhuman-primates-in-metabolic-disease-research-current-state-of-the-field
#5
Peter J Havel, Paul Kievit, Anthony G Comuzzie, Andrew A Bremer
Obesity and its multiple metabolic sequelae, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and fatty liver disease, are becoming increasingly widespread in both the developed and developing world. There is an urgent need to identify new approaches for the prevention and treatment of these costly and prevalent metabolic conditions. Accomplishing this will require the use of appropriate animal models for preclinical and translational investigations in metabolic disease research. Although studies in rodent models are often useful for target/pathway identification and testing hypotheses, there are important differences in metabolic physiology between rodents and primates, and experimental findings in rodent models have often failed to be successfully translated into new, clinically useful therapeutic modalities in humans...
December 5, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214114/calcium-dysregulation-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-target-for-new-drug-development
#6
Yong Wang, Yun Shi, Huafeng Wei
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause of dementia among aged people whose population is rapidly increasing. AD not only seriously affects the patient's physical health and quality of life, but also adds a heavy burden to the patient's family and society. It is urgent to understand AD pathogenesis and develop the means of prevention and treatment. AD is a chronic devastating neurodegenerative disease without effective treatment. Current approaches for management focus on helping patients relieve or delay the symptoms of cognitive dysfunction...
August 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Parkinsonism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212555/study-partners-should-be-required-in-preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease-trials
#7
REVIEW
Joshua D Grill, Jason Karlawish
BACKGROUND: In an effort to intervene earlier in Alzheimer's disease (AD), clinical trials are testing promising candidate therapies in preclinical disease. Preclinical AD trial participants are cognitively normal, functionally independent, and autonomous decision-makers. Yet, like AD dementia trials, preclinical trials require dual enrollment of a participant and a knowledgeable informant, or study partner. MAIN TEXT: The requirement of dyadic enrollment is a barrier to recruitment and may present unique ethical challenges...
December 6, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212461/widespread-enlarged-perivascular-spaces-associated-with-dementia-and-focal-brain-dysfunction-case-report
#8
Daisuke Taniguchi, Hideki Shimura, Masao Watanabe, Nobutaka Hattori, Takao Urabe
BACKGROUND: Enlarged perivascular spaces (PVS) are common magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, whereas widespread enlarged PVS are extremely rare. Although most patients with widespread enlarged PVS remain asymptomatic, some develop neurological dysfunctions; however, it remains unclear whether these are the consequence of widespread enlarged PVS. CASE PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old female patient developed consciousness disturbance, cognitive dysfunctions, fluent aphasia, agraphia, acalculia, and left-right disorientation after suffering from bronchopneumonia...
December 7, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210299/new-cyclopentaquinoline-hybrids-with-multifunctional-capacities-for-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Kamila Czarnecka, Małgorzata Girek, Karolina Maciejewska, Robert Skibiński, Jakub Jończyk, Marek Bajda, Jacek Kabziński, Przemysław Sołowiej, Ireneusz Majsterek, Paweł Szymański
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common progressive form of brain neurodegeneration and the most prevailing cause of dementia. Unfortunately, the aetiology of AD is not completely studied but different factors are associated with the development of AD such as among others low level of acetylcholine, aggregation of β-amyloid (Aβ), hyperphosphorylated tau protein, oxidative stress, and inflammation. The study encompass organic syntheses of 2,3-dihydro-1H-cyclopenta[b]quinoline with 5,6-dichloronicotinic acid and suitable linkers derivatives as multifunctional agents for AD treatment...
December 2017: Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209402/analgesics-in-the-management-of-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-a-perspective-review
#10
REVIEW
Rajesh R Tampi, Corey Hassell, Pallavi Joshi, Deena J Tampi
The objective of this review was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of analgesics in reducing behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) among older adults from published randomized controlled trials (RCTs). A literature search was conducted of PubMed, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, PsycINFO, and Cochrane collaboration databases for RCTs in the English language that evaluated the use of analgesics in reducing the severity of BPSD among older adults. Additionally, references of full-text articles that were included in this review were searched for extra studies...
