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Information sharing

Shahid Khan, Jonathan M Scholey
Cells from all three domains of life on Earth utilize motile macromolecular devices that protrude from the cell surface to generate forces that allow them to swim through fluid media. Research carried out on archaea during the past decade or so has led to the recognition that, despite their common function, the motility devices of the three domains display fundamental differences in their properties and ancestry, reflecting a striking example of convergent evolution. Thus, the flagella of bacteria and the archaella of archaea employ rotary filaments that assemble from distinct subunits that do not share a common ancestor and generate torque using energy derived from distinct fuel sources, namely chemiosmotic ion gradients and FlaI motor-catalyzed ATP hydrolysis, respectively...
March 19, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Peng Bao, Hua-Wei Shen, Junming Huang, Haiqiang Chen
Micro-blogging systems have become one of the most important ways for information sharing. Network structure and users' interactions such as forwarding behaviors have aroused considerable research attention, while mention, as a key feature in micro-blogging platforms which can improve the visibility of a message and direct it to a particular user beyond the underlying social structure, is seldom studied in previous works. In this paper, we empirically study the mention effect in information diffusion, using the dataset from a population-scale social media website...
2018: PloS One
Neha Bairoliya, Günther Fink
BACKGROUND: While the high prevalence of preterm births and its impact on infant mortality in the US have been widely acknowledged, recent data suggest that even full-term births in the US face substantially higher mortality risks compared to European countries with low infant mortality rates. In this paper, we use the most recent birth records in the US to more closely analyze the primary causes underlying mortality rates among full-term births. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Linked birth and death records for the period 2010-2012 were used to identify the state- and cause-specific burden of infant mortality among full-term infants (born at 37-42 weeks of gestation)...
March 2018: PLoS Medicine
Georg Jäger, Sebastian Zug, António Casimiro
The advent of cooperative systems entails a dynamic composition of their components. As this contrasts current, statically composed systems, new approaches for maintaining their safety are required. In that endeavor, we propose an integration step that evaluates the failure model of shared information in relation to an application's fault tolerance and thereby promises maintainability of such system's safety. However, it also poses new requirements on failure models, which are not fulfilled by state-of-the-art approaches...
March 20, 2018: Sensors
Mariana V Meireles, Ana Roberta P Pascom, Elisabeth C Duarte
OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical, sociodemographic and treatment-related factors associated with early virological response in HIV-infected adults starting antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Brazil in 2014-2015. METHODS: Data from four information systems from the Brazilian AIDS Program were combined to create a historical cohort. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to assess the likelihood of not achieving virological suppression (VLS), defined as having either a viral load count (VL) >200 copies/mL or an aids-related death recorded within 180±90 days after treatment initiation...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Kenneth Maiese
BACKGROUND: With the global increase in life span expectancy, neurodegenerative disorders continue to affect an ever increasing number of individuals throughout the world. New treatment strategies for neurodegenerative diseases are desperately required given the lack of current treatment modalities. METHODS: Here we examine novel strategies for neurodegenerative disorders that include circadian clock genes, non-coding ribonucleic acids (RNAs), and the mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the O class (FoxOs)...
March 19, 2018: Current Neurovascular Research
Floriana Caccamo, Simone Saltini, Enrico Carella, Roberto Carlon, Cristina Marogna, Vito Sava
Research on heart disease have found a strong and consistent evidence of association between some psychosocial risk factors, including depression, anxiety, self-efficacy, lack of social support and outcome of disease. Depression increases the risk of cardiac death and is highly predictive of reduced adherence to recommended treatments; anxiety appears to be linked to adverse cardiac outcomes. It was demonstrated that Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR) leads to substantial improvements and positive outcomes because combines the prescription of physical activity with the modification of risk factors and aims to reduce symptoms related to the disease and the risk of new cardiovascular events...
