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Nutrition and immunity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223451/mineralization-in-newborn-calves-contributes-to-health-improve-the-antioxidant-system-and-reduces-bacterial-infections
#1
Patrícia Glombowsky, Aleksandro S da Silva, Natan M Soldá, Gabriela M Galli, Angelisa H Biazus, Gabriela Campigotto, Nathieli B Bottari, Rejane S Sousa, Maiara C Brisola, Lenita M Stefani, Matheus D Baldissera, Marta L R Leal, Vera M Morsch, Maria Rosa C Schetinger, Gustavo Machado
The first phase of life of dairy calves has elevated mortality indices linked with low immunity and sanitary challenges, mainly bacterial infections are involved in the pathogenesis of diarrhea, the leading cause of death. Also, other important problem is the nutritional deficiencies, such as the mineral deficiency. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether an intramuscular mineral supplementation based on selenium, copper, potassium, magnesium and phosphorus possess beneficial effects on health of dairy calves...
December 6, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223307/assessment-of-the-innate-immune-response-in-the-periparturient-cow
#2
REVIEW
Erminio Trevisi, Andrea Minuti
The transition period is the most critical phase in the life of high yielding dairy cows. Within a few weeks, cows are submitted to many challenges (physiological, nutritional, psychological, management) that require prompt and effective adaptive responses. The immune system is involved in this process, and many changes of the cow's immune system components have been observed around calving. Cows are considered to be immunosuppressed in late lactation, and available data suggest that the immune system is dysregulated around parturition...
December 5, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222900/comparisons-of-proteomic-profiles-of-whey-protein-between-donor-human-milk-collected-earlier-than-3-months-and-6-months-after-delivery
#3
Won-Ho Hahn, Joon-Hwan Song, Jong-Bok Seo, Jung Eun Lee, Jeong-Sang Lee, Seunghyun Song, Joohyun Lee, Nam Mi Kang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Human milk has nutritional, protective, and developmental advantages for premature infants. However, proteomic information of low abundant protein of donor milk is insufficient. The purpose of this study is to analyze and compare the proteome of low abundant protein of donor milk obtained at different postpartum ages other than the colostrum. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Donor breast milk from 12 healthy mothers was collected 15 days, 2 months and 6 months after delivery and stored by medically approved methods...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222889/effects-of-parenteral-%C3%AF-3-fatty-acid-supplementation-in-postoperative-gastrointestinal-cancer-on-immune-function-and-length-of-hospital-stay-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Hao Bai, Zhaoping Li, Yan Meng, Yue Yu, Huanhuan Zhang, Deqiang Shen, Liyong Chen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Omega-3 fatty acids are widely used in nutritional support. However, whether parenteral supplementation with ω-3 fatty acids is effective for gastrointestinal cancer patients remains uncertain. This study assessed the effects of this form of parenteral nutrition on immune function and clinical outcomes in postoperative gastrointestinal cancer patients. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We searched Medline, Embase, Scopus, and the reference lists of selected studies to identify randomized controlled trials that compared ω-3 fatty acids with a control, and that included immune indices, infectious complications, or length of hospital stay in the final outcomes...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221566/physiology-of-milk-secretion
#5
REVIEW
Sandrine Truchet, Edith Honvo-Houéto
Milk is a unique and complete nutritive source for the mammal neonate, also providing immune protection and developmental signals. Lactation is a complex process, proper to the mother and child dyad, and including numerous variables ranging from psychological aspects to the secretory functioning of the mammary epithelial cells, all contributing to a successful breastfeeding. This review gives an integrated overview of the physiology of lactation with a particular focus on cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in milk product secretion and their regulations...
August 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221266/prognostic-impact-of-controlling-nutritional-status-score-in-resected-lung-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#6
Gouji Toyokawa, Yuka Kozuma, Taichi Matsubara, Naoki Haratake, Shinkichi Takamori, Takaki Akamine, Kazuki Takada, Masakazu Katsura, Mototsugu Shimokawa, Fumihiro Shoji, Tatsuro Okamoto, Yoshihiko Maehara
Background: The preoperative immune-nutritional status has been shown to predict the postoperative prognosis in various types of cancer; however, the prognostic significance of the controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score in resected lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) has yet to be elucidated. Methods: A total of 108 patients with resected lung SCC were analyzed for their clinicopathological factors, including the CONUT score, which can be calculated from the serum albumin, total cholesterol, and total peripheral lymphocyte count...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220416/the-effectiveness-and-limitation-of-the-national-childhood-hepatitis-a-vaccination-program-in-the-republic-of-korea-findings-from-the-korean-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-knhanes-2015
#7
Juwon Lim, Kyuwoong Kim, Seulggie Choi, Sang Min Park
BACKGROUND: Vaccination for hepatitis A virus (HAV) has been implemented as one of the national vaccination programs despite the epidemiological transition of HAV in the Republic of Korea. While the national HAV vaccination program is largely associated with the shift of socioeconomic trend in the country, concerns have been raised on the effectiveness of the HAV immunization. The objective of this study was to examine the epidemiological trend of HAV and assess the effectiveness of the nationwide HAV vaccination policy based on a nationally representative sample of the Korean population collected in 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219052/adverse-events-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-potential-mechanisms
#8
Andrea Corsonello, Fabrizia Lattanzio, Silvia Bustacchini, Sabrina Garasto, Annalisa Cozza, Roberto Schepisi, Federica Lenci, Filippo Luciani, Marcello Giuseppe Maggio, Andrea Ticinesi, Valeria Butto, Sara Tagliaferri, Francesco Corica
OBJECTIVE: We aimed at summarizing current evidence about mechanisms for potentially harmful effects of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). METHODS: A Pubmed search was performed, and 207 studies concerning the relationship between use of PPIs and cardiovascular diseases, kidney impairment, nutritional disorders, fractures, infections, functional decline, and mortality were selected and reviewed. RESULTS: PPIs may cause potentially harmful effects by several mechanisms, including endothelial dysfunction, hypomagnesemia, drug interactions, reduced absorption of selected nutrients, increased gastric microbiota and small intestine bacterial overgrowth, reduced immune response, tubular-interstitial inflammation, increased bone turnover, accumulation of amyloid in the brain...
