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Spectral CT

Guo Rong Wang, Zhi Wei Wang, Yi Ning Wang, Zheng Yu Jin
Objective To evaluate the application of the dual-layer spectral detector CT in the CT angiography of superior vena cava (SVC). Methods Totally 30 consecutive patients who underwent chest enhanced CT in our center were enrolled in this study. Eight series of images were reconstructed,including the conventional images at 120 kVp and seven series of virtual monoenergetic spectral images at 40,50,60,70,80,90,and 100 keV. The regions of interest (ROIs) were placed at the level of the proximal end,middle part,and distal end in the SVC vessel...
December 20, 2017: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
Yan Xi, Wenxiang Cong, Daniel Harrison, Ge Wang
In medical X-ray Computed Tomography (CT), the use of two distinct X-ray source spectra (energies) allows dose-reduction and material discrimination relative to that achieved with only one source spectrum. Existing dual-energy CT methods include source kVp-switching, double-layer detection, dual-source gantry, and two-pass scanning. Each method suffers either from strong spectral correlation or patient-motion artifacts. To simultaneously address these problems, we propose to improve CT data acquisition with the Grating Oriented Line-wise Filtration (GOLF) method, a novel X-ray filter that is placed between the source and patient...
December 2017: Sensing and Imaging
H P Zhao, P J Lü, L Y Zhang, W R Li, P Hou, J B Gao
Objective: To investigate the value of combined use of half-dose spectral CT based on the automatic spectral imaging mode selection (GSI Assist) and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) in the CT examination of upper abdomen in obese patients as compared with conventional CT. Methods: Eight-two obese patients (body mass index≥29 kg/m(2)) were prospectively selected from October to December 2016, and contrast-enhanced CT during arterial phase (AP) and portal venous phase (PVP) were carried out in those patients...
December 19, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Saravanabavaan Suntharalingam, Christian Mikat, Axel Wetter, Nika Guberina, Ahmed Salem, Philipp Heil, Michael Forsting, Kai Nassenstein
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the radiation dose and image quality of a whole-body low-dose CT (WBLDCT) using spectral shaping at 100 kV (Sn 100 kV) for the assessment of osteolytic lesions in patients with multiple myeloma. METHODS: Thirty consecutive patients were retrospectively selected, who underwent a WBLDCT on a third-generation dual-source CT (DSCT) (Sn 100 kV, ref. mAs: 130). They were matched with patients, who were examined on a second-generation DSCT with a standard low-dose protocol (100 kV, ref...
January 10, 2018: European Radiology
Masahiko Iyoda, Hideyuki Shimizu, Kyu Hyung Park, Hiroyuki Otani, Shinobu Aoyagi, Tohru Nishinaga, Yoshio Aso, Dongho Kim
A Saturn-like 1:1 complex composed of macrocyclic oligothiophene (E-8T7A) and [60]fullerene (C60) has been synthesized to investigate the interaction between macrocyclic oligothiophenes and C60 in solution and the solid state. Since the Saturn-like 1:1 complex E-8T7A·C60 is mainly stabilized by van der Waals interactions between C60 and sulfur atoms of macrocyclic E-8T7A, C60 is rather weakly incorporated in the macroring in solution. In the solid state, however, the Saturn-like 1:1 complex is preferentially formed to produce single crystals or nano-structured polymorphs...
January 5, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Ying Zhang, Jian Tang, Jianrong Xu, Jiejun Cheng, Huawei Wu
Background: To investigate the value of dual energy computed tomography (DECT) parameters (including iodine concentration and monochromatic CT numbers) for predicting pure ground-glass nodules (pGGNs) of invasive adenocarcinoma (IA). Methods: A total of 55 resected pGGNs evaluated with both unenhanced thin-section CT (TSCT) and enhanced DECT scans were included. Correlations between histopathology [adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), minimally IA (MIA), and IA] and CT scan characteristics were examined...
December 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Kevin Kalisz, Negin Rassouli, Amar Dhanantwari, David Jordan, Prabhakar Rajiah
AIM: To evaluate the noise characteristics of virtual monoenergetic images (VMI) obtained from a recently introduced dual-layer detector-based spectral CT (SDCT), both in a phantom and patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cylindrical Catphan® 600 phantom (The Phantom Library, Salem NY, USA) was scanned using the SDCT. Image noise, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were measured in VMI from 40 to 200keV as well as conventional 120 kVp images...