January 29, 2018: Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, Archivio Monaldi Per le Malattie del Torace
Erika Viljoen, Damaris A Odeny, Martin P A Coetzee, Dave K Berger, David J G Rees
Amaranthus species are an emerging and promising nutritious traditional vegetable food source. Morphological plasticity and poorly resolved dendrograms have led to the need for well resolved species phylogenies. We hypothesized that whole chloroplast phylogenomics would result in more reliable differentiation between closely related amaranth species. The aims of the study were therefore: to construct a fully assembled, annotated chloroplast genome sequence of Amaranthus tricolor; to characterize Amaranthus accessions phylogenetically by comparing barcoding genes (matK, rbcL, ITS) with whole chloroplast sequencing; and to use whole chloroplast phylogenomics to resolve deeper phylogenetic relationships...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Evolution
David L Duewer, Margaret C Kline, Erica L Romsos, Blaza Toman
The highly multiplexed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays used for forensic human identification perform best when used with an accurately determined quantity of input DNA. To help ensure the reliable performance of these assays, we are developing a certified reference material (CRM) for calibrating human genomic DNA working standards. To enable sharing information over time and place, CRMs must provide accurate and stable values that are metrologically traceable to a common reference. We have shown that droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) limiting dilution end-point measurements of the concentration of DNA copies per volume of sample can be traceably linked to the International System of Units (SI)...
March 19, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Ján Antolík, Andrew P Davison
Two trends have been unfolding in computational neuroscience during the last decade. First, a shift of focus to increasingly complex and heterogeneous neural network models, with a concomitant increase in the level of collaboration within the field (whether direct or in the form of building on top of existing tools and results). Second, a general trend in science toward more open communication, both internally, with other potential scientific collaborators, and externally, with the wider public. This multi-faceted development toward more integrative approaches and more intense communication within and outside of the field poses major new challenges for modelers, as currently there is a severe lack of tools to help with automatic communication and sharing of all aspects of a simulation workflow to the rest of the community...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
Or P Mendels, Maoz Shamir
Noise correlations in neuronal responses can have a strong influence on the information available in large populations. In addition, the structure of noise correlations may have a great impact on the utility of different algorithms to extract this information that may depend on the specific algorithm, and hence may affect our understanding of population codes in the brain. Thus, a better understanding of the structure of noise correlations and their interplay with different readout algorithms is required. Here we use eigendecomposition to investigate the structure of noise correlations in populations of about 50-100 simultaneously recorded neurons in the primary visual cortex of anesthetized monkeys, and we relate this structure to the performance of two common decoders: the population vector and the optimal linear estimator...
2018: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Natalie Koch Levy, Natasha A Orzeck-Byrnes, Sneha R Aidasani, Dana N Moloney, Lisa H Nguyen, Agnes Park, Lu Hu, Aisha T Langford, Binhuan Wang, Mary Ann Sevick, Erin S Rogers
BACKGROUND: The Mobile Insulin Titration Intervention (MITI) program helps patients with type 2 diabetes find their correct basal insulin dose without in-person care. Requiring only basic cell phone technology (text messages and phone calls), MITI is highly accessible to patients receiving care in safety-net settings. MITI was shown in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to be efficacious at a New York City (NYC) safety-net clinic where patients often have challenges coming for in-person care...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Sara N Burke, Leslie S Gaynor, Carol A Barnes, Russell M Bauer, Jennifer L Bizon, Erik D Roberson, Lee Ryan
A predominant view of perirhinal cortex (PRC) and postrhinal/parahippocampal cortex (POR/PHC) function contends that these structures are tuned to represent objects and spatial information, respectively. However, known anatomical connectivity, together with recent electrophysiological, neuroimaging, and lesion data, indicate that both brain areas participate in spatial and nonspatial processing. Instead of content-based organization, the PRC and PHC/POR may participate in two computationally distinct cortical-hippocampal networks: one network that is tuned to process coarse information quickly, forming gist-like representations of scenes/environments, and a second network tuned to process information about the specific sensory details that are necessary for discrimination across sensory modalities...
