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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927870/insidious-risk-of-severe-mycobacterium-chimaera-infection-in-cardiac-surgery-patients
#1
Meera Chand, Theresa Lamagni, Katharina Kranzer, Jessica Hedge, Ginny Moore, Simon Parks, Samuel Collins, Carlos Del Ojo Elias, Nada Ahmed, Tim Brown, E Grace Smith, Peter Hoffman, Peter Kirwan, Brendan Mason, Alison Smith-Palmer, Philip Veal, Maeve K Lalor, Allan Bennett, James Walker, Alicia Yeap, Antonio Isidro Carrion Martin, Gayle Dolan, Sonia Bhatt, Andrew Skingsley, André Charlett, David Pearce, Katherine Russell, Simon Kendall, Andrew A Klein, Stephen Robins, Silke Schelenz, William Newsholme, Stephanie Thomas, Tim Collyns, Eleri Davies, Jim McMenamin, Lorraine Doherty, Tim Ea Peto, Derrick Crook, Maria Zambon, Nick Phin
BACKGROUND: An urgent UK investigation was launched to assess risk of invasive Mycobacterium chimaera infection in cardiothoracic surgery and a possible association with cardiopulmonary bypass heater-cooler units following alerts in Switzerland and the Netherlands. METHODS: Parallel investigations were pursued: i) identification of cardiopulmonary bypass-associated M. chimaera infection through national laboratory and hospital admissions data linkage ii) cohort study to assess patient risk iii) microbiological and aerobiological investigations of heater-coolers in situ and under controlled laboratory conditions iv) whole genome sequencing of clinical and environmental isolates...
December 7, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920270/think-like-a-hacker-insights-on-the-latest-attack-vectors-and-security-controls-for-medical-device-applications
#2
Mandeep Khera
Ready or not, the Internet of things (IoT) is here. No longer just a buzz term, it'll continue to grow at an unprecedented pace over the next few years expecting to reach over 25 billion connected devices by 2020. History shows us that most fast growth technology solutions focus on solving business problems first and security is an afterthought. Unfortunately, IoT is following the same trend. Most IoT devices, apps, and infrastructure were developed without security in mind and are likely going to become targets of hackers...
December 4, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919394/the-other-side-of-the-coin-harm-due-to-the-non-use-of-health-related-data
#3
Kerina H Jones, Graeme Laurie, Leslie Stevens, Christine Dobbs, David V Ford, Nathan Lea
INTRODUCTION: It is widely acknowledged that breaches and misuses of health-related data can have serious implications and consequently they often carry penalties. However, harm due to the omission of health data usage, or data non-use, is a subject that lacks attention. A better understanding of this 'other side of the coin' is required before it can be addressed effectively. APPROACH: This article uses an international case study approach to explore why data non-use is difficult to ascertain, the sources and types of health-related data non-use, its implications for citizens and society and some of the reasons it occurs...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919391/privacy-preserving-data-cube-for-electronic-medical-records-an-experimental-evaluation
#4
Soohyung Kim, Hyukki Lee, Yon Dohn Chung
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of privacy-preserving data cubes of electronic medical records (EMRs). An EMR data cube is a complex of EMR statistics that are summarized or aggregated by all possible combinations of attributes. Data cubes are widely utilized for efficient big data analysis and also have great potential for EMR analysis. For safe data analysis without privacy breaches, we must consider the privacy preservation characteristics of the EMR data cube...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910935/disentangling-the-roles-of-cholesterol-and-cd59-in-intermedilysin-pore-formation
#5
Courtney M Boyd, Edward S Parsons, Richard A G Smith, John M Seddon, Oscar Ces, Doryen Bubeck
The plasma membrane provides an essential barrier, shielding a cell from the pressures of its external environment. Pore-forming proteins, deployed by both hosts and pathogens alike, breach this barrier to lyse target cells. Intermedilysin is a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin that requires the human immune receptor CD59, in addition to cholesterol, to form giant β-barrel pores in host membranes. Here we integrate biochemical assays with electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy to distinguish the roles of these two receptors in mediating structural transitions of pore formation...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891552/enteric-glial-cells-are-susceptible-to-clostridium-difficile-toxin-b
#6
Katia Fettucciari, Pamela Ponsini, Davide Gioè, Lara Macchioni, Camilla Palumbo, Elisabetta Antonelli, Stefano Coaccioli, Vincenzo Villanacci, Lanfranco Corazzi, Pierfrancesco Marconi, Gabrio Bassotti
Clostridium difficile causes nosocomial/antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis. The major virulence factors are toxin A and toxin B (TcdB), which inactivate GTPases by monoglucosylation, leading to cytopathic (cytoskeleton alteration, cell rounding) and cytotoxic effects (cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis). C. difficile toxins breaching the intestinal epithelial barrier can act on underlying cells, enterocytes, colonocytes, and enteric neurons, as described in vitro and in vivo, but until now no data have been available on enteric glial cell (EGC) susceptibility...