2017: Drugs in Context
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209381/do-patients-want-to-listen-to-a-diagnosis-of-dementia-in-korea-preferences-on-disclosing-a-diagnosis-of-dementia-and-discussing-advance-care-planning-in-elderly-patients-with-memory-concerns-and-their-families
#11
Joon Hyung Jung, Min Joo Kim, Soo-Hee Choi, Na Young Han, Jee Eun Park, Hye Youn Park, Ji Won Han, Dong Young Lee, Hye Yoon Park
Objective: In this study, we aimed to investigate preferences regarding the disclosure of a dementia diagnosis and advance care planning (ACP) in patients with memory complaints and their families. Methods: A total of 98 patients who visited the department of psychiatry at a tertiary hospital with memory complaints and 62 family members completed a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire included preferences on disclosure of dementia and cancer diagnosis, awareness and preferences on ACP...
November 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209266/current-opportunities-for-clinical-monitoring-of-axonal-pathology-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
REVIEW
Parmenion P Tsitsopoulos, Sami Abu Hamdeh, Niklas Marklund
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a multidimensional and highly complex disease commonly resulting in widespread injury to axons, due to rapid inertial acceleration/deceleration forces transmitted to the brain during impact. Axonal injury leads to brain network dysfunction, significantly contributing to cognitive and functional impairments frequently observed in TBI survivors. Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a clinical entity suggested by impaired level of consciousness and coma on clinical examination and characterized by widespread injury to the hemispheric white matter tracts, the corpus callosum and the brain stem...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209220/the-traditional-japanese-herbal-medicine-hachimijiogan-elicits-neurite-outgrowth-effects-in-pc12-cells-and-improves-cognitive-in-ad-model-rats-via-phosphorylation-of-creb
#13
Kaori Kubota, Haruka Fukue, Hitomi Sato, Kana Hashimoto, Aya Fujikane, Hiroshi Moriyama, Takuya Watanabe, Shutaro Katsurabayashi, Mosaburo Kainuma, Katsunori Iwasaki
Hachimijiogan (HJG) is a traditional herbal medicine that improves anxiety disorders in patients with dementia. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that HJG exerts neurotrophic factor-like effects to ameliorate memory impairment in Alzheimer disease (AD) model rats. First, we describe that HJG acts to induce neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells (a rat pheochromocytoma cell line) like nerve growth factor (NGF) in a concentration-dependent manner (3 μg/ml HJG, p < 0.05; 10-500 μg/ml HJG, p < 0.001). While six herbal constituents of HJG, Rehmannia root, Dioscorea rhizome, Rhizoma Alismatis, Poria sclerotium, Moutan bark, and Cinnamon bark, could induce neurite outgrowth effects, the effect was strongest with HJG (500 μg/ml)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209218/nootropic-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-dichrocephala-integrifolia-on-scopolamine-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Nadège E Kouémou, Germain S Taiwe, Fleur C O Moto, Simon Pale, Gwladys T Ngoupaye, Jacqueline S K Njapdounke, Gisèle C N Nkantchoua, David B Pahaye, Elisabeth Ngo Bum
Alzheimer's disease the most common form of dementia in the elderly is a neurodegenerative disease that affects 44 millions of people worldwide. The first treatments against Alzheimer's disease are acetylcholinesterase inhibitors; however, these medications are associated with many side effects. Dichrocephala integrifolia is a traditional herb widely used by indigenous population of Cameroon to treat and prevent Alzheimer's disease and for memory improvement. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the decoction prepared from leaves of D...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209201/do-lifestyle-activities-protect-against-cognitive-decline-in-aging-a-review
#15
Gregory J Christie, Tara Hamilton, Bradley D Manor, Norman A S Farb, Faranak Farzan, Andrew Sixsmith, Jean-Jacques Temprado, Sylvain Moreno
The number of patients suffering from dementia is expected to more than triple by the year 2040, and this represents a major challenge to publicly-funded healthcare systems throughout the world. One of the most effective prevention mechanisms against dementia lies in increasing brain- and cognitive-reserve capacity, which has been found to reduce the behavioral severity of dementia symptoms as neurological degeneration progresses. To date though, most of the factors known to enhance this reserve stem from largely immutable history factors, such as level of education and occupational attainment...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208638/the-diphenylpyrazole-compound-anle138b-blocks-a%C3%AE-channels-and-rescues-disease-phenotypes-in-a-mouse-model-for-amyloid-pathology
#16
Ana Martinez Hernandez, Hendrik Urbanke, Alan L Gillman, Joon Lee, Sergey Ryazanov, Hope Y Agbemenyah, Eva Benito, Gaurav Jain, Lalit Kaurani, Gayane Grigorian, Andrei Leonov, Nasrollah Rezaei-Ghaleh, Petra Wilken, Fernando Teran Arce, Jens Wagner, Martin Fuhrman, Mario Caruana, Angelique Camilleri, Neville Vassallo, Markus Zweckstetter, Roland Benz, Armin Giese, Anja Schneider, Martin Korte, Ratnesh Lal, Christian Griesinger, Gregor Eichele, Andre Fischer
Alzheimer's disease is a devastating neurodegenerative disease eventually leading to dementia. An effective treatment does not yet exist. Here we show that oral application of the compound anle138b restores hippocampal synaptic and transcriptional plasticity as well as spatial memory in a mouse model for Alzheimer's disease, when given orally before or after the onset of pathology. At the mechanistic level, we provide evidence that anle138b blocks the activity of conducting Aβ pores without changing the membrane embedded Aβ-oligomer structure...