March 16, 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
Linda Waldman, Tanvir Ahmed, Nigel Scott, Shahinoor Akter, Hilary Standing, Sabrina Rasheed
BACKGROUND: Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) which enable people to access, use and promote health information through digital technology, promise important health systems innovations which can challenge gatekeepers' control of information, through processes of disintermediation. College students, in pursuit of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) information, are particularly affected by gatekeeping as strong social and cultural norms restrict their access to information and services...
March 20, 2018: Globalization and Health
Yong Jing, Wei-Qiang Yan, Gang-Feng Li, Shi-Jun Duan, Shu-Mei Wang, Lin Sun, Yu-Chuan Hu, Guang-Bin Cui
PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of volume perfusion computed tomography (VPCT) parameters in differentiating the World Health Organization subtypes of thymic epithelial tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was approved by the local ethics committee, and informed written consent was obtained. Fifty-one thymic epithelial tumor patients confirmed by histopathological analysis underwent conventional CT and a 48-second VPCT scan of the tumor bulk before any treatment...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
Amir S Steinberg, Anish B Parikh, Sara Kim, Damaris Peralta-Hernandez, Talaat Aggour, Luis Isola
OBJECTIVES: Antibiotic stewardship is an integral aspect of hospital care, limiting the potential for resistance while working to minimize waste. A similar system is needed in oncology, given the rapid proliferation of new therapies and the challenges of navigating a complicated reimbursement environment. A "cancer therapy stewardship program" has never been described in the literature. Here, we detail our efforts to design and implement such a program and share lessons learned to inform future projects...
March 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
Alexander Lee Houck, Sahba Seddighi, Jane Ann Driver
BACKGROUND: A growing body of epidemiologic evidence suggests that neurodegenerative diseases occur less frequently in cancer survivors, and vice versa. While unusual, this inverse comorbidity is biologically plausible and could be explained, in part, by the evolutionary tradeoffs made by neurons and cycling cells to optimize performance of their very different functions. The two cell types utilize the same proteins and pathways in different, and sometimes opposite, ways. However, cancer and neurodegeneration also share many pathophysiological features...
February 23, 2018: Current Aging Science
Sathvik B Sridhar, Atiqulla Shariff, Lana Dallah, Doaa Anas, Maryam Ayman, Padma Gm Rao
Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the nature, reasons, and consequences of self-medication practice among the general population of Ras Al-Khaimah, UAE. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional, survey-based study. Data with respect to knowledge, awareness, and practices regarding self-medication were collected through an interviewer-assisted questionnaire answered by the study participants. Thus, collected data from 413 survey respondents were analyzed using SPSS version 24...
January 2018: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
Angela Ju, Mark Unruh, Sara Davison, Juan Dapueto, Mary Amanda Dew, Richard Fluck, Michael Germain, Sarbjit V Jassal, Gregorio Obrador, Donal O'Donoghue, Michelle A Josephson, Jonathan C Craig, Andrea Viecelli, Emma O'Lone, Camilla S Hanson, Braden Manns, Benedicte Sautenet, Martin Howell, Bharathi Reddy, Caroline Wilkie, Claudia Rutherford, Allison Tong
Fatigue is one of the most highly prioritized outcomes for patients and clinicians, but remains infrequently and inconsistently reported across trials in hemodialysis. We convened an international Standardized Outcomes in Nephrology-Hemodialysis (SONG-HD) consensus workshop with stakeholders to discuss the development and implementation of a core outcome measure for fatigue. 15 patients/caregivers and 42 health professionals (clinicians, researchers, policy makers, and industry representatives) from 9 countries participated in breakout discussions...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Megan C Roberts, Rebecca A Ferrer, Katharine A Rendle, Sarah C Kobrin, Stephen H Taplin, Bradford W Hesse, William M P Klein
INTRODUCTION: Appreciating the accuracy and value of cancer screening is essential to informed decision making about screening. This study's objectives were to (1) examine people's beliefs about the accuracy and value of cancer screening, and (2) determine whether sociodemographics, cancer beliefs, and shared decision making are associated with these beliefs. METHODS: Data from the National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey (cycle 4, August-November 2014) were used...
March 15, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
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