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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324822/biting-mechanics-and-niche-separation-in-a-specialized-clade-of-primate-seed-predators
#1
Justin A Ledogar, Theodora H Y Luk, Jonathan M G Perry, Dimitri Neaux, Stephen Wroe
We analyzed feeding biomechanics in pitheciine monkeys (Pithecia, Chiropotes, Cacajao), a clade that specializes on hard-husked unripe fruit (sclerocarpy) and resistant seeds (seed predation). We tested the hypothesis that pitheciine crania are well-suited to generate and withstand forceful canine and molar biting, with the prediction that they generate bite forces more efficiently and better resist masticatory strains than the closely-related Callicebus, which does not specialize on unripe fruits and/or seeds...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29294741/factors-associated-with-police-decisions-on-immediate-responses-to-intimate-partner-violence
#2
Merete Berg Nesset, Johan Håkon Bjørngaard, Jim Aage Nøttestad, Richard Whittington, Cecilie Lynum, Cand Psychol, Tom Palmstierna
Police officers are often the first responders to intimate partner violence. The aim of the study was to examine the association between structured police assessments on-site in cases of intimate partner violence, and decisions about immediate arrest of the perpetrator and/or relocation of the victim. Data were extracted from police reports on 124 emergency visits in cases of intimate partner violence perpetrated by men toward women. Six out of totally 15 items of the intimate partner violence risk assessment measure B-SAFER were used by the front line police officers as the basis for decisions on whether or not to arrest the perpetrator or relocate the victim...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281834/sting-dependent-signaling-underlies-il-10-controlled-inflammatory-colitis
#3
Jeonghyun Ahn, Sehee Son, Sergio C Oliveira, Glen N Barber
Intestinal immune homeostasis is preserved by commensal bacteria interacting with the host to generate a balanced array of cytokines that are essential for wound repair and for combatting infection. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which can lead to colitis-associated cancer (CAC), is thought to involve chronic microbial irritation following a breach of the mucosal intestinal epithelium. However, the innate immune pathways responsible for regulating these inflammatory processes remain to be fully clarified...
December 26, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277596/smartphone-usage-patterns-by-canadian-neurosurgery-residents-a-national-cross-sectional-survey
#4
M M Kameda-Smith, C Iorio-Morin, A Winkler-Schwartz, Ahmed S Uzair, D Bergeron, M Bigder, A Dakson, C A Elliott, D Guha, P Lavergne, S Makarenko, M S Taccone, M Tso, B Wang, D Fortin
BACKGROUND: Smartphones and their apps are used ubiquitously in medical practice. However in some cases their use can be at odds with current patient data safety regulations such as Canada's Personal Health Information Protection Act (PHIPA) 2004. In order to assess current practices and inform mobile application development, we sought to better understand mobile device usage patterns amongst Canadian neurosurgery residents. METHODS: Through the Canadian Neurosurgery Research Collaborative (CNRC), an online survey characterizing smartphone ownership and usage patterns was developed and sent to all Canadian neurosurgery resident in April of 2016...
December 22, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273920/particulate-matter-concentration-levels-during-intense-haze-event-in-an-urban-environment
#5
Jamiu Adetayo Adeniran, Adeniyi Saheed Aremu, Yusuf Olatunji Saadu, Rafiu Olasunkanmi Yusuf
This study assessed concentration levels of particulate matter (PM) in the ambient environment of Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria, during haze episodes. Meteorological data (wind speed and direction, rainfall data, sunshine data, relative humidity and temperature) were obtained. Aerocet 531S particle counter (MetOne Instruments, USA) was used to measure four mass concentration ranges of PM (PM1.0, PM2.5, PM10 and the total suspended particles (TSP)) in 10 locations taking into consideration land use patterns. Surfer® version 8 (Golden Software LLC, USA) was used to model the spatial variation of particulate matter concentration levels using kriging interpolation griding method...
December 22, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273560/transnational-social-movement-theory-and-the-waning-war-on-drugs-case-studies-from-ungass-2016
#6
Ben Mostyn, Helen Gibbon
BACKGROUND: The United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs 1988 ("1988 Convention") expresses a strong normative preference for criminalising drug possession. Historically, the United Nations offices responsible for overseeing the treaties have held that decriminalisation of drug possession is contrary to the treaties. Leading up to and during UNGASS 2016, however, rather than emphasise criminalisation, the high-ranking officials from the drug control offices emphasised the treaties' allowance of alternatives to punishment for drug possession offences...
