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Nutrition and immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922915/lifestyle-behaviors-perceived-stress-and-inflammation-of-individuals-with-chronic-graft-versus-host-disease
#1
Debra Lynch Kelly, Debra E Lyon, Deidre Periera, Cynthia Garvan, John Wingard
BACKGROUND: Stress is a potent immunomodulator contributing to chronic conditions. Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is a life-threatening late effect of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation associated with stress and exaggerated immune response that may be associated to lifestyle behaviors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to explore associations among lifestyle behaviors, perceived stress, and inflammation of individuals with cGVHD. METHODS: A secondary analysis from a prospective observational study of 24 adults (≥18 years) with cGVHD was conducted...
December 5, 2016: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914804/nutrition-and-chronic-inflammatory-rheumatic-disease
#2
Luca Semerano, Chantal Julia, Ouidade Aitisha, Marie-Christophe Boissier
Nutrition is a major environmental influence on human health. Epidemiological and interventional studies suggest a pathophysiological or therapeutic role, respectively, for nutrition in inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRDs). Nevertheless, the associations between nutrition and IRDs are often weak and inconsistent, and the available clinical trials on nutrition are methodologically flawed. Experimental evidence is accumulating that micronutrients in the diet may influence intestinal and systemic immune responses via complex interactions involving the gut microbiota...
November 30, 2016: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913762/aspen-felanpe-clinical-guidelines-nutrition-support-of-adult-patients-with-enterocutaneous-fistula
#3
Vanessa J Kumpf, Jose Eduardo de Aguilar-Nascimento, Jose Ignacio Diaz-Pizarro Graf, Amber M Hall, Liam McKeever, Ezra Steiger, Marion F Winkler, Charlene W Compher
BACKGROUND: The management of patients with enterocutaneous fistula (ECF) requires an interdisciplinary approach and poses a significant challenge to physicians, wound/stoma care specialists, dietitians, pharmacists, and other nutrition clinicians. Guidelines for optimizing nutrition status in these patients are often vague, based on limited and dated clinical studies, and typically rely on individual institutional or clinician experience. Specific nutrient requirements, appropriate route of feeding, role of immune-enhancing formulas, and use of somatostatin analogues in the management of patients with ECF are not well defined...
December 2, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909225/recovery-of-the-immune-system-after-exercise
#4
Jonathan M Peake, Oliver Neubauer, Neil P Walsh, Richard J Simpson
The notion that prolonged, intense exercise causes an 'open window' of immunodepression during recovery after exercise is well accepted. Repeated exercise bouts or intensified training without sufficient recovery may increase the risk of illness. However, except for salivary IgA, clear and consistent markers of this immunodepression remain elusive. Exercise increases circulating neutrophil and monocyte counts, and reduces circulating lymphocyte count during recovery. This lymphopenia results from preferential egress of lymphocyte subtypes with potent effector functions (e...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908847/homeostasis-of-the-gut-barrier-and-potential-biomarkers
#5
Jerry M Wells, Robert J Brummer, Muriel Derrien, Thomas T MacDonald, Freddy Troost, Patrice D Cani, Vassilia Theodorou, Jan Dekker, Agnes Méheust, Willem M de Vos, Annick Mercenier, Arjen Nauta, Clara L Garcia-Rodenas
The gut barrier plays a crucial role by spatially compartmentalizing bacteria to the lumen through the production of secreted mucus and is fortified by the production of sIgA and antimicrobial peptides and proteins. With exception of sIgA the expression of these protective barrier factors is largely controlled by innate immune recognition of microbial molecular ligands. Several specialized adaptations and checkpoints are operating in the mucosa to scale the immune response according to the threat and prevent overreaction to the trillions of symbionts inhabiting the human intestine...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905696/the-curative-effect-of-early-use-of-enteral-immunonutrition-in-postoperative-gastric-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#6
Hu Qiang, Lu Hang, Sun Y Shui
INTRODUCTION: It's uncertain about the clinical efficacy which early enteral immunonutrition in postoperative gastric cancer patients,and this study attempts to assess its clinical efficacy. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Use the search engine database incuding the Pubmed,the Cochrane library, Web of Science, Medline,and Embase,which there are comparative studies of early efficacy of enteral immune nutrition and standard enteral nutrition after gastric cancer operation.According to the studies,we use the RevMan 5...
