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Nutrition and immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535467/molecular-approaches-to-the-diagnosis-and-monitoring-of-production-diseases-in-pigs
#1
REVIEW
Timothy A Giles, Aouatif Belkhiri, Paul A Barrow, Neil Foster
Production disease in pigs is caused by a variety of different pathogens, mainly enteric and respiratory and can result in significant economic loss. Other factors such as stress, poor husbandry and nutrition can also contribute to an animal's susceptibility to disease. Molecular biomarkers of production disease could be of immense value by improving diagnosis and risk analysis to determine best practice with an impact on increased economic output and animal welfare. In addition to the use of multiplex PCR or microarrays to detect individual or mixed pathogens during infection, these technologies can also be used to monitor the host response to infection via gene expression...
May 17, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534028/mechanisms-affecting-the-gut-of-preterm-infants-in-enteral-feeding-trials
#2
Nicholas D Embleton, Janet E Berrington, Jon Dorling, Andrew K Ewer, Edmund Juszczak, John A Kirby, Christopher A Lamb, Clare V Lanyon, William McGuire, Christopher S Probert, Stephen P Rushton, Mark D Shirley, Christopher J Stewart, Stephen P Cummings
Large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in preterm infants offer unique opportunities for mechanistic evaluation of the risk factors leading to serious diseases, as well as the actions of interventions designed to prevent them. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) a serious inflammatory gut condition and late-onset sepsis (LOS) are common feeding and nutrition-related problems that may cause death or serious long-term morbidity and are key outcomes in two current UK National Institutes for Health Research (NIHR) trials...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533902/the-influence-of-in-ovo-injection-with-the-prebiotic-dinovo%C3%A2-on-the-development-of-histomorphological-parameters-of-the-duodenum-body-mass-and-productivity-in-large-scale-poultry-production-conditions
#3
Adrianna Sobolewska, Gabriela Elminowska-Wenda, Joanna Bogucka, Agata Dankowiakowska, Anna Kułakowska, Agata Szczerba, Katarzyna Stadnicka, Michał Szpinda, Marek Bednarczyk
BACKGROUND: Among various feed additives currently used in poultry nutrition, an important role is played by bioactive substances, including prebiotics. The beneficial effect of these bioactive substances on the gastrointestinal tract and immune system give rise to improvements in broiler health and performance nutrition, thus increasing the productivity of these birds. An innovative method for introducing bioactive substances into chickens is the in ovo injection into eggs intended for hatching...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528652/nutritional-immunity-and-fungal-pathogenesis-the-struggle-for-micronutrients-at-the-host-pathogen-interface
#4
Dhara Malavia, Aaron Crawford, Duncan Wilson
All living organisms require certain micronutrients such as iron, zinc, manganese and copper for cellular function and growth. For human pathogens however, the maintenance of metal ion homeostasis is particularly challenging. This is because the mammalian host actively enforces extremes of micronutrient availability on potential microbial invaders-processes collectively termed nutritional immunity. The role of iron sequestration in controlling microbial infections is well established and, more recently, the importance of other metals including zinc, manganese and copper has been recognised...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528647/transition-metal-homeostasis-in-streptococcus-pyogenes-and-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#5
Andrew G Turner, Cheryl-Lynn Y Ong, Mark J Walker, Karrera Y Djoko, Alastair G McEwan
Trace metals such as Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu are essential for various biological functions including proper innate immune function. The host immune system has complicated and coordinated mechanisms in place to either starve and/or overload invading pathogens with various metals to combat the infection. Here, we discuss the roles of Fe, Mn and Zn in terms of nutritional immunity, and also the roles of Cu and Zn in metal overload in relation to the physiology and pathogenesis of two human streptococcal species, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes...
2017: Advances in Microbial Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526946/evolutionary-ecology-of-multitrophic-interactions-between-plants-insect-herbivores-and-entomopathogens
#6
Ikkei Shikano
Plants play an important role in the interactions between insect herbivores and their pathogens. Since the seminal review by Cory and Hoover (2006) on plant-mediated effects on insect-pathogen interactions, considerable progress has been made in understanding the complexity of these tritrophic interactions. Increasing interest in the areas of nutritional and ecological immunology over the last decade have revealed that plant primary and secondary metabolites can influence the outcomes of insect-pathogen interactions by altering insect immune functioning and physical barriers to pathogen entry...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524103/potential-impact-of-nutrition-on-immune-system-recovery-from-heavy-exertion-a-metabolomics-perspective
#7
REVIEW
David C Nieman, Susan Hazels Mitmesser
This review describes effective and ineffective immunonutrition support strategies for the athlete, with a focus on the benefits of carbohydrates and polyphenols as determined from metabolomics-based procedures. Athletes experience regular cycles of physiological stress accompanied by transient inflammation, oxidative stress, and immune perturbations, and there are increasing data indicating that these are sensitive to nutritional influences. The most effective nutritional countermeasures, especially when considered from a metabolomics perspective, include acute and chronic increases in dietary carbohydrate and polyphenols...