December 19, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238444/user-authentication-in-smartphones-for-telehealth
#7
Katherine A Smith, Leming Zhou, Valerie J M Watzlaf
Many functions previously conducted on desktop computers are now performed on smartphones. Smartphones provide convenience, portability, and connectivity. When smartphones are used in the conduct of telehealth, sensitive data is invariably accessed, rendering the devices in need of user authentication to ensure data protection. User authentication of smartphones can help mitigate potential Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) breaches and keep sensitive patient information protected, while also facilitating the convenience of smartphones within everyday life and healthcare...
2017: International Journal of Telerehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215500/feasibility-and-accuracy-of-thoracolumbar-minimally-invasive-pedicle-screw-placement-with-augmented-reality-navigation-technology
#8
Adrian Elmi-Terander, Rami Nachabe, Halldor Skulason, Kyrre Pedersen, Michael Söderman, John Racadio, Drazenko Babic, Paul Gerdhem, Erik Edström
STUDY DESIGN: Cadaveric laboratory study. OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and accuracy of minimally invasive thoracolumbar pedicle screw placement using augmented reality (AR) surgical navigation SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Minimally invasive spine (MIS) surgery has increasingly become the method of choice for a wide variety of spine pathologies. Navigation technology based on AR has been shown to be feasible, accurate and safe in open procedures. AR technology may also be used for MIS surgery...
December 19, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214966/communicating-identifiability-risks-to-biobank-donors
#9
T J Kasperbauer, Mickey Gjerris, Gunhild Waldemar, Peter Sandøe
Recent highly publicized privacy breaches in healthcare and genomics research have led many to question whether current standards of data protection are adequate. Improvements in de-identification techniques, combined with pervasive data sharing, have increased the likelihood that external parties can track individuals across multiple databases. This article focuses on the communication of identifiability risks in the process of obtaining consent for donation and research. Most ethical discussions of identifiability risks have focused on the severity of the risk and how it might be mitigated, and what precisely is at stake in pervasive data sharing...
January 2018: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204889/authorization-of-tissues-from-deceased-patients-for-genetic-research
#10
Maureen Wilson-Genderson, K Laura Barker, Heather M Gardiner, Maghboeba Mosavel, Jeffrey Thomas, Laura A Siminoff
Tissues from deceased donors provide important data for genomic research and Organ Procurement Organizations (OPOs) play a significant role. To understand the decisions of families who donated for transplantation and made decisions about donation to the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project (GTEx), we examined donation decisions of family decision makers (FDMs). 413 families were interviewed by telephone. The OPO staff who made the transplant and research requests completed self-administered surveys; a total of 309 matching surveys from 99 OPO staff were obtained...
December 4, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204782/adjusting-for-cross-cultural-differences-in-computer-adaptive-tests-of-quality-of-life
#11
C J Gibbons, S M Skevington
PURPOSE: Previous studies using the WHOQOL measures have demonstrated that the relationship between individual items and the underlying quality of life (QoL) construct may differ between cultures. If unaccounted for, these differing relationships can lead to measurement bias which, in turn, can undermine the reliability of results. METHODS: We used item response theory (IRT) to assess differential item functioning (DIF) in WHOQOL data from diverse language versions collected in UK, Zimbabwe, Russia, and India (total N = 1332)...
December 4, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202094/the-experimental-public-in-longitudinal-health-research-views-of-local-leaders-and-service-providers-in-rural-south-africa
#12
Rhian Twine, Gillian Lewando Hundt, Kathleen Kahn
Background: The concept of 'experimental public' has been recently applied to publics involved in clinical trials. This term could also be applied to publics involved in longitudinal research such as health and demographic surveillance systems. The ethics of practice and public engagement with these experimental publics are of key importance and include issues of informed consent, confidentiality, collection of body tissue samples and fair local benefit. Methods: Individual (n = 11) and focus group (n = 5) qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 56 local leaders and service providers regarding their views about research activities in a longitudinal health research study site run by the MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt) in rural South Africa...
