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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622753/re-randomization-tests-for-unplanned-changes-in-clinical-trials
#1
Michael A Proschan
Despite the best efforts of investigators, problems forcing design changes can occur in clinical trials. Changes are usually relatively minor, but sometimes not. The primary endpoint or analysis may need to be revised, for example. It is common to regard any conclusion from such a tarnished trial as hypothesis-generating rather than definitive. This article reviews a very useful technique, re-randomization tests, for dealing with such anomalies. Re-randomization tests remain valid for testing a strong null hypothesis that treatment has no effect on the data that led to design changes...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Trials: Journal of the Society for Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610640/multi-country-outbreak-of-salmonella-enteritidis-infection-linked-to-the-international-ice-hockey-tournament
#2
T Pärn, V Dahl, T Lienemann, J Perevosčikovs, B DE Jong
In April 2015, Finnish public health authorities alerted European Union member states of a possible multi-country Salmonella enteritidis outbreak linked to an international youth ice-hockey tournament in Latvia. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), Finnish and Latvian authorities initiated an outbreak investigation to identify the source. The investigation included a description of the outbreak, retrospective cohort study, microbiological investigation and trace-back. We identified 154 suspected and 96 confirmed cases from seven countries...
June 14, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602556/attacks-against-health-care-in-syria-2015-16-results-from-a-real-time-reporting-tool
#3
Mohamed Elamein, Hilary Bower, Camilo Valderrama, Daher Zedan, Hazem Rihawi, Khaled Almilaji, Mohammed Abdelhafeez, Nabil Tabbal, Naser Almhawish, Sophie Maes, Alaa AbouZeid
BACKGROUND: Collecting credible data on violence against health services, health workers, and patients in war zones is a massive challenge, but crucial to understanding the extent to which international humanitarian law is being breached. We describe a new system used mainly in areas of Syria with a substantial presence of armed opposition groups since November, 2015, to detect and verify attacks on health-care services and describe their effect. METHODS: All Turkey health cluster organisations with a physical presence in Syria, either through deployed and locally employed staff, were asked to participate in the Monitoring Violence against Health Care (MVH) alert network...
June 7, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584696/redefining-acute-relapses-in-multiple-sclerosis-implications-for-phase-3-clinical-trials-and-treatment-algorithms
#4
EDITORIAL
Jagannadha Avasarala
Relapses in multiple sclerosis are defined as periods of clinical worsening and radiological progression. Magnetic resonance imaging data, however, are not always supportive of "clinical worsening," and clinical symptoms of worsening may not always be present in cases of acute relapse. In the pharmaceutical domain, this discordance between "clinical worsening" and "radiological progression" has never been fully elucidated, and no Phase 3 clinical study has addressed this conundrum. Thus, the true number of acute relapse cases enrolled in Phase 3 clinical studies remains unclear...
March 2017: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566992/mobile-device-security-perspectives-of-future-healthcare-workers
#5
Barbara Hewitt, Diane Dolezel, Alexander McLeod
Healthcare data breaches on mobile devices continue to increase, yet the healthcare industry has not adopted mobile device security standards. This increase is disturbing because individuals are often accessing patients' protected health information on personal mobile devices, which could lead to a data breach. This deficiency led the researchers to explore the perceptions of future healthcare workers regarding mobile device security. To determine healthcare students' perspectives on mobile device security, the investigators designed and distributed a survey based on the Technology Threat Avoidance Theory...
2017: Perspectives in Health Information Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559688/the-mental-health-of-children-and-parents-detained-on-christmas-island-secondary-analysis-of-an-australian-human-rights-commission-data-set
#6
Sarah Mares
This paper describes secondary analysis of previously unreported data collected during the 2014 Australian Human Rights Commission Inquiry into Children in Immigration Detention. The aim was to examine the mental health of asylum-seeking parents and children during prolonged immigration detention and to consider the human rights implications of the findings. The average period of detention was seven months. Data includes 166 Kessler 10 Scales (K10) and 70 Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires (SDQ) for children aged 3-17 and parental concerns about 48 infants...
December 2016: Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559587/urban-eddy-covariance-measurements-reveal-significant-missing-nox-emissions-in-central-europe
#7
T Karl, M Graus, M Striednig, C Lamprecht, A Hammerle, G Wohlfahrt, A Held, L von der Heyden, M J Deventer, A Krismer, C Haun, R Feichter, J Lee
Nitrogen oxide (NOx) pollution is emerging as a primary environmental concern across Europe. While some large European metropolitan areas are already in breach of EU safety limits for NO2, this phenomenon does not seem to be only restricted to large industrialized areas anymore. Many smaller scale populated agglomerations including their surrounding rural areas are seeing frequent NO2 concentration violations. The question of a quantitative understanding of different NOx emission sources is therefore of immanent relevance for climate and air chemistry models as well as air pollution management and health...
