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Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric

Kyle A Williams, Susan E Swedo, Cristan A Farmer, Heidi Grantz, Paul J Grant, Precilla D'Souza, Rebecca Hommer, Liliya Katsovich, Robert A King, James F Leckman
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) are hypothesized to occur as a result of cross-reactive antibodies produced in response to group A streptococcal infections. Previous research suggests that immunomodulatory therapies, such as intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), may lead to rapid and sustained symptom improvement in patients with PANDAS. METHOD: A total of 35 children meeting criteria for PANDAS and moderate to severe obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) were enrolled in a randomized-entry, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-week trial of IVIG (1 g/kg/day on 2 consecutive days), followed by optional open-label treatment for nonresponders, with follow-up at 12 and 24 weeks...
October 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Jonathan W Mink
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Zachary Farhood, Adrian A Ong, Christopher M Discolo
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcus (PANDAS) is a rare but important condition for pediatric otolaryngologists to recognize. Several treatment options exist including tonsillectomy, antibiotic treatment/prophylaxis, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and psychiatric medications/therapy. METHODS: A systematic review of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus databases was performed searching for articles that focused exclusively on the aforementioned treatment modalities in the PANDAS population...
October 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Chiara Spinello, Giovanni Laviola, Simone Macrì
Accumulating evidence suggests that Tourette's Syndrome (TS) - a multifactorial pediatric disorder characterized by the recurrent exhibition of motor tics and/or vocal utterances - can partly depend on immune dysregulation provoked by early repeated streptococcal infections. The natural and adaptive antibody-mediated reaction to streptococcus has been proposed to potentially turn into a pathological autoimmune response in vulnerable individuals. Specifically, in conditions of increased permeability of the blood brain barrier (BBB), streptococcus-induced antibodies have been proposed to: (i) reach neuronal targets located in brain areas responsible for motion control; and (ii) contribute to the exhibition of symptoms...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Muharrem Burak Baytunca, Tuğba Donuk, Serpil Erermiş
PANDAS (Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections) syndrome is a disorder seen before adolescence that possesses an abrupt onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms and/or tics. Swedo and colleagues defined this disorder in 1998 as a syndrome related to Group A streptoccoccus (GAS) infection with neurological issues, such as motor hyperactivation and choreiform movements. The progress of the disorder may be described as wax-and-waning, apart from abrupt onset, and this relapse and remission course is associated with exacerbating infections, according to the creators of PANDAS syndrome...
2016: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
Sevcan Karakoç Demirkaya, Mithat Demirkaya, Canan Yusufoğlu, Elif Akın
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common comorbid disease in children with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS), in which tic-like involuntary movements are frequently seen clinical conditions. In contrast to psychostimulants, atomoxetine is considered as having minimal effects on tics. Here we report two cases with ADHD and PANDAS who were treated with atomoxetine for their ADHD and comorbid tics.
June 17, 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
J P Windfuhr
BACKGROUND: Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) is a disease attributed to children with obsessive compulsive or tic disorders associated with streptococcal infections. Because otolaryngologists evaluate a large number of pediatric patients with recurrent streptococcal infections, tonsillectomy (TE) is a common option of therapy. This study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy of tonsillectomy in patients presenting with a verified PANDAS...
April 2016: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
Tyler Cutforth, Mellissa Mc DeMille, Ilir Agalliu, Dritan Agalliu
Streptococcus pyogenes infections have been associated with two autoimmune diseases of the CNS: Sydenham's chorea (SC) and Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcus infections (PANDAS). Despite the high frequency of pharyngeal streptococcus infections among children, only a small fraction develops SC or PANDAS. This suggests that several factors in combination are necessary to trigger autoimmune complications: specific S. pyogenes strains that induce a strong immune response toward the host nervous system; genetic susceptibility that predispose children toward an autoimmune response involving movement or tic symptoms; and multiple infections of the throat or tonsils that lead to a robust Th17 cellular and humoral immune response when untreated...
December 2016: Future Neurology
Kristin M Jacob, Theodore Spilker, John J LiPuma, Suzanne R Dawid, Michael E Watson
We report the complete genome assembly of the Streptococcus pyogenes type emm4 strain MEW427 (also referred to as strain UM001 in the Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome [PANS] Research Consortium), a throat isolate from a child with acute-onset neuropsychiatric symptoms meeting clinical criteria for PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus). The genome length is 1,814,455 bp with 38.51% G+C%.
2016: Genome Announcements
Andrew Walls, Sarah Dermody, Ravindran Kumaran, Nathan Krishnan, Earl H Harley
OBJECTIVE: To determine if Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcus (PANDAS) patients demonstrate a significantly different number of B-Cells or markers of activity when compared to recurrent Group A Streptococcus or Obstructive Sleep Apnea patients. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective Cohort Study. STUDY SETTING: Academic University Hospital. METHODS: Tonsil tissue was collected from twenty-two patients in the operating room and organized into three groups...
