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Wang Song, Liu Qian, Guo Jing, Feng Jie, Shan Xiaosong, Liu Chunhui, Li Yangfang, Li Guilin, Hua Gao, Zhang Yazhuo
Non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are the most common pituitary tumors and mainly invade the sphenoid, cavernous sinus or dura mate. Aberrant regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in tumorigenesis. This study was designed to investigate the relationships between secreted frizzled-related proteins (sFRPs), WIF1 genes and the invasion of NFPAs by tissue microassays (TMAs) of samples from 163 patients. Significantly weaker staining of WIF1 and sFRP4 were detected in the invasive group compared with the non-invasive group by TMAs (p = 0...
March 16, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Samuel D Clark, Rachel Mikofsky, Jacqueline Lawson, David Sulzer
Multiphoton microscopy has been widely adapted for imaging neurons in vivo. Repeated imaging requires implantation of a cranial window or repeated thinning of the skull. Cranial window surgery is typically performed with a high speed rotary drill, and many investigators find it challenging to prevent the drill from damaging the delicate dura and blood vessels. Extensive training and practice is required to remove the bone without damage to underlying tissue and thus cranial window surgery can be difficult, time consuming, and produce tissue damage...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Riccardo Draghi, Giovanna Mantovani, Letterio Runza, Giorgio Carrabba, Nicola Fusco, Paolo Rampini, Antonella Costa, Marco Locatelli
The authors present an unusual case of a patient suffering from visual deficit due to pituitary granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) associated with Rathke's cleft cyst (RCC). The patient was referred to our Neurosurgery Department presenting right eye amaurosis, third cranial nerve palsy, and left temporal hemianopsia. Magnetic resonance imaging documented a sellar or suprasellar lesion with solid and cystic components. The dura mater of the skull base was also strongly enhanced. The patient underwent surgery...
February 2018: Radiology Case Reports
José V J Silva, Thaísa R R Lopes, Edmilson F de Oliveira-Filho, Renato A S Oliveira, Ricardo Durães-Carvalho, Laura H V G Gil
Emerging and re-emerging viral infections transmitted by insect vectors (arthopode-borne viruses, arbovirus) are a serious threat to global public health. Among them, yellow fever (YFV), dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses are particularly important in tropical and subtropical regions. Although vector control is one of the most used prophylactic measures against arboviruses, it often faces obstacles, such as vector diversity, uncontrolled urbanization and increasing resistance to insecticides...
March 15, 2018: Acta Tropica
Cliff C Kerr, Salvador Dura-Bernal, Tomasz G Smolinski, George L Chadderdon, David P Wilson
When standard optimization methods fail to find a satisfactory solution for a parameter fitting problem, a tempting recourse is to adjust parameters manually. While tedious, this approach can be surprisingly powerful in terms of achieving optimal or near-optimal solutions. This paper outlines an optimization algorithm, Adaptive Stochastic Descent (ASD), that has been designed to replicate the essential aspects of manual parameter fitting in an automated way. Specifically, ASD uses simple principles to form probabilistic assumptions about (a) which parameters have the greatest effect on the objective function, and (b) optimal step sizes for each parameter...
2018: PloS One
Muralidhar Pai K, R Chandrasekhar Naidu, A Raja, Y S Rai, Niranjan Kumar, Anand Kini, Santhosh Joseph, Vinod Hegde, H S Ballal, Ramoorthi Rao, Saroja V Sharma, Vinay Kumar Valakatte
Craniopagus twins are conjoined twins fused at the cranium. This is the rarest anomaly seen in conjoined twins and craniopagus twins account for 2- 6% of conjoined twins. Conjoined twins are also extremely rare, with the anomaly seen in about 10-20 subjects per billion births. A female preponderance has been noted. Craniopagus twins can be classified into complete or partial, depending on whether or not they have shared dural venous sinuses. They can be further classified into angular or total depending on the alignment of the inter-twin longitudinal axis...