May 18, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524040/-a-case-of-the-severe-human-infection-by-avian-influenza-h7n9-was-rescued-successfully-by-the-sepsis-bundle
#8
Shaohong Wang, Jintao Liu, Haili Luo, Xianguo Pan, Tongmei Yuan, Xuemei Long
One confirmed diagnosis case of severe human infection by avian influenza H7N9 admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University on January 12th, 2017 was reported. The patient was treated with the sepsis bundle, and recovered finally, including a series of comprehensive treatments, such as respiratory support, circulation support, antiviral, anti-inflammation, immunization enhancement, critical nursing, fluid management, nutritional support and treatment of complications...
May 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521318/breastfeeding-childhood-asthma-and-allergic-disease
#9
Wendy H Oddy
The worldwide prevalence of childhood asthma has been increasing considerably, and the protection afforded by breastfeeding in its development has been the subject of controversy for more than 80 years. Previous systematic reviews have generally found a protective effect of breastfeeding on allergic outcomes, although many studies have methodological limitations. Although breastfeeding is protective against lower respiratory tract infection during infancy, such protection has not been demonstrated for asthma in all studies...
2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516066/the-alpha-tocopherol-form-of-vitamin-e-boosts-elastase-activity-of-human-pmns-and-their-ability-to-kill-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#10
Elsa N Bou Ghanem, James N Lee, Basma H Joma, Simin N Meydani, John M Leong, Alexander Panda
Despite the availability of vaccines, Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a leading cause of life-threatening infections, such as pneumonia, bacteremia and meningitis. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) are a key determinant of disease course, because optimal host defense requires an initial robust pulmonary PMN response to control bacterial numbers followed by modulation of this response later in infection. The elderly, who manifest a general decline in immune function and higher basal levels of inflammation, are at increased risk of developing pneumococcal pneumonia...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515164/mrna-levels-of-placental-iron-and-zinc-transporter-genes-are-upregulated-in-gambian-women-with-low-iron-and-zinc-status
#11
Modou Lamin Jobarteh, Harry J McArdle, Grietje Holtrop, Ebrima A Sise, Andrew M Prentice, Sophie E Moore
Background: The role of the placenta in regulating micronutrient transport in response to maternal status is poorly understood.Objective: We investigated the effect of prenatal nutritional supplementation on the regulation of placental iron and zinc transport.Methods: In a randomized trial in rural Gambia [ENID (Early Nutrition and Immune Development)], pregnant women were allocated to 1 of 4 nutritional intervention arms: 1) iron and folic acid (FeFol) tablets (FeFol group); 2) multiple micronutrient (MMN) tablets (MMN group); 3) protein energy (PE) as a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS; PE group); and 4) PE and MMN (PE+MMN group) as LNS...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508087/the-vitamin-d-for-enhancing-the-immune-system-in-cystic-fibrosis-disc-trial-rationale-and-design-of-a-multi-center-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-of-high-dose-bolus-administration-of-vitamin-d3-during-acute-pulmonary-exacerbation-of-cystic-fibrosis
#12
Vin Tangpricha, Ellen M Smith, Jose Binongo, Suzanne E Judd, Thomas R Ziegler, Seth Walker, Rabindra Tirouvanziam, Susu M Zughaier, Moon Jeong Lee, Supavit Chesdachai, Wendy A Hermes, James F Chmiel, Amit Gaggar, Ruth E Grossmann, Patricia M Joseph, Jessica A Alvarez
Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in children and adults with cystic fibrosis (CF). Recent studies have found an association between vitamin D status and risk of pulmonary exacerbations in children and adults with CF. The ongoing Vitamin D for enhancing the Immune System in Cystic fibrosis (DISC) study is a multi-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that will test the hypothesis of whether high dose vitamin D given as a single oral bolus of 250,000 IU to adults with CF during a pulmonary exacerbation followed by a maintenance dose of vitamin D will improve time to next pulmonary exacerbation and re-hospitalization, improve survival and lung function compared to placebo and reduce the rates of pulmonary exacerbation,...