January 2018: European Journal of Radiology
Kai Mei, Benedikt J Schwaiger, Felix K Kopp, Sebastian Ehn, Alexandra S Gersing, Jan S Kirschke, Daniela Muenzel, Alexander A Fingerle, Ernst J Rummeny, Franz Pfeiffer, Thomas Baum, Peter B Noël
To assess whether phantomless calcium-hydroxyapatite (HA) specific bone mineral density (BMD) measurements with dual-layer spectral computed tomography are accurate in phantoms and vertebral specimens. Ex-vivo human vertebrae (n = 13) and a phantom containing different known HA concentrations were placed in a semi-anthropomorphic abdomen phantom with different extension rings simulating different degrees of obesity. Phantomless dual-layer spectral CT was performed at different tube current settings (500, 250, 125 and 50 mAs)...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Javier Soria, Arantxa Acera, Jesús Merayo-LLoves, Juan A Durán, Nerea González, Sandra Rodriguez, Nikitas Bistolas, Soeren Schumacher, Frank F Bier, Harald Peter, Walter Stöcklein, Tatiana Suárez
We analyzed the tear film proteome of patients with dry eye (DE), meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD), and normal volunteers (CT). Tear samples were collected from 70 individuals. Of these, 37 samples were analyzed using spectral-counting-based LC-MS/MS label-free quantitation, and 33 samples were evaluated in the validation of candidate biomarkers employing customized antibody microarray assays. Comparative analysis of tear protein profiles revealed differences in the expression levels of 26 proteins, including protein S100A6, annexin A1, cystatin-S, thioredoxin, phospholipase A2, antileukoproteinase, and lactoperoxidase...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Laimonas Kelbauskas, Rishabh Shetty, Bin Cao, Kuo-Chen Wang, Dean Smith, Hong Wang, Shi-Hui Chao, Sandhya Gangaraju, Brian Ashcroft, Margaret Kritzer, Honor Glenn, Roger H Johnson, Deirdre R Meldrum
Quantitative three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) imaging of living single cells enables orientation-independent morphometric analysis of the intricacies of cellular physiology. Since its invention, x-ray CT has become indispensable in the clinic for diagnostic and prognostic purposes due to its quantitative absorption-based imaging in true 3D that allows objects of interest to be viewed and measured from any orientation. However, x-ray CT has not been useful at the level of single cells because there is insufficient contrast to form an image...
December 2017: Science Advances
Hirokazu Saito, Kana Noda, Koji Ogasawara, Shutaro Atsuji, Hiroko Takaoka, Hiroo Kajihara, Jiro Nasu, Shoji Morishita, Ikuo Matsushita, Kazuhiro Katahira
Computed tomography (CT) is useful for diagnosing biliary stones. However, the presence of stones not detected by conventional CT, such as iso-dense stones with CT numbers similar to those of bile or small stones, is problematic. Although conventional CT provides only 120-kVp images corresponding to CT numbers at approximately 70 keV, dual-layer spectral detector CT uses one X-ray source and dual-layer detectors to collect low- and high-energy data simultaneously; retrospective spectral analysis, including virtual monochromatic images with photon energy levels of 40-200 keV, material decomposition images, and spectral curves, can be immediately performed on demand...
December 8, 2017: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
L-Y Lin, Y Zhang, S-T Suo, F Zhang, J-J Cheng, H-W Wu
AIM: To investigate the correlation between pathological grades of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) and quantitative parameters generated in dual-energy spectral computed tomography (CT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-three patients with NSCLCs who underwent preoperative dual-energy spectral CT imaging and surgical resection were evaluated retrospectively. These patients were divided into a low-grade group and a high-grade group based on their histopathological differentiation...
December 5, 2017: Clinical Radiology
Jie-Hua Shi, Kai-Li Zhou, Yan-Yue Lou, Dong-Qi Pan
Molecular interaction of darunavir (DRV), a HIV protease inhibitor with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ct-DNA) was studied in physiological buffer (pH7.4) by multi-spectroscopic approaches hand in hand with viscosity measurements and molecular docking technique. The UV absorption and fluorescence results together revealed the formation of a DRV-ct-DNA complex having binding affinities of the order of 103M-1, which was more in keeping with the groove binding. The results that DRV bound to ct-DNA via groove binding mode was further evidenced by KI quenching studies, viscosity measurements, competitive binding investigations with EB and Rhodamine B and CD spectral analysis...