May 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554035/isolation-of-eudesmanes-from-pluchea-odorata-and-evaluation-of-their-effects-on-cancer-cell-growth-and-tumor-invasiveness-in%C3%A2-vitro
#8
Michael Blaschke, Martin Zehl, Beatrix Hartl, Claudia Strauß, Johannes Winkler, Ernst Urban, Georg Krupitza, Brigitte Kopp
The traditionally used Central American medicinal plant Pluchea odorata, known as an anti-inflammatory and cancer cell growth-inhibiting remedy, was subjected to bioassay-guided isolation. Structure elucidation by 1D- and 2D-NMR and MS techniques supported by ECD and UV spectroscopic data revealed seven structurally previously undescribed and eight known eudesmane-type sesquiterpenes. Furthermore, one previously undescribed and one known phytol-like alcohol were identified. All compounds were tested for their cytotoxicity in cancer cells and for their anti-invasive effects...
May 26, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545474/a-retrospective-study-to-assess-the-evaluation-of-living-related-kidney-donors-and-their-outcomes-following-nephrectomy-at-kenyatta-national-hospital
#9
A Muturi, V Kotecha, S Kanyi
BACKGROUND: Kidney transplantation is the renal replacement therapy of choice for end stage renal disease. To ensure safety regular audit of the donation process is necessary. The aim of this study was to assess the evaluation of potential living related kidney donors and document their outcomes following nephrectomy. METHODS: This was a retrospective descriptive study involving all living related kidney donors seen at Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH) renal unit from 2010 to 2014...
May 25, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514523/the-views-of-older-people-and-health-professionals-about-dignity-in-acute-hospital-care
#10
Marcelle Tauber-Gilmore, Gulen Addis, Zainab Zahran, Sally Black, Lesley Baillie, Sue Procter, Christine Norton
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This paper reports the findings from interviews conducted as part of a wider study on interventions to support dignified care in older people in acute hospital care. The data in this paper present the interview data. BACKGROUND: Dignity is a complex concept. Despite a plethora of recommendations on how to achieve dignified care it remains unclear how to attain this in practice and what the priorities of patients and staff are in relation to dignity...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511164/changes-of-lipidic-and-the-immunological-state-at-patients-with-a-metabolic-syndrome-in-ukraine
#11
Olena O Karlova, Sergei T Omelchuk, Olena V Kuzminska, Valentyna V Melnyk
INTRODUCTION: The metabolic syndrome has become pandemic nature and tends to rejuvenation in the world. Elucidation of the pathogenic mechanisms on membrane-cell level will optimize the treatment of patients with metabolic syndrome and prevention of metabolic syndrome on the level of pre-clinical manifestations. AIM: to study the immunological status and lipid metabolism in the patients with metabolic syndrome and the pathogenetic mechanisms of metabolic syndrome were established...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487856/computing-spatiotemporal-heat-maps-of-lipid-electropore-formation-a-statistical-approach
#12
Willy Wriggers, Federica Castellani, Julio A Kovacs, P Thomas Vernier
We extend the multiscale spatiotemporal heat map strategies originally developed for interpreting molecular dynamics simulations of well-structured proteins to liquids such as lipid bilayers and solvents. Our analysis informs the experimental and theoretical investigation of electroporation, that is, the externally imposed breaching of the cell membrane under the influence of an electric field of sufficient magnitude. To understand the nanoscale architecture of electroporation, we transform time domain data of the coarse-grained interaction networks of lipids and solvents into spatial heat maps of the most relevant constituent molecules...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483143/spatial-and-temporal-analysis-of-the-risks-posed-by-total-petroleum-hydrocarbon-and-trace-element-contaminants-in-coastal-waters-of-kuwait
#13
E E M Nicolaus, S R Wright, J Barry, T P C Bolam, K Ghareeb, M Ghaloom, N Al-Kanderi, B F M Harley, W J F Le Quesne, M J Devlin, B P Lyons
Nine trace elements including As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Pb, V and Zn, and total petroleum hydrocarbons were analysed from water samples collected from 23 stations since 1984 from Kuwaiti coastal waters. Here it was investigated whether concentrations of these determinants are at levels above Kuwaiti and internationally established assessment criteria (AC). The results indicate that Cu and Cd had the most Kuwaiti AC breaches over time. Comparing the data of the last sampled year to the least stringent international AC, then Cu and Cd showed breaches at all stations...
May 5, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480484/online-ethics-where-will-the-interface-of-mental-health-and-the-internet-lead-us
#14
REVIEW
Victoria Cosgrove, Emma Gliddon, Lesley Berk, David Grimm, Sue Lauder, Seetal Dodd, Michael Berk, Trisha Suppes
While e-health initiatives are poised to revolutionize delivery and access to mental health care, conducting clinical research online involves specific contextual and ethical considerations. Face-to-face psychosocial interventions can at times entail risk and have adverse psychoactive effects, something true for online mental health programs too. Risks associated with and specific to internet psychosocial interventions include potential breaches of confidentiality related to online communications (such as unencrypted email), data privacy and security, risks of self-selection and self-diagnosis as well as the shortcomings of receiving psychoeducation and treatment at distance from an impersonal website...
