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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047301/pimavanserin-novel-pharmacotherapy-for-parkinson-s-disease-psychosis
#1
Zeyad T Sahli, Frank I Tarazi
Pimavanserin is the first FDA-approved atypical antipsychotic drug indicated for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with Parkinson's disease psychosis (PDP). Areas covered: This review focuses on the preclinical discovery of pimavanserin. It analyzes the pharmacological, behavioral and molecular mechanisms of pimavanserin and their contribution to the therapeutic advantages of the drug as reported in published preclinical and clinical studies, and product labels. Expert opinion: Pimavanserin exhibits a unique pharmacological profile with nanomolar affinity at serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C receptors...
October 19, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046472/-surgical-treatment-of-a-giant-olfactory-groove-schwannoma-a-case-report
#2
Takashi Fujii, Naoki Otani, Kazuma Doi, Masataka Miyama, Yohei Otsuka, Takashi Matsumoto, Toru Yoshiura, Satoru Takeuchi, Satoshi Tomura, Arata Tomiyama, Terushige Toyooka, Kojiro Wada, Kentaro Mori
Schwannomas originating from the olfactory nerve are extremely rare because the olfactory nerve does not normally contain Schwann cells. We describe a case of a giant schwannoma of the olfactory groove. A 73-year-old woman presented with anosmia persisting for 10 months. Head computed tomography(CT)for head trauma at another hospital demonstrated a tumor lesion located in the left frontal lobe and paranasal sinus. She had never suffered epilepsy, and past medical history and family history identified no indicators...
October 2017: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046153/potential-therapeutics-for-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#3
Miao-Kun Sun
As the human lifespan increases, the number of people affected by age-related dementia is growing at an epidemic pace. Vascular pathology dramatically affects cognitive profiles, resulting in dementia and cognitive impairment. While vascular dementia itself constitutes a medical challenge, hypoperfusion/vascular risk factors enhance amyloid toxicity and other memory-damaging factors and hasten Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other memory disorders' progression, as well as negatively affect treatment outcome. Few therapeutic options are, however, currently available to improve the prognosis of patients with vascular dementia and cognitive impairment, mixed AD dementia with vascular pathology, or other memory disorders...
October 16, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045769/placebo-effects-in-the-treatment-of-noncognitive-symptoms-of-alzheimer-s-disease-analysis-of-the-catie-ad-data
#4
Chisa Ozawa, Rachel Roberts, Kazunari Yoshida, Takefumi Suzuki, Barry Lebowitz, Suzanne Reeves, Robert Howard, Takayuki Abe, Masaru Mimura, Hiroyuki Uchida
OBJECTIVE: To compare symptom trajectories between placebo and active drug responders and to examine whether early placebo improvement would be associated with subsequent placebo response in the treatment of patients with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. METHODS: A post hoc analysis of data from 371 patients with DSM-IV Alzheimer's disease in Phase 1 of the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness for Alzheimer's disease (CATIE-AD) (April 2001 to November 2004) was conducted...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042785/mlc601-in-vascular-dementia-an-efficacy-and-safety-pilot-study
#5
Hossein Pakdaman, Ali Amini Harandi, Koroush Gharagozli, Mehdi Abbasi, Majid Ghaffarpour, Farzad Ashrafi, Hosein Delavar Kasmaei, Asghar Amini Harandi
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most common cause of dementia and currently there is scarcity of therapies for VaD. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of MLC601 in the treatment of VaD. METHODS: In this multicenter, pilot, randomized, double-blind trial, 82 patients with VaD according to DSM-5 criteria received MLC601 or placebo capsules three times a day for 2 years. The primary efficacy end-point was evaluated by comparing Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) score between the two groups over 2 years of study...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037342/-pharmacological-treatment-of-apathy-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#6
Jorge Carlos Holguín Lew, Jessica Caamaño Jaraba, Alejandra Gómez Alzate, Catalina Hidalgo López, Daniel Felipe Marino Mondragón, Sebastián Restrepo Moreno, Liz Evelin Rico Abella
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Apathy, defined as a deficit for initiating and maintaining action, is a symptom affecting patients with diverse psychiatric and neuropsychiatric diseases, including dementia, sequelae of traumatic brain injury, schizophrenia, depression, and Parkinson's disease (PD). Apathy negatively affects function and quality of life of PD patients, and it is an important cause of caregiver's distress. The pharmacological treatment of apathy in PD is the focus of this systematic review...
