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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067833/contribution-of-the-rgfd-quorum-sensing-peptide-to-rgf-regulation-and-host-cell-association-in-group-b-streptococcus
#1
Robert E Parker, David Knupp, Rim Al Safadi, Agnѐs Rosenau, Shannon D Manning
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus; GBS) is a common inhabitant of the genitourinary and/or gastrointestinal tract in up to 40% of healthy adults; however, this opportunistic pathogen is able to breach restrictive host barriers to cause disease and persist in harsh and changing conditions. This study sought to identify a role for quorum sensing, a form of cell to cell communication, in the regulation of the fibrinogen-binding (rgfBDAC) two-component system and the ability to associate with decidualized endometrial cells in vitro...
January 6, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057474/hiv-1-tat-disrupts-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-and-increases-phagocytic-perivascular-macrophages-and-microglia-in-the-dorsal-striatum-of-transgenic-mice
#2
Crystal R Leibrand, Jason J Paris, M Said Ghandour, Pamela E Knapp, Woong-Ki Kim, Kurt F Hauser, MaryPeace McRae
HIV-1 infection results in blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption, which acts as a rate-limiting step for HIV-1 entry into the CNS and for subsequent neuroinflammatory/neurotoxic actions. One mechanism by which HIV may destabilize the BBB involves actions of the HIV-1 regulatory protein, trans-activator of transcription (Tat). We utilized a conditional, Tat-expressing transgenic murine model to examine the influence of Tat1-86 expression on BBB integrity and to assess the relative numbers of phagocytic perivascular macrophages and microglia within the CNS in vivo...
January 2, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052843/trust-me-i-m-a-doctor-examining-changes-in-how-privacy-concerns-affect-patient-withholding-behavior
#3
Daniel M Walker, Tyler Johnson, Eric W Ford, Timothy R Huerta
BACKGROUND: As electronic health records (EHRs) become ubiquitous in the health care industry, privacy breaches are increasing and being made public. These breaches may make consumers wary of the technology, undermining its potential to improve care coordination and research. OBJECTIVE: Given the developing concerns around privacy of personal health information stored in digital format, it is important for providers to understand how views on privacy and security may be associated with patient disclosure of health information...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047881/we-ab-bra-07-operating-room-quality-assurance-orqa-for-spine-surgery-using-known-component-3d-2d-image-registration
#4
A Uneri, T De Silva, J Goerres, M Jacobson, M Ketcha, S Reaungamornrat, G Kleinszig, S Vogt, A Khanna, J Wolinsky, J Siewerdsen
PURPOSE: Intraoperative x-ray radiography/fluoroscopy is commonly used to qualitatively assess delivery of surgical devices (e.g., spine pedicle screws) but can fail to reliably detect suboptimal placement (e.g., breach of adjacent critical structures). We present a method wherein prior knowledge of the patient and surgical components is leveraged to match preoperative CT and intraoperative radiographs for quantitative assessment of 3D pose. The method presents a new means of operating room quantitative quality assurance (ORQA) that could improve quality and safety, and reduce the frequency of revision surgeries...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045921/peripheral-venous-catheter-related-adverse-events-evaluation-from-a-multicentre-epidemiological-study-in-france-the-catheval-project
#5
Katiuska Miliani, Raphaël Taravella, Denis Thillard, Valérie Chauvin, Emmanuelle Martin, Stéphanie Edouard, Pascal Astagneau
INTRODUCTION: Peripheral venous catheters (PVC) are medical devices most frequently used during hospital care. Although the frequency of specific PVC-related adverse events (PVCAEs) has been reported, the global risk related to the insertion of this device is poorly estimated. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of PVCAEs during the indwell time, after catheter removal, and to identify practice-mirroring risk factors. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted as a part of a research project, called CATHEVAL, in one surgery ward and four medicine wards from three public general tertiary care hospitals in Northern France that were invited to participate between June-2013 and June-2014...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045712/exploring-the-experiences-of-women-and-health-care-workers-in-the-context-of-pmtct-option-b-plus-in-malawi
#6
Fabian Cataldo, Levison Chiwaula, Misheck Nkhata, Monique van Lettow, Florence Kasende, Nora E Rosenberg, Hannock Tweya, Veena Sampathkumar, Mina Hosseinipour, Erik Schouten, Atupele Kapito-Tembo, Michael Eliya, Frank Chimbwandira, Sam Phiri