June 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507982/the-role-of-carrageenan-and-carboxymethylcellulose-in-the-development-of-intestinal-inflammation
#13
REVIEW
John Vincent Martino, Johan Van Limbergen, Leah E Cahill
Although the exact pathophysiology remains unknown, the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is influenced by the interplay between genetics, the immune system, and environmental factors such as diet. The commonly used food additives, carrageenan and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), are used to develop intestinal inflammation in animal models. These food additives are excluded from current dietary approaches to induce disease remission in Crohn's disease such as exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) using a polymeric formula...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507766/effect-of-dietary-mannanoligosaccharide-supplementation-on-nutrient-digestibility-hindgut-fermentation-immune-response-and-antioxidant-indices-in-dogs
#14
Mahesh M Pawar, Ashok K Pattanaik, Dharmendra K Sinha, Tapas K Goswami, Kusumakar Sharma
BACKGROUND: Use of prebiotics in companion animal nutrition is often considered advantageous over probiotics because of the ease of handling, ability to withstand processing and storage etc. While most of the studies on prebiotic use in dogs have been done with processed food as basal diet, the response in relation to homemade diet feeding is not very well explored. METHODS: The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) supplementation on nutrient digestibility, hindgut fermentation, immune response and antioxidant indices in dogs...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507168/nutritional-interventions-and-the-il-6-response-to-exercise
#15
REVIEW
Stephen R Hennigar, James P McClung, Stefan M Pasiakos
IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine with a wide range of biologic effects. In response to prolonged exercise, IL-6 is synthesized by contracting skeletal muscle and released into circulation. Circulating IL-6 is thought to maintain energy status during exercise by acting as an energy sensor for contracting muscle and stimulating glucose production. If tissue damage occurs, immune cells infiltrate and secrete cytokines, including IL-6, to repair skeletal muscle damage. With adequate rest and nutrition, the IL-6 response to exercise is attenuated as skeletal muscle adapts to training...
May 15, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504568/lactobacillus-rhamnosus-crl1505-nasal-administration-improves-recovery-of-t-cell-mediated-immunity-against-pneumococcal-infection-in-malnourished-mice
#16
N Barbieri, M Herrera, S Salva, J Villena, S Alvarez
Immunobiotic lactic acid bacteria have become an interesting alternative for the prevention of respiratory infections. Previously, we demonstrated that the nasal administration of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CRL1505, during repletion of malnourished mice, resulted in diminished susceptibility to the challenge with the respiratory pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. Considering the known alterations induced by malnutrition on T lymphocytes and the importance of this cell population on the protection against respiratory pathogens, we aimed to study the effect of L...
May 15, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502799/proteomics-and-metabolomics-driven-pathway-reconstruction-of-mung-bean-for-nutraceutical-evaluation
#17
Akiko Hashiguchi, Wei Zhu, Jingkui Tian, Setsuko Komatsu
Mung bean is a legume crop which has a various health-promoting effects. Although rich flavonoids are reported to be responsible for its biological activities, little is known about other nutrients that may potentiate the activities. To obtain information on mung bean nutritional properties, gel-free/label-free proteomic analysis and metabolomic profiling were combined. Pathway reconstruction detected that amino acid metabolism is more active in flesh. Coat contained wider variety of lipids and phenolic acids/flavonoids than flesh...
May 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501098/alterations-in-intestinal-microbiota-relate-to-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-and-central-line-infections
#18
Panliang Wang, Ying Wang, Lina Lu, Weihui Yan, Yijing Tao, Kejun Zhou, Jie Jia, Wei Cai
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota plays a vital role in modulating the metabolic and immune functions of the intestines. We aimed to analyze the dysbiosis of microbiota in infants with short bowel syndrome (SBS) with different complications. PROCEDURE: We included 26 fecal samples from 18 infants with SBS during parenteral nutrition. The samples were categorized into three groups: asymptomatic, parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD), and central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI)...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496169/exploring-the-link-between-cadmium-and-psoriasis-in-a-nationally-representative-sample
#19
Fang-Yih Liaw, Wei-Liang Chen, Tung-Wei Kao, Yaw-Wen Chang, Ching-Fu Huang
Psoriasis, a skin inflammatory disease, originates from dysregulated interactions of the immune system. Cadmium, an environment pollutant, increases the levels of inflammation markers and influences the immune system. To clarify the relationship between cadmium and psoriasis, 5,927 participants, ≥20 years, in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006 were studied. Psoriasis severity was assessed using self-reported dermatology questionnaires. Cadmium was measured using blood chemistry...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487365/the-coccidian-parasites-toxoplasma-and-neospora-dysregulate-mammalian-lipid-droplet-biogenesis
#20
Xiaoyu Hu, Derk Binns, Michael L Reese
Upon infection, the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii co-opts critical functions of its host cell to avoid immune clearance and gain access to nutritional resources. One route by which Toxoplasma co-opts its host cell is through hijacking host organelles, many of which have roles in immunomodulation. Here we demonstrate that Toxoplasma infection results in increased biogenesis of host lipid droplets through rewiring of multiple components of host neutral lipid metabolism. These metabolic changes cause an increased responsiveness of host cells to free fatty acid, leading to a radical increase in the esterification of free fatty acids into triacylglycerol...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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