December 1, 2016: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902777/the-two-component-system-arlrs-and-alterations-in-metabolism-enable-staphylococcus-aureus-to-resist-calprotectin-induced-manganese-starvation
#7
Jana N Radin, Jessica L Kelliher, Paola K Párraga Solórzano, Thomas E Kehl-Fie
During infection the host imposes manganese and zinc starvation on invading pathogens. Despite this, Staphylococcus aureus and other successful pathogens remain capable of causing devastating disease. However, how these invaders adapt to host-imposed metal starvation and overcome nutritional immunity remains unknown. We report that ArlRS, a global staphylococcal virulence regulator, enhances the ability of S. aureus to grow in the presence of the manganese-and zinc-binding innate immune effector calprotectin...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898958/technical-note-a-procedure-to-estimate-glucose-requirements-of-an-activated-immune-system-in-steers
#8
S K Kvidera, E A Horst, M Abuajamieh, E J Mayorga, M V Sanz Fernandez, L H Baumgard
: Infection and inflammation impede efficient animal productivity. The activated immune system ostensibly requires large amounts of energy and nutrients otherwise destined for synthesis of agriculturally relevant products. Accurately determining the immune system's in vivo energy needs is difficult, but a better understanding may facilitate developing nutritional strategies to maximize productivity. The study objective was to estimate immune system glucose requirements following an i...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898678/leukocyte-telomere-length-in-relation-to-17-biomarkers-of-cardiovascular-disease-risk-a-cross-sectional-study-of-us-adults
#9
David H Rehkopf, Belinda L Needham, Jue Lin, Elizabeth H Blackburn, Ami R Zota, Janet M Wojcicki, Elissa S Epel
BACKGROUND: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a putative biological marker of immune system age, and there are demonstrated associations between LTL and cardiovascular disease. This may be due in part to the relationship of LTL with other biomarkers associated with cardiovascular disease risk. However, the strength of associations between LTL and adiposity, metabolic, proinflammatory, and cardiovascular biomarkers has not been systematically evaluated in a United States nationally representative population...
November 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894162/partitioning-the-effects-of-mating-and-nuptial-feeding-on-the-microbiome-in-gift-giving-insects
#10
Chad C Smith, Robert B Srygley, Emma I Dietrich, Ulrich G Mueller
Mating is a ubiquitous social interaction with the potential to influence the microbiome by facilitating transmission, modifying host physiology, and in species where males donate nuptial gifts to females, altering diet. We manipulated mating and nuptial gift consumption in two insects that differ in nuptial gift size, the Mormon cricket Anabrus simplex and the decorated cricket Gryllodes sigillatus, with the expectation that larger gifts are more likely to affect the gut microbiome. Surprisingly, mating, but not nuptial gift consumption, affected the structure of bacterial communities in the gut, and only in Mormon crickets...
November 28, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893736/diet-induced-nutritional-stress-and-pathogen-interference-in-wolbachia-infected-aedes-aegypti
#11
Eric Pearce Caragata, Fernanda Oliveira Rezende, Taynãna César Simões, Luciano Andrade Moreira
The pathogen interference phenotype greatly restricts infection with dengue virus (DENV) and other pathogens in Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti, and is a vital component of Wolbachia-based mosquito control. Critically, the phenotype's causal mechanism is complex and poorly understood, with recent evidence suggesting that the cause may be species specific. To better understand this important phenotype, we investigated the role of diet-induced nutritional stress on interference against DENV and the avian malarial parasite Plasmodium gallinaceum in Wolbachia-infected Ae...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888129/iron-metabolism-modulation-in-atlantic-salmon-infested-with-the-sea-lice-lepeophtheirus-salmonis-and-caligus-rogercresseyi-a-matter-of-nutritional-immunity
#12
Valentina Valenzuela-Muñoz, Cristian Gallardo-Escárate
Sea lice are copepodid ectoparasites that produce high economic losses and environmental issues, thus impacting the salmon aquaculture worldwide. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from Northern and Southern Hemispheres are primarily parasitized by Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus rogercresseyi, respectively. To cope L. salmonis infestation, studies suggest that Atlantic salmon can restrict iron availability as a mechanism of nutritional immunity. However, no molecular studies of iron regulation from salmonids infected with C...
November 22, 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885294/infant-and-young-child-feeding-practices-among-mothers-at-chapagaun-vdc
#13
D Basnet
BACKGROUND: Since childhood under nutrition and mortality are high in Nepal, promotion of infant and young child feeding practices among children is most critical intervention,which contributes to improved nutrition, health and development of children ultimately having impact on child survival. The objective of the study was to identify infant and young child feeding practices. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among mothers visiting Chapagaun Primary Health Care and Resource Centre (PHCRC) with child aged 6-23 months between January1-14, 2016...
May 2016: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883236/long-term-reduction-in-food-allergy-susceptibility-in-mice-by-combining-breastfeeding-induced-tolerance-and-tgf-%C3%AE-enriched-formula-after-weaning
#14
Akila Rekima, Patricia Macchiaverni, Mathilde Turfkruyer, Sebastien Holvoet, Lénaïck Dupuis, Nour Baiz, Isabella Annesi-Maesano, Annick Mercenier, Sophie Nutten, Valérie Verhasselt
BACKGROUND: Oral tolerance induction in early life is a promising approach for food allergy prevention. Its success requires the identification of factors necessary for its persistence. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess in mice duration of allergy prevention by breastfeeding-induced oral tolerance and whether oral TGF-β supplementation after weaning would prolong it. METHODS: We quantified ovalbumin (OVA) and OVA specific immunoglobulins levels by ELISA in milk from the EDEN birth cohort...