December 2017: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476153/-when-they-know-that-you-are-a-sex-worker-you-will-be-the-last-person-to-be-treated-perceptions-and-experiences-of-female-sex-workers-in-accessing-hiv-services-in-uganda
#15
Rhoda K Wanyenze, Geofrey Musinguzi, Juliet Kiguli, Fred Nuwaha, Geoffrey Mujisha, Joshua Musinguzi, Jim Arinaitwe, Joseph K B Matovu
BACKGROUND: HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs) in high burden countries in sub-Saharan Africa varies between 24 and 72%, however their access to HIV services remains limited. This study explored FSWs' perspectives of the barriers and opportunities to HIV service access in Uganda. METHODS: The cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted between October and December 2013. Twenty-four focus group discussions were conducted with 190 FSWs in 12 districts...
May 5, 2017: BMC International Health and Human Rights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470845/squid-predation-by-slender-sunfish-ranzania-laevis-molidae
#16
M Nyegaard, N Loneragan, M B Santos
In addition to crustaceans, remains from 17 individual squid were found in the stomach of a 58 cm slender sunfish Ranzania laevis from Australia, adding a new prey item to their little studied diet. Taken together with existing data from the literature, crustaceans appear to be a common prey item, with larger R. laevis (26-65 cm) also taking small fish and squid. Along with new documentation on breaching, the unexpected finding of squid in the stomach confirms that these fish are fast and agile predators...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470667/autoreactive-monoclonal-antibodies-from-patients-with-primary-biliary-cholangitis-recognize-environmental-xenobiotics
#17
Toshihiro Tanaka, Weici Zhang, Ying Sun, Zongwen Shuai, Asiya Chida, Thomas P Kenny, Guo-Xiang Yang, Ignacio Sanz, Aftab Ansai, Christopher L Bowlus, Gregory C Ippolito, Ross L Coppel, Kazuichi Okazaki, Xiao-Song He, Patrick S C Leung, M Eric Gershwin
A major problem in autoimmunity has been identification of the earliest events that lead to breach of tolerance. Although there have been major advances in dissecting effector pathways and the multi-lineage immune responses to mitochondrial self-antigens in primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), the critical links between environmental factors and tolerance remain elusive. We hypothesized that environmental xenobiotic modification of the E2 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDC-E2) inner lipoyl domain can lead to loss of tolerance to genetically susceptible hosts...
May 3, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469898/the-value-of-a-surgical-assessment-unit-ultrasound-facility
#18
Wesley Lai, Catherine Gutteridge, Alicia Regan, Anthony Lambert
Ultrasound scan (USS) is a common and important mode of investigation for emergency surgical admissions. Delay in investigation often leads to delayed diagnosis and treatment, and possible extended length of stay (LOS), which has clinical, cost and service provision implications. We aim to investigate the clinical impact on patient care and the cost-effectiveness of a pilot Surgical Assessment Unit (SAU) USS facility. We performed a retrospective data collection on 100 consecutive SAU inpatients who had an USS investigation on the ward since the introduction of the facility, matched by 100 consecutive SAU inpatients who had an USS in the radiology department before the pilot study...
2017: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464877/assessment-of-knowledge-about-biobanking-among-healthcare-students-and-their-willingness-to-donate-biospecimens
#19
Leena Merdad, Lama Aldakhil, Rawan Gadi, Mourad Assidi, Salina Y Saddick, Adel Abuzenadah, Jim Vaught, Abdelbaset Buhmeida, Mohammed H Al-Qahtani
BACKGROUND: Biobanks and biospecimen collections are becoming a primary means of delivering personalized diagnostics and tailoring individualized therapeutics. This shift towards precision medicine (PM) requires interactions among a variety of stakeholders, including the public, patients, healthcare providers, government, and donors. Very few studies have investigated the role of healthcare students in biobanking and biospecimen donations. The main aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the knowledge of senior healthcare students about biobanks and (2) to assess the students' willingness to donate biospecimens and the factors influencing their attitudes...
May 2, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463609/initial-academic-experience-and-learning-curve-with-robotic-spine-instrumentation
#20
Timur M Urakov, Ken Hsuan-Kan Chang, S Shelby Burks, Michael Y Wang
OBJECTIVE Spine surgery is complex and involves various steps. Current robotic technology is mostly aimed at assisting with pedicle screw insertion. This report evaluates the feasibility of robot-assisted pedicle instrumentation in an academic environment with the involvement of residents and fellows. METHODS The Renaissance Guidance System was used to plan and execute pedicle screw placement in open and percutaneous consecutive cases performed in the period of December 2015 to December 2016. The database was reviewed to assess the usability of the robot by neurosurgical trainees...
May 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
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