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Spectral CT

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303582/generation-and-analysis-of-clinically-relevant-breast-imaging-x-ray-spectra
#1
Andrew M Hernandez, J Anthony Seibert, Anita Nosratieh, John M Boone
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to develop and make available x-ray spectra for some of the most widely used digital mammography (DM), breast tomosynthesis (BT), and breast CT (bCT) systems in North America. METHODS: The Monte Carlo code MCNP6 was used to simulate minimally-filtered (only beryllium) x-ray spectra at 8 tube potentials from 20 to 49 kV for DM/BT, and 9 tube potentials from 35 to 70 kV for bCT. Vendor-specific anode compositions, effective anode angles, focal spot sizes, source-to-detector distances, and beryllium filtration were simulated...
March 17, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302592/spectral-detector-ct-for-cardiovascular-applications
#2
Prabhakar Rajiah, Suhny Abbara, Sandra Simon Halliburton
Spectral detector computed tomography (SDCT) is a novel technology that uses two layers of detectors to simultaneously collect low and high energy data. Spectral data is used to generate conventional polyenergetic images as well as dedicated spectral images including virtual monoenergetic and material composition (iodine-only, virtual unenhanced, effective atomic number) images. This paper provides an overview of SDCT technology and a description of some spectral image types. The potential utility of SDCT for cardiovascular imaging and the impact of this new technology on radiation and contrast dose are discussed through presentation of initial patient studies performed on a SDCT scanner...
March 17, 2017: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295386/an-integrated-segmentation-and-shape-based-classification-scheme-for-distinguishing-adenocarcinomas-from-granulomas-on-lung-ct
#3
Mehdi Alilou, Niha Beig, Mahdi Orooji, Anant Madabhushi, Prabhakar Rajiah, Michael Yang, Robert Gilkeson, Philip Linden, Vamsidhar Velcheti, Sagar Rakshit, Niyoti Reddy, Frank Jacono
PURPOSE: Distinguishing between benign granulmoas and adenocarcinomas is confounded by their similar visual appearance on routine CT scans. Unfortunately, owing to the inability to discriminate these lesions radigraphically, many patients with benign granulomas are subjected to unnecessary surgical wedge resections and biopsies for pathologic confirmation of cancer presence or absence. This suggests the need for improved computerized characterization of these nodules in order to distinguish between these two classes of lesions on CT scans...
March 14, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290832/-computed-tomography-in-the-evaluation-of-coronary-atherosclerotic-plaques-comparison-with-intravascular-ultrasound
#4
T N Veselova, M S Shabanova, V M Mironov, I N Merkulova, S K Ternovoy
PURPOSE: Determination of computed tomography angiography (CTA) informativeness in assessment of state of atherosclerotic coronary plaque (ACP) and identification of signs of its instability compared with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Coronary CTA was carried out in 52 patients with clinical presentation of non-ST elevation (NSTE) acute coronary syndrome on the first day of hospitalization. ACPs were identified in 32 of 52 patients (61...
January 2017: Kardiologiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281789/preliminary-study-on-the-differentiation-between-parapelvic-cyst-and-hydronephrosis-with-non-calculous-using-only-pre-contrast-dual-energy-spectral-ct-scans
#5
Dong Han, Guangming Ma, Lequn Wei, Chenglong Ren, Jieli Zhou, Chen Shen, Taiping He
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the value of using the quantitative parameters from only the pre-contrast dual-energy spectral CT imaging for distinguishing between parapelvic cyst and hydronephrosis with non-calculous (HNC). METHODS: This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board. 28 patients with parapelvic cyst and 24 patients with hydronephrosis with non-calculous (HNC) who underwent standard pre-contrast and multi-phase contrast-enhanced dual-energy spectral CT imaging were retrospectively identified...