2017: Global Health Research and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192879/pedicle-screw-placement-accuracy-using-ultra-low-radiation-imaging-with-image-enhancement-versus-conventional-fluoroscopy-in-minimally-invasive-transforaminal-lumbar-interbody-fusion-an-internally-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Gautam Nayar, Daniel J Blizzard, Timothy Y Wang, Steven Cook, Adam G Back, David Vincent, Isaac O Karikari
OBJECTIVE A previous study found that ultra-low radiation imaging (ULRI) with image enhancement significantly decreases radiation exposure by roughly 75% for both the patient and operating room personnel during minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) (p < 0.001). However, no clinical data exist on whether this imaging modality negatively impacts patient outcomes. Thus, the goal of this randomized controlled trial was to assess pedicle screw placement accuracy with ULRI with image enhancement compared with conventional, standard-dose fluoroscopy for patients undergoing single-level MIS-TLIF...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178000/a-procedure-to-evaluate-the-factors-determining-the-elemental-composition-of-pm2-5-case-study-the-veneto-region-northeastern-italy
#14
Francesca Benetello, Stefania Squizzato, Mauro Masiol, Md Badiuzzaman Khan, Flavia Visin, Gianni Formenton, Bruno Pavoni
The Po Valley is one of the most important hot spots in Europe for air pollution. Morphological features and anthropogenic pressures lead to frequent breaching of air quality standards and to high-pollution episodes in an ~46 × 103-km2-wide alluvial lowland. Therefore, it is increasingly important to study the air quality in a wide geographical scale to better implement possible and successful mitigation measures. The Veneto region lies in the eastern part of the Po Valley and the elemental composition of PM has been mainly studied in the Venice area, whereas scarce data are available for the remaining territory of the region...
November 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170648/one-big-happy-family-unraveling-the-relationship-between-shared-perceptions-of-team-psychological-contracts-person-team-fit-and-team-performance
#15
Katherine Gibbard, Yannick Griep, Rein De Cooman, Genevieve Hoffart, Denis Onen, Hamidreza Zareipour
With the knowledge that team work is not always associated with high(er) performance, we draw from the Multi-Level Theory of Psychological Contracts, Person-Environment Fit Theory, and Optimal Distinctiveness Theory to study shared perceptions of psychological contract (PC) breach in relation to shared perceptions of complementary and supplementary fit to explain why some teams perform better than other teams. We collected three repeated survey measures in a sample of 128 respondents across 46 teams. After having made sure that we met all statistical criteria, we aggregated our focal variables to the team-level and analyzed our data by means of a longitudinal three-wave autoregressive moderated-mediation model in which each relationship was one-time lag apart...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155344/freehand-technique-for-c2-pedicle-and-pars-screw-placement-safe-or-not
#16
Prachya Punyarat, K Daniel Riew, Benjamin T Klawson, Colleen Peters, Thamrong Lertudomphonwanit, Jacob M Buchowski
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: During placement of C2 pedicle and pars screws, intraoperative fluoroscopy is used so that neurovascular complications can be avoided, and screws can be placed in the proper position. However, this method is time consuming and increases radiation exposure. Furthermore, it does not guarantee completely safe and accurate screw placement. PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety of the C2 pedicle and pars screw placement without fluoroscopic or other guidance methods...
November 16, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137552/clinical-governance-breakdown-australian-cases-of-wilful-blindness-and-whistleblowing
#17
Sonja Cleary, Maxine Duke
BACKGROUND: After their attempts to have patient safety concerns addressed internally were ignored by wilfully blind managers, nurses from Bundaberg Base Hospital and Macarthur Health Service felt compelled to 'blow the whistle'. Wilful blindness is the human desire to prefer ignorance to knowledge; the responsibility to be informed is shirked. OBJECTIVE: To provide an account of instances of wilful blindness identified in two high-profile cases of nurse whistleblowing in Australia...
January 1, 2017: Nursing Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136017/practices-in-security-and-confidentiality-of-hiv-aids-patients-information-a-national-survey-among-staff-at-hiv-outpatient-clinics-in-vietnam
#18
Nguyen Khac Hai, Saranath Lawpoolsri, Podjanee Jittamala, Phan Thi Thu Huong, Jaranit Kaewkungwal
INTRODUCTION: Breach of confidentiality or invasion of privacy from the collection and use of medical records, particularly those of patients with HIV/AIDS or other diseases sensitive to stigmatization, should be prevented by all related stakeholders in healthcare settings. The main focus of this study was to assess practices regarding security and confidentiality of HIV-related information among staff at HIV outpatient clinics (HIV-OPCs) in Vietnam. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at all 312 HIV-OPCs across the country using an online survey technique...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135834/associations-between-fixed-term-employment-and-health-and-behaviors-what-are-the-mechanisms
#19
Dorota Żołnierczyk-Zreda, Sylwia Bedyńska
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the associations between fixed-term employment and health (work ability and mental health) and behaviors (engagement and performance). Psychological contract fulfilment (PCF) and breach (PCB) are investigated as potential mediators of these associations. METHODS: Seven hundred workers employed on fixed-term contracts from a broad range of organizations participated in the study. The Structural Equation Model was performed to analyze the data...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114799/the-need-for-better-data-breach-statistics-reply
#20
Ge Bai, John Xuefeng Jiang, Renee Flasher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
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