March 2018: Neurology India
Ahmed Hegazy, Hieder Al-Shami, Mohammed Fathy Adel Ali, Mohamad Fathallah, Ahmed Salah, Hashim Mohamed, Emad Ibrahim Ahmed, Haytham Hussien Mohammed Osman, Arundhati Biswas
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether adding mobilization of the outer cavernous sinus membrane as a part of the approach, in large spheno-clinoidal meningiomas without cavernous sinus extension, would reduce bleeding and increase the extent of resection. Methods: This prospective randomized controlled trial was held between February 2016 and April 2017 at Cairo University Hospitals. The study recruited 94 patients with spheno-clinoidal meningiomas without cavernous sinus involvement...
March 2018: Neurology India
David C Kieser, P J Cox, S C J Kieser
PURPOSE: Hirayama disease is an initially progressive disease caused by cervical neck flexion compressing the anterior horns of the lower cervical spinal cord. It is primarily seen in young males of Indian or Asian descent. With increasing dispersion of these populations this condition is increasingly being encountered internationally. This grand round reviews this rare but increasingly recognized condition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present a classic case of a young Indian male with progressive hand and forearm weakness...
March 14, 2018: European Spine Journal
Stefanie Bette, Melanie Barz, Thomas Huber, Christoph Straube, Friederike Schmidt-Graf, Stephanie E Combs, Claire Delbridge, Julia Gerhardt, Claus Zimmer, Bernhard Meyer, Jan S Kirschke, Tobias Boeckh-Behrens, Benedikt Wiestler, Jens Gempt
Recent studies suggested that postoperative hypoxia might trigger invasive tumor growth, resulting in diffuse/multifocal recurrence patterns. Aim of this study was to analyze distinct recurrence patterns and their association to postoperative infarct volume and outcome. 526 consecutive glioblastoma patients were analyzed, of which 129 met our inclusion criteria: initial tumor diagnosis, surgery, postoperative diffusion-weighted imaging and tumor recurrence during follow-up. Distinct patterns of contrast-enhancement at initial diagnosis and at first tumor recurrence (multifocal growth/progression, contact to dura/ventricle, ependymal spread, local/distant recurrence) were recorded by two blinded neuroradiologists...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Luana Leal Roberto, Daniele Durães Noronha, Taiane Oliveira Souza, Ellen Janayne Primo Miranda, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima Martins, Alfredo Maurício Batista De Paula, Efigênia Ferreira E Ferreira, Desirée Sant'ana Haikal
This study sought to investigate factors associated with the lack of access to information on oral health among adults. It is a cross-sectional study, carried out among 831 adults (35-44 years of age). The dependent variable was access to information on how to avoid oral problems, and the independent variables were gathered into subgroups according to the theoretical model for literacy in health. Binary logistic regression was carried out, and results were corrected by the design effect. It was observed that 37...
March 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Daniela G L Terson de Paleville, Susan J Harkema, Claudia A Angeli
CONTEXT: Four individuals with motor complete SCI with an implanted epidural stimulator who were enrolled in another study were assessed for cardiovascular fitness, metabolic function and body composition at four time points before, during, and after task specific training. Following 80 locomotor training sessions, a 16-electrode array was surgically placed on the dura (L1-S1 cord segments) to allow for electrical stimulation. After implantation individuals received 160 sessions of task specific training with epidural stimulation (stand and step)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
James A Waschek, Serapio M Baca, Simon Akerman
The discovery that intravenous (IV) infusions of the neuropeptide PACAP-38 (pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating peptide-38) induced delayed migraine-like headaches in a large majority of migraine patients has resulted in considerable excitement in headache research. In addition to suggesting potential therapeutic targets for migraine, the finding provides an opportunity to better understand the pathological events from early events (aura) to the headache itself. Although PACAP-38 and the closely related peptide VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide) are well-known as vasoactive molecules, the dilation of cranial blood vessels per se is no longer felt to underlie migraine headaches...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
Tsang Chun On Anderson, Yeung Wan Lung Ryo, Mak Ka Fung, Lui Wai Man
We report a case of unique location of an aneurysm at the atlanto-axial extradural segment of a unilateral aberrant vertebral artery. The MRI vessel wall imaging findings and possible mechanism of aneurysm formation were discussed. A 5 mm extracranial vertebral artery aneurysm located at the interlaminar space between C1 and C2 was diagnosed in a woman presenting with occipital headache. The index vertebral artery ran an aberrant course at the V3 segment, where it entered the dura between C1 and C2 instead of the usual atlanto-occipital space...