November 28, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890940/whatever-happened-to-formal-methods-for-security
#7
J Voas, K Schaffer
We asked 7 experts 7 questions to find out what has occurred recently in terms of applying formal methods (FM) to security-centric, cyber problems. We are continually reminded of the 1996 paper by Tony Hoare "How did Software Get So Reliable Without Proof?" [1] In that vein, how did we get so insecure with proof? Given daily press announcements concerning new malware, data breaches, and privacy loss, is FM still relevant or was it ever? Our experts answered with unique personal insights. We were curious as to whether this successful methodology in "safety-critical" has succeeded as well for today's "build it, hack it, patch it" mindset...
August 2016: Computer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862568/aggregation-and-a-strong-allee-effect-in-a-cooperative-outbreak-insect
#8
D W Goodsman, D Koch, C Whitehouse, M L Evenden, B J Cooke, M A Lewis
Most species that are negatively impacted when their densities are low aggregate to minimize this effect. Aggregation has the potential to change how Allee effects are expressed at the population level. We studied the interplay between aggregation and Allee effects in the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), an irruptive bark beetle that aggregates to overcome tree defenses. By cooperating to surpass a critical number of attacks per tree, the mountain pine beetle is able to breach host defenses, oviposit, and reproduce...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849369/understanding-barriers-to-scaling-up-hiv-assisted-partner-services-in-kenya
#9
Marielle Goyette, Beatrice Muthoni Wamuti, Mercy Owuor, David Bukusi, Peter Mutiti Maingi, Felix Abuna Otieno, Peter Cherutich, Anne Ng'ang'a, Carey Farquhar
Assisted partner services (APS) are more effective than passive referral in identifying new cases of HIV in many settings. Understanding the barriers to the uptake of APS in sub-Saharan Africa is important before its scale up. In this qualitative study, we explored client, community, and healthcare worker barriers to APS within a cluster randomized trial of APS in Kenya. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews with clients who declined enrollment in the APS study and 9 focus group discussions with health advisors, HIV testing and counseling (HTC) counselors, and the general HTC client population...
November 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837457/external-radiotherapy-for-breast-cancer-in-the-elderly
#10
REVIEW
Francesca Maria Giugliano, Sara Falivene, Emanuela Esposito, Rossella Di Franco, Matteo Muto, Massimiliano D'Aiuto, Paolo Muto
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy amongst elderly women and the main cause of mortality. A specific management for elderly woman is not clear because clinical trials are usually not customized for this subset of patients. AIMS: The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the available information on the main issues in the field of breast cancer radiotherapy in the elderly population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Authors discuss on different radiation treatments for breast cancer in the elderly, based on the data of the literature with a focus on new strategy: hypo-fractionation, accelerated partial breast irradiation, and the utility of a dose boost...
November 11, 2016: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835822/woven-coronary-artery-anomaly-presenting-as-sudden-cardiac-death
#11
José-Fernando Val-Bernal, Séfora Malaxetxebarria, Irene González-Rodilla, Miguel Salas-García
Woven coronary artery is a rare anomaly characterized by thin channels arising from the coronary artery and reanastomosing at the distal arterial segment. To our knowledge, no data are available currently on the histologic structure of the woven segment. A 39-year-old man presented with sudden atypical chest pain while he was practicing cycling. During the transfer of the patient to the hospital, he suffered cardiac arrest. After 50 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, the patient could not return to sinus rhythm and died...
October 20, 2016: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834660/private-and-efficient-query-processing-on-outsourced-genomic-databases
#12
Reza Ghasemi, Md Momin Al Aziz, Noman Mohammed, Massoud Hadian Dehkordi, Xiaoqian Jiang
Applications of genomic studies are spreading rapidly in many domains of science and technology such as healthcare, biomedical research, direct-to-consumer services, and legal and forensic. However, there are a number of obstacles that make it hard to access and process a big genomic database for these applications. First, sequencing genomic sequence is a timeconsuming and expensive process. Second, it requires large-scale computation and storage systems to processes genomic sequences. Third, genomic databases are often owned by different organizations and thus not available for public usage...
November 4, 2016: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808392/retraction-retraction-of-efficacy-and-safety-of-nucleoside-analogues-in-preventing-vertical-transmission-of-the-hepatitis-b-virus-from-father-to-infant-by-l-h-cao-p-l-zhao-z-m-liu-s-c-sun-d-b-xu-j-d-zhang-and-z-h-shao-genet-mol-res-14-4-15539-15546-2015
#13
L-H Cao, P-L Zhao, Z-M Liu, S-C Sun, D-B Xu, J-D Zhang, Z-H Shao
The retracted article is: Cao L-H, Zhao P-L, Liu Z-M, Sun S-C, et al. (2015). Efficacy and safety of nucleoside analogues in preventing vertical transmission of the hepatitis B virus from father to infant. Genet. Mol. Res. 14: 15539-15546. The article published in Genetics and Molecular Research 14 (4): 15539-15546 (2015) is a very good paper, but it appears that the authors' group submitted this manuscript to multiple journals, which is ethical misconduct. This manuscript (similar language and identical data) was published in the Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine Journal prior to being submitted to GMR...