October 2017: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037339/-beyond-cognitive-impairment-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-neurodegenerative-dementias
#7
Luisa Fernanda Ahunca Velásquez
As life expectancy increases, the number of people diagnosed with neurodegenerative dementia also increases. Although cognitive impairment is central in dementia, neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are very important because they increase both direct and indirect costs by generating greater morbidity, caregiver distress, use of medication and institutionalisation. Furthermore, it is important to understand the nature of NPS, since they can vary across the different types of dementia and may provide useful clinical information regarding the aetiology of cognitive impairment...
October 2017: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036854/functional-repertoire-of-interleukin-6-in-the-central-nervous-system-a-review
#8
Klaus Heese
In an aging society with dementia imposing an increasing threat to higher brain cognitive functions, understanding the molecular and cellular events of adult neurogenesis is imperative. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), along with its agonistic acting soluble receptor sIL-6R (the combined proteins are also known as Hyper-IL-6), is a promising cytokine that can support neurogenesis under conditions of neurodegeneration when neuron replacement is needed. In contrast to the previously reported gliogenic effects of activation of the IL-6-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) axis, this review summarizes recent studies showing that IL-6 activation can be neurogenic and has potential therapeutic applications for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease...
October 9, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036823/prevalence-and-correlates-of-behavioral-disorders-in-old-age-subjects-with-cognitive-impairment-results-from-the-regal-project
#9
Virginia Boccardi, Manuela Conestabile Della Staffa, Marta Baroni, Sara Ercolani, Michele Francesco Croce, Carmelinda Ruggiero, Patrizia Mecocci
BACKGROUND: Presence of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) is very common in subjects with cognitive impairment, representing an important determinant of disease progression, institutionalization, and worse prognosis. Knowledge of the prevalence and correlates of BPSD in community-living old subjects with cognitive impairment is limited so far, but it is essential for establishing specifically tailored care and cure in such a vulnerable population. OBJECTIVE: With this study, we aimed at investigating, in a large sample of old age subjects with cognitive impairment, BPSD prevalence and correlates including the main demographic, clinical, and socio-environmental characteristics...
October 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035934/dextrometorphan-paroxetine-but-not-dronabinol-effective-for-treatment-resistant-aggression-and-agitation-in-an-elderly-patient-with-lewy-body-dementia
#10
Robert Wilhelm, Björn Ahl, Ion-George Anghelescu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035423/dementia-risk-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-the-relevance-of-sleep-related-abnormalities-in-brain-structure-amyloid-and-inflammation
#11
REVIEW
Brian S Mohlenhoff, Aoife O'Donovan, Michael W Weiner, Thomas C Neylan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased risk for dementia, yet mechanisms are poorly understood. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent literature suggests several potential mechanisms by which sleep impairments might contribute to the increased risk of dementia observed in PTSD. First, molecular, animal, and imaging studies indicate that sleep problems lead to cellular damage in brain structures crucial to learning and memory. Second, recent studies have shown that lack of sleep might precipitate the accumulation of harmful amyloid proteins...
October 16, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034839/pharmacogenetics-of-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-dementia
#12
Fabricio Ferreira de Oliveira, Elizabeth Suchi Chen, Marilia Cardoso Smith, Paulo Henrique Ferreira Bertolucci
BACKGROUND: While the angiotensin-converting enzyme degrades amyloid-β, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) may slow cognitive decline by way of cholinergic effects, by increasing brain substance P and boosting the activity of neprilysin, and by modulating glucose homeostasis and augmenting the secretion of adipokines to enhance insulin sensitivity in patients with Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD). We aimed to investigate whether ACE gene polymorphisms rs1800764 and rs4291 are associated with cognitive and functional change in patients with AD, while also taking APOE haplotypes and anti-hypertensive treatment with ACEis into account for stratification...
October 16, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033972/clinical-spectrum-risk-factors-and-behavioral-abnormalities-among-dementia-subtypes-in-a-north-indian-population-a-hospital-based-study
#13
Suman Kushwaha, Puneet Talwar, Aldrin Anthony, Meena Gupta, Kiran Bala, Rachna Agarwal, Vibha Sharma, Ritushree Kukreti
BACKGROUND: As variability in the clinical profile of dementia subtypes had been reported with regional differences across the world, we conducted a retrospective hospital-based study in a North Indian population. METHODS: We retrieved patient records from 2007 to 2014 for details of clinical evaluation, diagnosis, neuroimaging, biochemical investigations, and follow-up of 1,876 patients with dementia (PwD), and the data were analyzed using descriptive statistics...