March 10, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270279/feasibility-of-pediatric-chest-ct-using-spectral-filtration-on-third-generation-dual-source-ct
#6
Wei Liu, Jingjuan Liu, Huadan Xue, Xin Sui, Wei Song, Kai Xu, Weilin Wan, Zhenghong Li, Zhengyu Jin
Objective To prospectively investigate the radiation dose and image quality of pediatric chest CT using Sn100 kV on a third-generation dual-source CT (DSCT)in comparison to standard 100 kV chest CT. Methods From December 12,2015 to June 30,2016,45 consecutive pediatric patients referred for non-contrast chest CT scan in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were prospectively enrolled as study group. They were examined at 100 kV with a dedicated tin filter on a third-generation DSCT. These patients were retrospectively matched with 45 patients who were examined on a second-generation DSCT at 100 kV without tin filter...
February 20, 2017: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270278/effect-of-third-generation-dual-source-ct-technology-on-image-quality-of-low-dose-chest-ct
#7
Xin Sui, Xiaoli Xu, Lan Song, Qianni DU, Xiao Wang, Zhengyu Jing, Wei Song
Objective To evaluate the image quality and radiation dose of third-generation dual-source CT with tin filtration for spectral shaping and iterative reconstructions.Methods Thirty-five patients underwent low-dose CT (LDCT) for lung cancer screening on second-generation dual-source CT and follow-ups on third-generation dual-source CT. Image quality and radiation dose were compared between the two examinations.ResultsThe radiation dose of third-generation dual-source CT [dose-length product (DLP)(49.7±18.2)mGy·cm, effective dose (ED)(0...
February 20, 2017: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267548/the-optimal-monochromatic-spectral-computed-tomographic-imaging-plus-adaptive-statistical-iterative-reconstruction-algorithm-can-improve-the-superior-mesenteric-vessel-image-quality
#8
Xiao-Ping Yin, Zi-Wei Zuo, Ying-Jin Xu, Jia-Ning Wang, Huai-Jun Liu, Guang-Lu Liang, Bu-Lang Gao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of the optimal monochromatic spectral computed tomography (CT) plus adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction on the improvement of the image quality of the superior mesenteric artery and vein. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The gemstone spectral CT angiographic data of 25 patients were reconstructed in the following three groups: 70KeV, the optimal monochromatic imaging, and the optimal monochromatic plus 40%iterative reconstruction mode...
April 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267528/non-small-cell-lung-cancer-spectral-computed-tomography-quantitative-parameters-for-preoperative-diagnosis-of-metastatic-lymph-nodes
#9
Fengfeng Yang, Jie Dong, Xiuting Wang, Xiaojiao Fu, Tong Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the application value of spectral computed tomography (CT)quantitative parameters for preoperative diagnosis of metastatic lymph nodes in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSLC). METHODS: 84 patients with suspected lung cancer who underwent chest dual-phase enhanced scan with gemstone spectral CT imaging (GSI) mode were selected. GSI quantitative parameters including normalized iodine concentrations (NIC), water concentration, slope of the spectral Hounsfield unit curve (λHU) were measured...
April 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267113/choroidal-thickness-in-diabetic-patients-without-diabetic-retinopathy
#10
Joana Tavares Ferreira, André Vicente, Rita Proença, Bruno O Santos, João P Cunha, Marta Alves, Ana L Papoila, Luís Abegão Pinto
PURPOSE: To compare choroidal thickness (CT) between diabetic patients without diabetic retinopathy and a nondiabetic group. To explore how CT relates to disease duration, mean arterial pressure, glycemia, glycosylated hemoglobin, intraocular pressure, and ocular pulse amplitude. METHODS: Choroidal thickness was assessed using a spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and enhanced depth mode at 13 locations (subfoveal and 3 measurements 500 μm apart in 4 directions-nasal, temporal, superior, and inferior)...