October 7, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788436/air-quality-across-a-european-hotspot-spatial-gradients-seasonality-diurnal-cycles-and-trends-in-the-veneto-region-ne-italy
#14
Mauro Masiol, Stefania Squizzato, Gianni Formenton, Roy M Harrison, Claudio Agostinelli
The Veneto region (NE Italy) lies in the eastern part of the Po Valley, a European hotspot for air pollution. Data for key air pollutants (CO, NO, NO2, O3, SO2, PM10 and PM2.5) measured over 7years (2008/2014) across 43 sites in Veneto were processed to characterise their spatial and temporal patterns and assess the air quality. Nitrogen oxides, PM and ozone are critical pollutants frequently breaching the EC limit and target values. Intersite analysis demonstrates a widespread pollution across the region and shows that primary pollutants (nitrogen oxides, CO, PM) are significantly higher in cities and over the flat lands due to higher anthropogenic pressures...
October 24, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736053/hospitalizations-for-substance-abuse-disorders-before-and-after-hurricane-katrina-spatial-clustering-and-area-level-predictors-new-orleans-2004-and-2008
#15
Imelda K Moise, Marilyn O Ruiz
INTRODUCTION: Identifying at-risk groups is a challenge in post-disaster psychosocial response. Geospatial techniques can support the design and deployment of targeted and tailored interventions. This study compared spatial patterns in the distribution of hospitalizations for substance abuse disorders and associated area-level predictors before and after Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans, Louisiana. METHODS: We used hospital data from the Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals for 2004 (pre-Katrina) and 2008 (post-Katrina)...
October 13, 2016: Preventing Chronic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732724/differential-molecular-expression-of-extracellular-matrix-and-inflammatory-genes-at-the-corneal-cone-apex-drives-focal-weakening-in-keratoconus
#16
Natasha Pahuja, Nimisha R Kumar, Rushad Shroff, Rohit Shetty, Rudy M M A Nuijts, Anuprita Ghosh, Abhijit Sinha-Roy, Shyam S Chaurasia, Rajiv R Mohan, Arkasubhra Ghosh
Purpose: In this study, we elucidated the differential expression of a set of local molecular factors in ectatic cone area of the cornea to uncover a functional cause for focal corneal weakening characteristic of the keratoconus (KC) disease. Methods: All human corneal samples were collected after approval of Institutional Ethics Committee and informed consent. Keratoconus patients were classified based on clinical parameters, topographical features, and structural deformity...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730389/security-attacks-and-solutions-in-electronic-health-e-health-systems
#17
Sherali Zeadally, Jesús Téllez Isaac, Zubair Baig
For centuries, healthcare has been a basic service provided by many governments to their citizens. Over the past few decades, we have witnessed a significant transformation in the quality of healthcare services provided by healthcare organizations and professionals. Recent advances have led to the emergence of Electronic Health (E-health), largely made possible by the massive deployment and adoption of information and communication technologies (ICTs). However, cybercriminals and attackers are exploiting vulnerabilities associated primarily with ICTs, causing data breaches of patients' confidential digital health information records...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27702792/how-can-hospitals-better-protect-the-privacy-of-electronic-medical-records-perspectives-from-staff-members-of-health-information-management-departments
#18
Ming-Ling Sher, Paul C Talley, Tain-Junn Cheng, Kuang-Ming Kuo
PURPOSE: The adoption of electronic medical records (EMR) is expected to better improve overall healthcare quality and to offset the financial pressure of excessive administrative burden. However, safeguarding EMR against potentially hostile security breaches from both inside and outside healthcare facilities has created increased patients' privacy concerns from all sides. The aim of our study was to examine the influencing factors of privacy protection for EMR by healthcare professionals...
October 4, 2016: HIM Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697519/mechanical-perspectives-on-the-anterior-posterior-axis-polarization-of-mouse-implanted-embryos
#19
Isao Matsuo, Ryuji Hiramatsu
In most mammals, embryonic development and growth proceed in the maternal uterus. Mouse late blastocyst embryos implant on the uterine epithelium around embryonic day (E)4.5, and immediately afterward the whole embryo's shape is dynamically changed from a bowl-like shape to an elongated egg-cylinder until E5.5. Concurrently, mouse anterior-posterior (A-P) axis polarization occurs by the emergence of distal visceral endoderm (DVE) cells at the cellular and molecular levels as the proximal-distal (P-D) axis. The embryonic growth and axis polarization are considered to be controlled primarily by multiple growth factors' signaling...
September 30, 2016: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27689562/cybersecurity-in-healthcare-a-systematic-review-of-modern-threats-and-trends
#20
Clemens Scott Kruse, Benjamin Frederick, Taylor Jacobson, D Kyle Monticone
BACKGROUND: The adoption of healthcare technology is arduous, and it requires planning and implementation time. Healthcare organizations are vulnerable to modern trends and threats because it has not kept up with threats. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review is to identify cybersecurity trends, including ransomware, and identify possible solutions by querying academic literature. METHODS: The reviewers conducted three separate searches through the CINAHL and PubMed (MEDLINE) and the Nursing and Allied Health Source via ProQuest databases...
September 20, 2016: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
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