December 7, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215603/differential-location-and-distribution-of-hepatic-immune-cells
#9
REVIEW
Maria Alice Freitas-Lopes, Kassiana Mafra, Bruna A David, Raquel Carvalho-Gontijo, Gustavo B Menezes
The liver is one of the main organs in the body, performing several metabolic and immunological functions that are indispensable to the organism. The liver is strategically positioned in the abdominal cavity between the intestine and the systemic circulation. Due to its location, the liver is continually exposed to nutritional insults, microbiota products from the intestinal tract, and to toxic substances. Hepatocytes are the major functional constituents of the hepatic lobes, and perform most of the liver's secretory and synthesizing functions, although another important cell population sustains the vitality of the organ: the hepatic immune cells...
December 7, 2017: Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213268/exploring-non-metabolic-functions-of-glycolytic-enzymes-in-immunity
#10
REVIEW
Scott M Seki, Alban Gaultier
At the beginning of the twentieth century, discoveries in cancer research began to elucidate the idiosyncratic metabolic proclivities of tumor cells (1). Investigators postulated that revealing the distinct nutritional requirements of cells with unchecked growth potential would reveal targetable metabolic vulnerabilities by which their survival could be selectively curtailed. Soon thereafter, researchers in the field of immunology began drawing parallels between the metabolic characteristics of highly proliferative cancer cells and those of immune cells that respond to perceived threats to host physiology by invading tissues, clonally expanding, and generating vast amounts of pro-inflammatory effector molecules to provide the host with protection...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209321/consumption-of-diet-containing-free-amino-acids-exacerbates-colitis-in-mice
#11
Adna Luciana Souza, Sarah Leão Fiorini Aguiar, Mariana Camila Gonçalves Miranda, Luisa Lemos, Mauro Andrade Freitas Guimaraes, Daniela Silva Reis, Patrícia Aparecida Vieira Barros, Emerson Soares Veloso, Toniana Gonçalves Carvalho, Fabiola Mara Ribeiro, Enio Ferreira, Denise Carmona Cara, Ana Cristina Gomes-Santos, Ana Maria Caetano Faria
Dietary proteins can influence the maturation of the immune system, particularly the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, when consumed from weaning to adulthood. Moreover, replacement of dietary proteins by amino acids at weaning has been shown to impair the generation of regulatory T cells in the gut as well as immune activities such as protective response to infection, induction of oral and nasal tolerance as well as allergic responses. Polymeric and elemental diets are used in the clinical practice, but the specific role of intact proteins and free amino acids during the intestinal inflammation are not known...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207836/recurrent-aphthous-stomatitis-an-assessment-of-antioxidant-levels-in-plasma-and-saliva
#12
J S Jesija, Saraswathi Gopal, Hugh P Skiel
Introduction: Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS) is a common oral mucosal disorder that affects 20% of the population worldwide. Factors such as trauma, stress, genetic, hypersensitivity, nutrition, immune disturbance and hormonal imbalance may disturb the oxidant and antioxidant balance of an organism and precipitate RAS, but the relationships are poorly understood. Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant status in plasma and saliva of patients with RAS...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206722/rapid-serological-tests-ineffectively-screen-for-hiv-exposure-in-hiv-positive-infants
#13
Brittany Urick, Youyi Fong, Christopher Okiira, Nicolette Nabukeera-Barungi, Denis Nansera, Emmanuel Ochola, Julius Nteziyaremye, Victor Bigira, Isaac Ssewanyana, Peter Olupot-Olupot, Trevor Peter, Anisa Ghadrshenas, Lara Vojnov, Charles Kiyaga
BACKGROUND: Data on the performance and utility of rapid serological tests in infants to determine HIV exposure are unclear and in some instances contradictory. This study sought to understand the performance of rapid serological tests in high HIV burden, high Option B+ coverage settings to be used as an HIV exposure screening tool. METHODS: A total of 3,600 infants up to 24 months of age at four regional hospitals in Uganda were systematically enrolled and tested simultaneously using both HIV rapid serological and nucleic acid-based tests...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206649/the-importance-of-the-microbiome-in-pediatrics-and-pediatric-infectious-diseases
#14
Thaidra Gaufin, Nicole H Tobin, Grace M Aldrovandi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Emerging research on the pediatric microbiome implicates the importance of the microbiome on the development of the immune system, nervous system, and growth. Changes to the microbiome during infancy are associated with the development of chronic illnesses such as asthma and inflammatory bowel disease. Additionally, the microbiome provides protection against certain pathogens, affects vaccine responses, and alters drug metabolism. This review highlights what is known about the microbiome, the establishment of a healthy microbiome and the significance that changes to the microbiome composition have on growth and health of children and adolescents...