INTRODUCTION: Malawi has embarked on a 'test-and-treat' approach to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT), known as 'Option B+', offering all HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women lifelong antiretroviral treatment (ART) regardless of CD4-count or clinical stage. We conducted a cross-sectional qualitative study to explore early experiences surrounding 'Option B+' for patients and health care workers (HCWs) in Malawi. METHODS: Study participants were purposively selected across six health facilities in three regional health zones in Malawi...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008676/direct-mapping-of-melanoma-cell-endothelial-cell-interactions
#7
Béla Varga, Csilla Fazakas, Judit Molnár, Imola Wilhelm, Réka A Domokos, István A Krizbai, Zsolt Szegletes, György Váró, Attila G Végh
The most life-threatening aspect of cancer is metastasis; cancer patient mortality is mainly due to metastasis. Among all metastases, presence of brain metastasis is one with the poorest prognosis; the median survival time can be counted in months. Therefore, prevention or decreasing their incidence would be highly desired both by patients and physicians. Metastatic cells invading the brain must breach the cerebral vasculature, primarily the blood-brain barrier. The key step in this process is the establishment of firm adhesion between the cancer cell and the cerebral endothelial layer...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Molecular Recognition: JMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998049/long-term-results-of-outside-instructions-for-use-evar
#8
José Oliveira-Pinto, Nelson Oliveira, Frederico Bastos-Gonçalves, Sanne Hoeks, Marie J VAN Rijn, Sander Ten Raa, Armando Mansilha, Hence J Verhagen
BACKGROUNG: Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has progressively expanded to more complex anatomies, frequently outside manufacturer's instructions for use (IFU). However, the long term results of off-label use of EVAR remains largely undocumented. The aim of this paper is to examine the long term results of outside IFU EVAR. METHODS: English literature was searched to identify publications on long term results for outside IFU EVAR. A follow-up extending for at least 5 years was the minimum required as inclusion criteria...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935447/lateral-mass-screw-stimulation-thresholds-in-posterior-cervical-instrumentation-surgery-a-predictor-of-medial-deviation
#9
Bayard Wilson, Erik Curtis, Brian Hirshman, Ahmet Oygar, Karen Chen, Brandon C Gabel, Florin Vaida, David W Allison, Joseph D Ciacci
OBJECTIVE Normative data exists for stimulus-evoked pedicle screw electromyography (EMG) current thresholds in the lumbar spine, and is routinely referenced during spine surgeries to detect a screw breach, prevent injury of neural elements, and ensure the most biomechanically sound instrumentation construct. To date, similar normative data for cervical lateral mass screws is limited, thus the utility of lateral mass screw testing remains unclear. To address this disparity, in this study the authors describe cumulative lateral mass screw stimulation threshold data in patients undergoing posterior cervical instrumentation with lateral mass screws...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935362/dramatic-radiographic-response-resulting-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-rhinorrhea-associated-with-sunitinib-therapy-in-recurrent-atypical-meningioma-case-report
#10
Amol Raheja, Howard Colman, Cheryl A Palmer, William T Couldwell
Sunitinib is a multiple tyrosine kinase inhibitor with antiangiogenic, cytostatic, and antimigratory activity for meningiomas. A recent clinical trial of sunitinib for treatment of recurrent Grade II and III meningiomas suggested potential efficacy in this population, but only 2 patients exhibited significant radiographic response with tumor volume reduction. The authors illustrate another such case and discuss a complication related to this dramatic tumor volume reduction in aggressive skull base meningiomas...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927870/insidious-risk-of-severe-mycobacterium-chimaera-infection-in-cardiac-surgery-patients
#11
Meera Chand, Theresa Lamagni, Katharina Kranzer, Jessica Hedge, Ginny Moore, Simon Parks, Samuel Collins, Carlos Del Ojo Elias, Nada Ahmed, Tim Brown, E Grace Smith, Peter Hoffman, Peter Kirwan, Brendan Mason, Alison Smith-Palmer, Philip Veal, Maeve K Lalor, Allan Bennett, James Walker, Alicia Yeap, Antonio Isidro Carrion Martin, Gayle Dolan, Sonia Bhatt, Andrew Skingsley, André Charlett, David Pearce, Katherine Russell, Simon Kendall, Andrew A Klein, Stephen Robins, Silke Schelenz, William Newsholme, Stephanie Thomas, Tim Collyns, Eleri Davies, Jim McMenamin, Lorraine Doherty, Tim E A Peto, Derrick Crook, Maria Zambon, Nick Phin