May 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031901/als-and-ftd-insights-into-the-disease-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-targets
#14
Rajka M Liscic
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) are neurodegenerative disorders, related by signs of deteriorating motor and cognitive functions, and short survival. The causes are still largely unknown and no effective treatment currently exists. It has been shown that FTLD may coexist with ALS. The overlap between ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), the clinical syndrome associated with FTLD, occurs at clinical, genetic, and pathological levels. The hallmark proteins of the pathognomonic inclusions are SOD-1, TDP-43 or FUS, rarely the disease is caused by mutations in the respective genes...
October 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031515/association-of-antidementia-drugs-and-mortality-in-community-dwelling-frail-older-patients-with-dementia-the-role-of-mortality-risk-assessment
#15
Alberto Pilotto, Maria Cristina Polidori, Nicola Veronese, Francesco Panza, Rosa Arboretti Giancristofaro, Andrea Pilotto, Julia Daragjati, Eleonora Carrozzo, Camilla Prete, Pietro Gallina, Alessandro Padovani, Stefania Maggi
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether treatment with antidementia drugs is associated with reduced mortality in older patients with different mortality risk at baseline. DESIGN: Retrospective. SETTING: Community-dwelling. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 6818 older people who underwent a Standardized Multidimensional Assessment Schedule for Adults and Aged Persons (SVaMA) evaluation to determine accessibility to homecare services or nursing home admission from 2005 to 2013 in the Padova Health District, Italy were included...
October 11, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029571/encoding-strategy-training-and-self-reported-everyday-prospective-memory-in-people-with-parkinson-disease-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Susan Goedeken, Cathryne Potempa, Eliza M Prager, Erin R Foster
Objective To compare the effects of laboratory-based training in implementation intentions (II; experimental strategy) and verbal rehearsal (VR; control strategy) on self-reported everyday prospective memory among people with Parkinson disease (PD) and to investigate potential correlates of change in self-reported everyday prospective memory in response to this training. Method This was a randomized-controlled trial. Participants with mild to moderate PD without dementia underwent one session of training in either II (n = 25) or VR (n = 27)...
October 13, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027841/diffusion-tensor-tractography-in-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-correlation-with-cognitive-function
#17
Maria M D'Souza, S P Gorthi, Kunal Vadwala, Richa Trivedi, C Vijayakumar, Prabhjot Kaur, Subash Khushu
Background Patients with cerebral small vessel disease may suffer from varying levels of cognitive deficit and may progress on to vascular dementia. The extent of involvement, as seen on conventional magnetic resonance (MR) measures, correlates poorly with the level of cognitive decline. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as a marker for white matter damage in small vessel disease and to assess its correlation with cognitive function. Methods Thirty consecutive patients with cerebral small vessel disease underwent conventional MR imaging, DTI, and neuropsychological assessment...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026292/the-effects-of-holistic-health-group-interventions-on-improving-the-cognitive-ability-of-persons-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Kim-Wan Young, Petrus Ng, Timothy Kwok, Daphne Cheng
PURPOSE: Persons with mild cognitive impairment (PwMCI) are at a higher risk of developing dementia than those without cognitive impairment. This research study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a holistic health group intervention, which is based on the holistic brain health approach as well as an Eastern approach to health care, on improving the cognitive ability of Chinese PwMCI. RESEARCH METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial (RCT), 38 Chinese PwMCI were randomly assigned to either a 10-session holistic health intervention group or the control group...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026290/mindfulness-training-for-psychological-stress-in-family-caregivers-of-persons-with-dementia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#19
REVIEW
Zheng Liu, Qian-Lin Chen, Yu-Ying Sun
Caring for a relative with dementia is extremely challenging; conventional interventions may not be highly effective or easily available on some occasions. This study aimed to explore the efficacy of mindfulness training in improving stress-related outcomes in family caregivers of people with dementia using a meta-analytic review. We searched randomized controlled trials (RCT) through April 2017 from five electronic databases, and assessed the risk of bias using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. Seven RCTs were included in our review...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021741/the-neuroprotective-role-of-protein-quality-control-in-halting-the-development-of-alpha-synuclein-pathology
#20
REVIEW
Destiny-Love Manecka, Benoît Vanderperre, Edward A Fon, Thomas M Durcan
Synucleinopathies are a family of neurodegenerative disorders that comprises Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. Each of these disorders is characterized by devastating motor, cognitive, and autonomic consequences. Current treatments for synucleinopathies are not curative and are limited to improvement of quality of life for affected individuals. Although the underlying causes of these diseases are unknown, a shared pathological hallmark is the presence of proteinaceous inclusions containing the α-synuclein (α-syn) protein in brain tissue...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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