November 24, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882445/enhanced-dietary-formulation-to-mitigate-winter-thermal-stress-in-gilthead-sea-bream-sparus-aurata-a-2d-dige-plasma-proteome-study
#15
Denise Schrama, Nadège Richard, Tomé S Silva, Filipe A Figueiredo, Luís E C Conceição, Richard Burchmore, David Eckersall, Pedro M L Rodrigues
Low water temperatures during winter are common in farming of gilthead sea bream in the Mediterranean. This causes metabolic disorders that in extreme cases can lead to a syndrome called "winter disease." An improved immunostimulatory nutritional status might mitigate the effects of this thermal metabolic stress. A trial was set up to assess the effects of two different diets on gilthead sea bream physiology and nutritional state through plasma proteome and metabolites. Four groups of 25 adult gilthead sea bream were reared during winter months, being fed either with a control diet (CTRL) or with a diet called "winter feed" (WF)...
November 24, 2016: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882304/metabolic-and-adaptive-immune-responses-induced-in-mice-infected-with-tissue-dwelling-nematode-trichinella-zimbabwensis
#16
N Onkoba, M J Chimbari, J M Kamau, S Mukaratirwa
Tissue-dwelling helminths are known to induce intestinal and systemic inflammation accompanied with host compensatory mechanisms to counter balance nutritional and metabolic deficiencies. The metabolic and immune responses of the host depend on parasite species and tissues affected by the parasite. This study investigated metabolic and immuno-inflammatory responses of mice infected with tissue-dwelling larvae of Trichinella zimbabwensis and explored the relationship between infection, metabolic parameters and Th1/Th17 immune responses...
2016: Open veterinary journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882241/immune-profile-of-honduran-schoolchildren-with-intestinal-parasites-the-skewed-response-against-geohelminths
#17
José Antonio Gabrie, María Mercedes Rueda, Carol Anahelka Rodríguez, Maritza Canales, Ana Lourdes Sanchez
Soil-transmitted helminth infections typically induce a type-2 immune response (Th2), but no immunoepidemiological studies have been undertaken in Honduras, an endemic country where the main control strategy is children's annual deworming. We aimed to characterize the immune profile of Honduran schoolchildren harbouring these parasitoses. Demographic and epidemiological data were obtained through a survey; nutritional status was assessed through anthropometry; intestinal parasites were diagnosed by formol-ether and Kato-Katz; and blood samples were collected to determine immunological markers including Th1/Th2 cytokines, IgE, and eosinophil levels...
2016: Journal of Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876972/prevalence-and-seasonal-variation-of-ectoparasites-in-cultured-nile-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus-in-saudi-arabia
#18
El Amin M Suliman, Ahmed H Al-Harbi
The prevalence, mean intensity and abundance of ectoparasites (monogeneans and trichodinids) from Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus were investigated during different seasons of two consecutive years, from January 2011 to December 2012. A total of 360 O. niloticus was collected from three fish farms located in the central region of Saudi Arabia. Prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance of monogeneans on fish gills were found to be significantly (p < 0.01) higher in farm(C) (81.67, 495.23, 405.84 %) than farm (A) (7...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875657/characterization-of-macrophage-activating-polysaccharide-isolated-from-fermented-brown-rice
#19
Dae-Young Lee, Myoung-Sook Shin, Kwang-Soon Shin
Brown rice has nutritional benefits due to its abundant nutrients and high dietary fiber content. However, it is often consumed in a fermented form for improved chewy texture and digestibility. In this study, a polysaccharide, FBR-4a, was isolated from fermented brown rice and its chemical composition was analyzed. In addition, its immune-stimulating activity was determined using RAW264.7 cells. FBR-4a is a carbohydrate and consists of nine types of monosaccharides, including galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, mannose, fucose, xylose, glucose, galacturonic acid, and glucuronic acid...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871231/transcriptomic-and-proteomic-insights-into-innate-immunity-and-adaptations-to-a-symbiotic-lifestyle-in-the-gutless-marine-worm-olavius-algarvensis
#20
Juliane Wippler, Manuel Kleiner, Christian Lott, Alexander Gruhl, Paul E Abraham, Richard J Giannone, Jacque C Young, Robert L Hettich, Nicole Dubilier
BACKGROUND: The gutless marine worm Olavius algarvensis has a completely reduced digestive and excretory system, and lives in an obligate nutritional symbiosis with bacterial symbionts. While considerable knowledge has been gained of the symbionts, the host has remained largely unstudied. Here, we generated transcriptomes and proteomes of O. algarvensis to better understand how this annelid worm gains nutrition from its symbionts, how it adapted physiologically to a symbiotic lifestyle, and how its innate immune system recognizes and responds to its symbiotic microbiota...
November 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
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