March 2018: Neurointervention
Feng Yang, Ming-Sheng Tan, Ping Yi, Xiang-Sheng Tang, Qing-Ying Hao, Ying-Na Qi
OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical effect between spinal card decompression combined with traditional Chinese medicine and simple spinal card decompression for cervical spondylotic myelopathy. METHODS: From June 2012 to June 2015, 73 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy were treated, including 42 males and 31 females, aged from 29 to 73 years old with a mean of 50.9 years old. The patients were divided into the simple operation group (34 cases) and the operation combined with traditional Chinese medicine group(39 cases) according to the idea of themselves...
January 25, 2018: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Danica Popovik-Monevska, Suzana Bozovik-Dvojakovska, Vladimir Popovski, Alberto Benedetti, Aleksandar Grchev, Filip Koneski
BACKGROUND: The hyperparathyroidism (HPT) is a condition in which the parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in the blood are increased. HPT is categorised into primary, secondary and tertiary. A rare entity that occurs in the lower jaw in association with HPT is the so-called brown tumour, which an osteolytic lesion is predominantly occurring in the lower jaw. It is usually a manifestation of the late stage of the disease. Osteosclerotic changes in other bones are almost always associated with renal osteodystrophy in secondary HPT and are extremely rare in primary HPT...
February 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Slavomir Kondoff, Atanas Drenchev, Torello Lotti, Uwe Wollina, Ilia Lozev, Ivan Pidakev, Ivan Terziev, Yavor Grigorov, Serena Gianfaldoni, Georgi Tchernev
BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinomas (BCC) located in the sun-exposed regions are a serious therapeutic challenge. Therefore early diagnosis and adequate therapy should be of a high priority for every dermatologic surgeon. CASE PRESENTATION: We are presenting a patient with multiple BCCs, located on the area of the scalp, who had been treated several years ago with electrocautery and curettage after histopathological verification. However, the last few years the tumours have advanced, infiltrating firstly the tabula external and a year later the tabula interna of the cranium...
February 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
A Llobet, N Nieto, A Damecourt, S Galmiche, M de Boutray
INTRODUCTION: The omental free flap is an effective tool for craniofacial reconstruction. However it is generally under-utilised by a large number of practitioners. This paper's goal is to increase awareness of this free flap's accessibility and to demonstrate that it can be an attractive option for reconstructive surgery. CLINICAL REPORT: This article outlines the details of a 57-year-old patient who required coverage of a fronto-parietal wound with dura mater exposure...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Chun-Ting Chen, Hung-Yi Lai, Ting-Wei Chang, Ching-Yi Lee
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous epidural hemorrhage (EDH) is a rare occurrence that may be caused by vascular anomalies, infections, coagulopathies, or tumors. Spontaneous EDH occurring in patients without specific underlying disease has been reported only as intraspinal lesion but has never been demonstrated in the intracranial area. This study presents a 19-year-old patient with repeated spontaneous intracranial EDH caused twice by hysterical crying. CASE DESCRIPTION: The patient had spontaneous left frontal EDH after hysterical crying...
March 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Andrea Franzini, Federico Legnani, Elena Beretta, Francesco Prada, Francesco DiMeco, Sergio Visintini, Angelo Franzini
BACKGROUND: Laminoplasty and laminectomy are two common surgical procedures utilized in approaching degenerative and neoplastic disease of the spinal canal. Routinely adopted instruments, such as Kerrison rongeur or high-speed drill (HSD), entail some potentially serious complications such as dura injuring and thermal and mechanical damage to neurovascular structures. We have adopted piezoelectric bone surgery, which permits a selective cut of mineralized tissues, to perform posterior procedures on the thoracic spine, where the relationship between bone and the spinal cord are critical...
March 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Takahiro Osada, Timo Krings
BACKGROUND: Pial arterial supplies are sometimes found in patients with dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs), though their characteristics have rarely been clarified. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of pial arterial supplies in DAVFs and to discuss their pathophysiology and treatment. METHODS: Two hundred four consecutive patients with intracranial DAVFs over 11 yr were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical factors and radiological findings, including the presence of pial arterial supplies, were evaluated...
March 8, 2018: Neurosurgery
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