December 4, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204942/spectrum-of-health-condition-in-methyl-isocyanate-mic-exposed-survivors-measured-after-30%C3%A2-years-of-disaster
#15
Bani Bandana Ganguly, Shouvik Mandal, Nitin N Kadam
Health effects of methyl isocyanate (MIC) exposure were mostly reported on the one-time acute exposure in Bhopal population. Epidemiological survey conducted by the Indian apex body of health research has been reported as Technical Reports, which were lacking in peer review by the expert epidemiologic scientists. The present pilot survey was aimed to measure the health effects 30 years post disaster in MIC-exposed survivors. Questionnaire-based survey has captured every health complaint in 168 individuals and grouped as systemic functions for interpreting the long-term effects of MIC...
December 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204120/alternation-of-gut-microbiota-in-patients-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#16
Mei Luo, Yong Liu, Pengfei Wu, Dong-Xia Luo, Qun Sun, Han Zheng, Richard Hu, Stephen J Pandol, Qing-Feng Li, Yuan-Ping Han, Yilan Zeng
One-third of the world's population has been infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), a primary pathogen of the mammalian respiratory system, while about 10% of latent infections progress to active tuberculosis (TB), indicating that host and environmental factors may determine the outcomes such as infection clearance/persistence and treatment prognosis. The gut microbiota is essential for development of host immunity, defense, nutrition and metabolic homeostasis. Thus, the pattern of gut microbiota may contribute to M...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204095/immune-disorders-in-anorexia
#17
REVIEW
Sylwia Małgorzata Słotwińska, Robert Słotwiński
Anorexia nervosa is a disease involving eating disorders. It mainly affects young people, especially teenage women. The disease is often latent and occurs in many sub-clinical and partial forms. Approximately from 0.3% to 1% of the population suffers from anorexia. It has been shown that patients with anorexia develop neurotransmitter-related disorders, leading to uncontrolled changes in the immune and endocrine systems. Interactions between cytokines, neuropeptides, and neurotransmitters play an important role in disease development...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203544/mapping-protective-regions-on-a-three-dimensional-model-of-the-moraxella-catarrhalis-vaccine-antigen-oligopeptide-permease-a
#18
Antonia C Perez, Antoinette Johnson, Ziqiang Chen, Gregory E Wilding, Michael G Malkowski, Timothy F Murphy
A vaccine against Moraxella catarrhalis will reduce tremendous morbidity, mortality, and financial burden by preventing otitis media in children and exacerbations of COPD in adults. Oligopeptide permease A (OppA) is a candidate vaccine antigen that is 1) a nutritional virulence factor expressed on the bacterial cell surface during infection, 2) widely conserved among strains, 3) highly immunogenic, and 4) a protective antigen based on its capacity to induce protective responses in immunized animals. In the present study, we show that the antibodies to OppA following vaccination mediate accelerated clearance in animals following pulmonary challenge...
December 4, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202581/development-of-a-pigment-based-whole-cell-zinc-biosensor-for-human-serum
#19
Daniel Watstein, Mark Styczynski
Deficiencies in vitamins and minerals (micronutrients) are a critical global health concern, in part due to logistical difficulties in assessing population micronutrient status. Whole cell biosensors offer a unique opportunity to address this issue, with the potential to move sample analysis from centralized, resource-intensive clinics to minimal-resource, on-site measurement. Here we present a proof-of-concept whole-cell biosensor in Escherichia coli for detecting zinc, a micronutrient for which deficiencies are a significant public health burden...
December 5, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198093/-strenuous-and-prolonged-exercise-and-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-treatment-or-threat
#20
REVIEW
Danit Atias-Varon, Yuval Heled
Prolonged and strenuous exercise may lead to changes in the immune system function and to temporary suppression in defense against pathogens. These changes likely increase the risk of those engaging in prolonged and strenuous physical activity to develop upper respiratory tract infection and to reduce the level of performance. On the other hand, it appears that moderate physical activity reduces the risk of upper respiratory tract infection. Various populations, such as professional athletes and soldiers in combat units, who engage in daily strenuous exercise, may therefore be a high risk group...
November 2017: Harefuah
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