BACKGROUND: An urgent UK investigation was launched to assess risk of invasive Mycobacterium chimaera infection in cardiothoracic surgery and a possible association with cardiopulmonary bypass heater-cooler units following alerts in Switzerland and The Netherlands. METHODS: Parallel investigations were pursued: (1) identification of cardiopulmonary bypass-associated M. chimaera infection through national laboratory and hospital admissions data linkage; (2) cohort study to assess patient risk; (3) microbiological and aerobiological investigations of heater-coolers in situ and under controlled laboratory conditions; and (4) whole-genome sequencing of clinical and environmental isolates...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920270/think-like-a-hacker-insights-on-the-latest-attack-vectors-and-security-controls-for-medical-device-applications
#12
Mandeep Khera
Ready or not, the Internet of things (IoT) is here. No longer just a buzz term, it'll continue to grow at an unprecedented pace over the next few years expecting to reach over 25 billion connected devices by 2020. History shows us that most fast growth technology solutions focus on solving business problems first and security is an afterthought. Unfortunately, IoT is following the same trend. Most IoT devices, apps, and infrastructure were developed without security in mind and are likely going to become targets of hackers...
December 4, 2016: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919394/the-other-side-of-the-coin-harm-due-to-the-non-use-of-health-related-data
#13
Kerina H Jones, Graeme Laurie, Leslie Stevens, Christine Dobbs, David V Ford, Nathan Lea
INTRODUCTION: It is widely acknowledged that breaches and misuses of health-related data can have serious implications and consequently they often carry penalties. However, harm due to the omission of health data usage, or data non-use, is a subject that lacks attention. A better understanding of this 'other side of the coin' is required before it can be addressed effectively. APPROACH: This article uses an international case study approach to explore why data non-use is difficult to ascertain, the sources and types of health-related data non-use, its implications for citizens and society and some of the reasons it occurs...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919391/privacy-preserving-data-cube-for-electronic-medical-records-an-experimental-evaluation
#14
Soohyung Kim, Hyukki Lee, Yon Dohn Chung
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of privacy-preserving data cubes of electronic medical records (EMRs). An EMR data cube is a complex of EMR statistics that are summarized or aggregated by all possible combinations of attributes. Data cubes are widely utilized for efficient big data analysis and also have great potential for EMR analysis. For safe data analysis without privacy breaches, we must consider the privacy preservation characteristics of the EMR data cube...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910935/disentangling-the-roles-of-cholesterol-and-cd59-in-intermedilysin-pore-formation
#15
Courtney M Boyd, Edward S Parsons, Richard A G Smith, John M Seddon, Oscar Ces, Doryen Bubeck
The plasma membrane provides an essential barrier, shielding a cell from the pressures of its external environment. Pore-forming proteins, deployed by both hosts and pathogens alike, breach this barrier to lyse target cells. Intermedilysin is a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin that requires the human immune receptor CD59, in addition to cholesterol, to form giant β-barrel pores in host membranes. Here we integrate biochemical assays with electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy to distinguish the roles of these two receptors in mediating structural transitions of pore formation...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891552/enteric-glial-cells-are-susceptible-to-clostridium-difficile-toxin-b
#16
Katia Fettucciari, Pamela Ponsini, Davide Gioè, Lara Macchioni, Camilla Palumbo, Elisabetta Antonelli, Stefano Coaccioli, Vincenzo Villanacci, Lanfranco Corazzi, Pierfrancesco Marconi, Gabrio Bassotti
Clostridium difficile causes nosocomial/antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis. The major virulence factors are toxin A and toxin B (TcdB), which inactivate GTPases by monoglucosylation, leading to cytopathic (cytoskeleton alteration, cell rounding) and cytotoxic effects (cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis). C. difficile toxins breaching the intestinal epithelial barrier can act on underlying cells, enterocytes, colonocytes, and enteric neurons, as described in vitro and in vivo, but until now no data have been available on enteric glial cell (EGC) susceptibility...