December 5, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207901/repeated-treatment-with-the-%C3%AE-2-adrenoceptor-agonist-uk-14304-improves-cognitive-performance-in-middle-age-rats-role-of-hippocampal-fas-associated-death-domain
#17
Elena Hernández-Hernández, Antonio Miralles, Susana Esteban, M Julia García-Fuster
The cell fate regulator Fas-associated death domain (FADD) balances cell death with non-apoptotic actions via its phosphorylated form. A recent study associated loss of cortical FADD with cognitive decline and increased risk of clinical dementia. Since the activation of cortical α2A-adrenoceptors improved memory deficits in various animal models of working memory loss, the present study evaluated whether UK-14304, an α2-adrenoceptor agonist known to acutely regulate brain FADD forms, would improve cognitive function in middle-aged rats...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207114/elderly-apolipoprotein-e%C3%A2-%C3%A2-mice-with-advanced-atherosclerotic-lesions-in-the-aorta-do-not-develop-alzheimer-s-disease-like-pathologies
#18
Reut Shnerb Ganor, Dror Harats, Ginette Schiby, Kinneret Rosenblatt, Irit Lubitz, Aviv Shaish, Ophira Salomon
Atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Western societies. These diseases share common risk factors, which are exhibited in old age, including hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and apolipoprotein (Apo) ε4 allele. We previously demonstrated that factor XI (FXI) deficiency in mice reduced the atherosclerotic plaque area in coronary sinuses and the aortic arch. This led us to investigate whether FXI deficiency in elderly ApoE knockout (KO) mice would decrease pathological alterations compatible with atherosclerosis and AD...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206481/age-memory-loss-and-perceptions-of-dementia-in-south-asian-ethnic-minorities
#19
Clarissa M Giebel, Angela Worden, David Challis, David Jolley, Kamaldeep Singh Bhui, Ahmed Lambat, Eleni Kampanellou, Nitin Purandare
BACKGROUND: South Asian older adults are represented less frequently in mainstream mental health services or those for people with dementia. This study aimed to explore in detail the perceptions of dementia (symptoms, causes, consequences, treatments) held by South Asians and to discern how these understandings vary by age and by the self-recognition of memory problems, as these influence help-seeking behaviour. METHODS: Participants were allocated to three groups: younger adults; older adults; and older adults with subjective memory problems...
December 5, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206286/recognition-of-delirium-features-in-clinical-practice-data-from-the-delirium-day-2015-national-survey
#20
Enrico Mossello, Francesca Tesi, Simona G Di Santo, Andrea Mazzone, Monica Torrini, Antonio Cherubini, Mario Bo, Massimo Musicco, Angelo Bianchetti, Alberto Ferrari, Nicola Ferrara, Marco Trabucchi, Alessandro Morandi, Giuseppe Bellelli
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Delirium is underrecognized in clinical practice. The primary aim of the present multicenter study was to compare the ability of nurses to identify delirium features with a standardized assessment. The secondary aim was to identify predictors of missed or incorrect identifications of delirium by nurses. DESIGN: Point prevalence study in 120 wards across Italy. SETTING: "Delirium Day 2015." PARTICIPANTS: Inpatients aged 65 and older (N = 1,867)...
December 5, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
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