March 3, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258740/uric-acid-versus-non-uric-acid-renal-stones-in%C3%A2-vivo-differentiation-with-spectral-ct
#11
F Lombardo, M Bonatti, G A Zamboni, G Avesani, N Oberhofer, M Bonelli, A Pycha, R Pozzi Mucelli, G Bonatti
AIM: To differentiate uric acid from non-uric acid renal stones based on their spectral attenuation values. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was approved by the institutional review board and the need for informed consent was waived. Thirty-three consecutive patients (21 men, 12 women; mean age 55 years) with symptomatic urolithiasis underwent dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) using a second-generation dual-source CT system. Stone composition was assessed by means of chemical analysis after extraction or spontaneous expulsion...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247070/synthesis-spectral-characterization-sem-antimicrobial-antioxidative-activity-evaluation-dna-binding-and-dna-cleavage-investigation-of-transition-metal-ii-complexes-derived-from-a-tetradentate-schiff-base-bearing-thiophene-moiety
#12
Ayman A Abdel Aziz, Sabry H Seda
A novel series of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) mononuclear complexes have been synthesized involving a potentially tetradentate Schiff base ligand, which was obtained by condensation of 2-aminophenol with 2,5-thiophene-dicarboxaldehyde. The complexes were synthesized via reflux reaction of methanolic solution of the appropriate Schiff base ligand with one equivalent of corresponding metal acetate salt. Based on different techniques including micro analysis, FT-IR, NMR, UV-Vis, ESR, ESI-mass and conductivity measurements, four-coordinated geometry was assigned for all complexes...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240640/comparison-of-270-versus-320-mg-i-ml-of-iodixanol-in-1-image-assessment-of-both-renal-arteries-and-veins-with-dual-energy-spectral-ct-imaging-in-late-arterial-phase-and-their-influence-on-renal-function
#13
Kefeng Zhou, Jian He, Feng Qu, Haijian Fan, Yi Ma, Tingting Shi, Zhengyang Zhou, Bin Zhu
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the image quality of renal arteries and veins with dual-energy spectral computed tomography (CT) imaging in late arterial phase using 270 and 320 mg I/mL of iodixanol and their influence on renal function. METHODS: A total of 1062 patients underwent renal CT angiography with 270 or 320 mg I/mL of iodixanol with dual-energy spectral CT imaging in late arterial phase. Image quality and their influence on renal function were compared...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236649/spectral-characterization-of-tissues-in-high-spectral-and-spatial-resolution-mr-images-implications-for-a-classification-based-synthetic-ct-algorithm
#14
Abbie M Wood, Steven M Shea, Milica Medved, Gregory S Karczmar, Murat Surucu, Sebastien Gros, William Small, John Roeske
PURPOSE: To characterize spectral parameters of tissues with high spectral and spatial resolution magnetic resonance images to be used as a foundation for a classification-based synthetic CT algorithm. METHODS: A phantom was constructed consisting of a section of fresh beef leg with bone embedded in a 1% agarose gel. The high spectral and spatial (HiSS) resolution MR imaging sequence used had 1.0mm in-plane resolution and 11.1Hz spectral resolution. This sequence was used to image the phantom and one patient...
February 25, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236645/an-effective-noise-reduction-method-for-multi-energy-ct-images-that-exploits-spatio-spectral-features
#15
Zhoubo Li, Shuai Leng, Lifeng Yu, Armando Manduca, Cynthia H McCollough
PURPOSE: To develop and evaluate an image-domain noise reduction method for multi-energy CT (MECT) data. METHODS: Multi-Energy Non-Local Means (MENLM) is a technique that uses the redundant information in MECT images to achieve noise reduction. In this method, spatio-spectral features are used to determine the similarity between pixels, making the similarity evaluation more robust to image noise. The performance of this MENLM filter was tested on images acquired on a whole-body research photon counting CT system...