January 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Shelly Scheer, Rita Marie John
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an autoimmune disease that is becoming increasingly recognized in the pediatric population. It may be the most common cause of treatable autoimmune encephalitis. The majority of cases of anti-NMDAR encephalitis are idiopathic in etiology, but a significant minority can be attributed to a paraneoplastic origin. Children with anti-NMDAR encephalitis initially present with a prodrome of neuropsychiatric symptoms, often with orofacial dyskinesias followed by progressively worsening seizures, agitation, and spasticity, which may result in severe neurologic deficits and even death...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
M W Cunningham, C J Cox
Antineuronal autoantibodies are associated with the involuntary movement disorder Sydenham chorea (SC) and paediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) which are characterized by the acute onset of tics and/or obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). In SC and PANDAS, autoantibodies signal human neuronal cells and activate calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Animal models immunized with group A streptococcal antigens demonstrate autoantibodies against dopamine receptors and concomitantly altered behaviours...
January 2016: Acta Physiologica
Harvey S Singer
In Response to: Helm CE, Blackwood RA. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS): Experience at a tertiary referral center. Tremor Other Hyperkinet Mov. 2015; 5. doi: 10.7916/D8348JCX.
2015: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Caitlin E Helm, R Alexander Blackwood
BACKGROUND: Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) is an autoimmune disorder presenting with obsessive compulsive disorder and/or tics. Like Sydenham's chorea, its presumed pathogenesis consists of autoantibodies cross-reacting with neurons in response to a group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection (GASI). There are currently no diagnostic laboratory findings and management ranges from antibiotic prophylaxis to intravenous immunoglobulin to plasmapheresis...
2015: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Priscilla H Wong, Kevin M White
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) provides replacement therapy in immunodeficiency and immunomodulatory therapy in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. This paper describes the immune mechanisms underlying six major non-primary immunodeficiency pediatric diseases and the diverse immunomodulatory functions of IVIG therapy. In Kawasaki disease, IVIG plays a major, proven, and effective role in decreasing aneurysm formation, which represents an aberrant inflammatory response to an infectious trigger in a genetically predisposed individual...
July 4, 2015: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Arzu Soybilgic
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of antinuclear antibodies and other autoantibodies, as well as a clinical course that is characterized by flares and remissions. The clinical presentation is diverse, ranging from a mild disease characterized by rash and arthritis to a severe life-threatening disease involving multiple organs. Approximately 25% of children with SLE have neuropsychiatric manifestations of SLE, which are a major cause of morbidity and mortality...
June 2015: Pediatric Annals
Molly McClelland, Mary-Margaret Crombez, Catherine Crombez, Catherine Wenz, Margaret Lisius, Amanda Mattia, Suzana Marku
INTRODUCTION: Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS) is a relatively new but controversial diagnosis affecting hundreds of children and their families. It is generally thought to be an autoimmune disorder resulting from a streptococcal infection that causes significant and bizarre behavioral changes in children. Currently no definitive diagnostic or treatment modalities exist, which has led to misdiagnoses, ineffective treatments, and delayed care...
September 2015: Journal of Pediatric Health Care
William John Martin, Andrew C Steer, Pierre Robert Smeesters, Joanne Keeble, Michael Inouye, Jonathan Carapetis, Ian P Wicks
There is a pressing need to reduce the high global disease burden of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) and its harbinger, acute rheumatic fever (ARF). ARF is a classical example of an autoimmune syndrome and is of particular immunological interest because it follows a known antecedent infection with group A streptococcus (GAS). However, the poorly understood immunopathology of these post-infectious diseases means that, compared to much progress in other immune-mediated diseases, we still lack useful biomarkers, new therapies or an effective vaccine in ARF and RHD...
August 2015: Autoimmunity Reviews
Andrew Walls, Maricel Cubangbang, Hongkun Wang, Manish Raiji, Josh Knight, Matthew Steehler, Elizabeth Latimer, Earl H Harley
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate specific cytokine and chemokine markers in patients diagnosed with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorder associated with streptococcus (PANDAS). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. STUDY SETTING: Academic university hospital. METHODS: Tonsil tissue was collected from 24 patients and organized into 3 groups: experimental PANDAS cohort (12 patients), group A beta hemolytic streptococcus control cohort (6 patients), and obstructive sleep apnea control cohort (6 patients)...
July 2015: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Kathy Bagian, Sheila Q Hartung
The terms pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS), pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS), and childhood acute neuropsychiatric symptoms (CANS) have all been used to describe certain acute onset neuropsychiatric pediatric disorders. Additionally, controversy is ongoing concerning the diagnosis and etiology of the disorders. The school nurse, as a member of a multidisciplinary team, benefits from an awareness of these disorders, the resulting impact on school performance, and the recommended treatment...
March 2015: NASN School Nurse
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