November 28, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890940/whatever-happened-to-formal-methods-for-security
#17
J Voas, K Schaffer
We asked 7 experts 7 questions to find out what has occurred recently in terms of applying formal methods (FM) to security-centric, cyber problems. We are continually reminded of the 1996 paper by Tony Hoare "How did Software Get So Reliable Without Proof?" [1] In that vein, how did we get so insecure with proof? Given daily press announcements concerning new malware, data breaches, and privacy loss, is FM still relevant or was it ever? Our experts answered with unique personal insights. We were curious as to whether this successful methodology in "safety-critical" has succeeded as well for today's "build it, hack it, patch it" mindset...
August 2016: Computer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862568/aggregation-and-a-strong-allee-effect-in-a-cooperative-outbreak-insect
#18
D W Goodsman, D Koch, C Whitehouse, M L Evenden, B J Cooke, M A Lewis
Most species that are negatively impacted when their densities are low aggregate to minimize this effect. Aggregation has the potential to change how Allee effects are expressed at the population level. We studied the interplay between aggregation and Allee effects in the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), an irruptive bark beetle that aggregates to overcome tree defenses. By cooperating to surpass a critical number of attacks per tree, the mountain pine beetle is able to breach host defenses, oviposit, and reproduce...
December 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849369/understanding-barriers-to-scaling-up-hiv-assisted-partner-services-in-kenya
#19
Marielle Goyette, Beatrice Muthoni Wamuti, Mercy Owuor, David Bukusi, Peter Mutiti Maingi, Felix Abuna Otieno, Peter Cherutich, Anne Ng'ang'a, Carey Farquhar
Assisted partner services (APS) are more effective than passive referral in identifying new cases of HIV in many settings. Understanding the barriers to the uptake of APS in sub-Saharan Africa is important before its scale up. In this qualitative study, we explored client, community, and healthcare worker barriers to APS within a cluster randomized trial of APS in Kenya. We conducted 20 in-depth interviews with clients who declined enrollment in the APS study and 9 focus group discussions with health advisors, HIV testing and counseling (HTC) counselors, and the general HTC client population...
November 2016: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837457/external-radiotherapy-for-breast-cancer-in-the-elderly
#20
REVIEW
Francesca Maria Giugliano, Sara Falivene, Emanuela Esposito, Rossella Di Franco, Matteo Muto, Massimiliano D'Aiuto, Paolo Muto
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy amongst elderly women and the main cause of mortality. A specific management for elderly woman is not clear because clinical trials are usually not customized for this subset of patients. AIMS: The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the available information on the main issues in the field of breast cancer radiotherapy in the elderly population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Authors discuss on different radiation treatments for breast cancer in the elderly, based on the data of the literature with a focus on new strategy: hypo-fractionation, accelerated partial breast irradiation, and the utility of a dose boost...
November 11, 2016: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
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