November 29, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Mohamed Gaber, Hoda A El-Ghamry, Shaimaa K Fathalla, Mohammed A Mansour
A novel series of Zn2+, Cd2+ and UO22+ complexes of ligands namely 1-[(5-mercapto-1H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylimino) methyl]naphthalene-2-ol (HL1) and [(1H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylimino) methyl] naphthalene-2-ol (HL2) have been prepared and characterized by different analytical and spectral techniques. The stoichiometry, stereochemistry, conductivity measurements and mode of bonding of the complexes have been elucidated. Accurate comparison of the IR spectra of the ligands with their metal chelates proved the involvement of nitrogen atoms of the azomethine group and/or triazole ring in chelation in addition to the deprotonated hydroxyl oxygen...
February 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
A Kosiha, C Parthiban, Samuele Ciattini, Laura Chelazzi, Kuppanagounder P Elango
Protein binding, DNA binding/cleavage and in vitro cytotoxicity studies of 2-((3-(dimethylamino)propyl)amino)naphthalene-1,4-dione (L) and its four coordinated M(II) complexes [M(II) = Co(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II)] have been investigated using various spectral techniques. The structure of the ligand was confirmed by spectral and single crystal XRD studies. The geometry of the complexes has been established using analytical and spectral investigations. These complexes show good binding tendency to bovine serum albumin (BSA) exhibiting high binding constant values (105 M-1) when compared to free ligand...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Masoumeh Ashrafi Khajeh, Gholamreza Dehghan, Siavoush Dastmalchi, Masoomeh Shaghaghi, Mehrdad Iranshahi
DNA is a major target for a number of anticancer substances. Interaction studies between small molecules and DNA are essential for rational drug designing to influence main biological processes and also introducing new probes for the assay of DNA. Tschimgine (TMG) is a monoterpene derivative with anticancer properties. In the present study we tried to elucidate the interaction of TMG with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) using different spectroscopic methods. UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies as well as molecular docking study revealed formation of complex between TMG and CT-DNA...
November 21, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Orhan Ozguner, Amar Dhanantwari, Sandra Halliburton, Gezheng Wen, Steven Utrup, David W Jordan
This work evaluated the performance of a detector-based spectral CT system by obtaining objective reference data, evaluating attenuation response of iodine and accuracy of iodine quantification, and comparing conventional CT and virtual monoenergetic images in three common phantoms. Scanning was performed using the hospital's clinical adult body protocol. Modulation transfer function (MTF) was calculated for a tungsten wire and visual line pair targets were evaluated. Image noise power spectrum (NPS) and pixel standard deviation were calculated...
November 29, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Gopal V Punjabi
Most vendors offer scanners capable of dual- or multi-energy computed tomography (CT) imaging. Advantages of multi-energy CT scanning include superior tissue characterization, detection of subtle iodine uptake differences, and opportunities to reduce contrast dose. However, utilization of this technology in the emergency department (ED) remains low. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to illustrate the value of multi-energy CT scanning in emergency body imaging.
November 28, 2017: Emergency Radiology
N Große Hokamp, A J Höink, J Doerner, D W Jordan, G Pahn, T Persigehl, D Maintz, S Haneder
PURPOSE: To investigate a benefit from virtual monoenergetic reconstructions (VMIs) for assessment of arterially hyper-enhancing liver lesions in phantom and patients and to compare hybrid-iterative and spectral image reconstructions of conventional images (CI-IR and CI-SR). METHODS: All imaging was performed on a SDCT (Philips Healthcare, Best, The Netherlands). Images of a non-anthropomorphic phantom with a lesion-mimicking insert (containing iodine in water solution) and arterial-phase images from contrast-enhanced patient examinations were evaluated...
November 28, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
Abdulrahman Almutairi, Zakariya Al Safran, Saif A AlZaabi, Zhonghua Sun
Background: To determine the optimal scanning protocols of dual energy computed tomography angiography (DECTA) in terms of radiation dose and image quality assessment at different keV levels, and compare it with conventional computed tomography angiography (CTA) in patients treated with peripheral arterial stents. Methods: Twenty-nine patients with previous stent placement in peripheral arteries were evaluated with DECTA. Images were reconstructed with virtual monochromatic spectral imaging (VMS) at 65, 68, 70 and 72 keV and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) at 50% compared with CTA...
October 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
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