February 25, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231533/synthesis-characterization-and-dna-binding-cleavage-protein-binding-and-cytotoxicity-studies-of-co-ii-ni-ii-cu-ii-and-zn-ii-complexes-of-aminonaphthoquinone
#16
A Kosiha, C Parthiban, Kuppanagounder P Elango
The Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes of an aminonaphthoquinone ligand (L) have been prepared and characterized using analytical and spectral techniques. The structures of L and its Zn(II) complex are confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction study. The results indicate that Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes possess tetrahedral geometry while Cu(II) complex exhibits square planar structure. The interaction of L and its complexes with CT-DNA reveal that they could interact with CT-DNA through intercalation...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230539/polyenergetic-known-component-ct-reconstruction-with-unknown-material-compositions-and-unknown-x-ray-spectra
#17
Shiyu Xu, Ali Uneri, Akhil Khanna, Jeffrey Siewerdsen, Joseph Webster Stayman
Metal artifacts can cause substantial image quality issues in computed tomography. This is particularly true in interventional imaging where surgical tools or metal implants are in the field-of-view. Moreover, the region-of-interest is often near such devices which is exactly where image quality degradations are largest. Previous work on known-component reconstruction (KCR) has shown the incorporation of a physical model (e.g. shape, material composition, etc.) of the metal component into the reconstruction algorithm can significantly reduce artifacts even near the edge of a metal component...
February 23, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229910/optimized-energy-of-spectral-ct-for-infarct-imaging-experimental-validation-with-human-validation
#18
Veit Sandfort, Srikanth Palanisamy, Rolf Symons, Amir Pourmorteza, Mark A Ahlman, Kelly Rice, Tom Thomas, Cynthia Davies-Venn, Bernhard Krauss, Alan Kwan, Ankur Pandey, Stefan L Zimmerman, David A Bluemke
OBJECTIVES: Late contrast enhancement visualizes myocardial infarction, but the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) is low using conventional CT. The aim of this study was to determine if spectral CT can improve imaging of myocardial infarction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A canine model of myocardial infarction was produced in 8 animals (90-min occlusion, reperfusion). Later, imaging was performed after contrast injection using CT at 90 kVp/150 kVpSn. The following reconstructions were evaluated: Single energy 90 kVp, mixed, iodine map, multiple monoenergetic conventional and monoenergetic noise optimized reconstructions...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224358/synthesis-characterization-and-dna-binding-studies-of-hydroxyl-functionalized-platinum-ii-salphen-complexes
#19
Shahratul Ain Mohd Sukri, Lee Yook Heng, Nurul Huda Abd Karim
The platinum(II) salphen complex N,N'-Bis-4-(hydroxysalicylidene)-phenylenediamine-platinum(II); (1) and its two derivatives containing hydroxyl functionalized side chains N,N'-bis-[4-[[1-(2-hydroxyethoxy)] salicylidene] phenylenediamine-platinum(II); (2) and N,N'-bis-[4-[[1-(3-hydroxypropoxy)] salicylidene] phenylenediamine-platinum(II); (3) were synthesized and characterized. The structures of the complexes were confirmed by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, FTIR, ESI-MS and CHN elemental analyses. The effects of the hydroxyl substituent on the spectral properties and the DNA binding behaviors of the Pt(II) complexes were explored...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220403/dosimetry-in-mars-spectral-ct-topas-monte-carlo-simulations-and-ion-chamber-measurements
#20
Gray Lu, Steven Marsh, Jerome Damet, Pierre Carbonez, John Laban, Christopher Bateman, Anthony Butler, Phil Butler
Spectral computed tomography (CT) is an up and coming imaging modality which shows great promise in revealing unique diagnostic information. Because this imaging modality is based on X-ray CT, it is of utmost importance to study the radiation dose aspects of its use. This study reports on the implementation and evaluation of a Monte Carlo simulation tool using TOPAS for estimating dose in a pre-clinical spectral CT scanner known as the MARS scanner. Simulated estimates were compared with measurements from an ionization chamber...
February 20, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
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