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Information sharing

Sanna Rönkä, Anu Katainen
BACKGROUND: The non-medical use of prescription drugs is a growing phenomenon associated with increasing health-related harms. However, little is known about the drivers of this process among illicit drug users. Our aim is to show how the qualities of pharmaceutical drugs, pharmaceutical related knowledge, online communities sharing this knowledge and medical professionals mediate and transform the consumption behaviour related to pharmaceutical drugs. METHODS: The data consist of discussion threads from an online drug use forum...
October 18, 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
Hardeep Singh, Mark L Graber, Timothy P Hofer
Timely and accurate diagnosis is foundational to good clinical practice and an essential first step to achieving optimal patient outcomes. However, a recent Institute of Medicine report concluded that most of us will experience at least one diagnostic error in our lifetime. The report argues for efforts to improve the reliability of the diagnostic process through better measurement of diagnostic performance. The diagnostic process is a dynamic team-based activity that involves uncertainty, plays out over time, and requires effective communication and collaboration among multiple clinicians, diagnostic services, and the patient...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Patient Safety
S Scambler, M Delgado, K Asimakopoulou
Objective This paper presents the results of a systematic review, designed to explore how patient-centred care (PCC) is defined in the dental literature.Method An electronic search of MEDLINE (1946-2012), Embase (1980-2012) PsycINFO (1806-2012), the Cochrane Library and non-peer reviewed literature was conducted using a standardised search protocol. Definitions of patient centred care were identified and scored on two criteria to evaluate quality of definition and quality/type of evidence.Results Of the 28 papers included in the review the majority provided definitions of PCC synonymous with good quality general care (holistic, humanitarian)...
October 21, 2016: British Dental Journal
Mikyung Lee, Zhichao Liu, Ruili Huang, Weida Tong
BACKGROUND: All biological processes are inherently dynamic. Biological systems evolve transiently or sustainably according to sequential time points after perturbation by environment insults, drugs and chemicals. Investigating the temporal behavior of molecular events has been an important subject to understand the underlying mechanisms governing the biological system in response to, such as, drug treatment. The intrinsic complexity of time series data requires appropriate computational algorithms for data interpretation...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Navadon Khunlertgit, Byung-Jun Yoon
BACKGROUND: Discovering robust markers for cancer prognosis based on gene expression data is an important yet challenging problem in translational bioinformatics. By integrating additional information in biological pathways or a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, we can find better biomarkers that lead to more accurate and reproducible prognostic predictions. In fact, recent studies have shown that, "modular markers," that integrate multiple genes with potential interactions can improve disease classification and also provide better understanding of the disease mechanisms...
October 6, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
Jennifer E Arnold
It is well established that language production and comprehension are influenced by information status, for example, whether information is given, new, topical, or predictable, and many scholars suggest that an important component of information status is keeping track of what information is in common ground (i.e., what is shared), and what is not. Information status affects both speakers' choices (e.g., word order, pronoun use, prosodic prominence) and how listeners interpret the speaker's meaning (e.g., Chafe, 1994; Prince, 1981)...
October 20, 2016: Topics in Cognitive Science
Cecilia Dahlbäck, Jonas Manjer, Martin Rehn, Anita Ringberg
BACKGROUND: Shared decision-making is increasingly advocated in many countries. The aims of this study were to investigate whether patients receiving breast-conserving surgery at Skåne University Hospital Malmö, Sweden, perceived an offered possibility to join in the decision-making process regarding the surgical method; to identify potential determinants for not having perceived such an offer; and to study how this perception of being offered an opportunity to take part in the decision-making process affected satisfaction with the aesthetic outcome...
October 20, 2016: World Journal of Surgery
Norah Lynn-Anne Mund, Wycliffe Omurwa Masanta, Anne-Marie Goldschmidt, Raimond Lugert, Uwe Groß, Andreas E Zautner
Campylobacter jejuni's flagellar locomotion is controlled by eleven chemoreceptors. Assessment of the distribution of the relevant chemoreceptor genes in the C. jejuni genomes deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database led to the identification of two previously unknown tlp genes and a tlp5 pseudogene. These two chemoreceptor genes share the same locus in the C. jejuni genome with tlp4 and tlp11, but the gene region encoding the periplasmic ligand binding domain differs significantly from other chemoreceptor genes...
September 29, 2016: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Helmuth Cremer, Jean-Marie Lozachmeur, Pierre Pestieau
This paper studies the design of long term care (LTC) insurance contracts in the presence of ex post moral hazard. While this problem bears some similarity with the study of health insurance (Blomqvist, 1997) the significance of informal LTC affects the problem in several crucial ways. It introduces the potential crowding out of informal care by market care financed through insurance coverage. Furthermore, the information structure becomes more intricate. Informal care is not publicly observable and, unlike the insurer, caregivers know the true needs of their relatives...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Health Economics
Yu Sun, Vaibhav A Narayan, Gayle M Wittenberg
BACKGROUND: Side effects, or the adverse effects of drugs, contain important clinical phenotypic information that may be useful in predicting novel or unknown targets of a drug. It has been suggested that drugs with similar side-effect profiles may share common targets. The diagnostic class, Major Depressive Disorder, is increasingly viewed as being comprised of multiple depression subtypes with different biological root causes. One 'type' of depression generating substantial interest today focuses on patients with high levels of inflammatory burden, indicated by elevated levels of C-reactive proteins (CRP) and pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 6 (IL-6)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Matthieu Barbier, James R Watson
Predators of all kinds, be they lions hunting in the Serengeti or fishermen searching for their catch, display various collective strategies. A common strategy is to share information about the location of prey. However, depending on the spatial characteristics and mobility of predators and prey, information sharing can either improve or hinder individual success. Here, our goal is to investigate the interacting effects of space and information sharing on predation efficiency, represented by the expected rate at which prey are found and consumed...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Mark Sinyor, Jane Pirkis, André Picard, David McKeown, Margaret Vincent, Christian Cheung, Ayal Schaffer, Jan Fordham, Rosie Mishaiel, Marnin Heisel
Media reporting on suicide may have harmful and/or protective effects on deaths by suicide, depending on the nature of the coverage. Canada's first forum on this important issue was held in Toronto on November 6, 2015. Participating in the forum were public health policy-makers, mental health and suicide prevention experts and senior media representatives. This commentary summarizes the content of the forum and highlights the need for ongoing collaboration between suicide prevention experts and media professionals aimed at safe and respectful reporting that maintains the public's need to be informed...
October 20, 2016: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Paul T Menzel
VSED demands willful determination from those who do it. The requisite willfulness is an ethical strength, providing greater assurance of voluntariness. Dying by VSED has another major merit: its pace provides time for the person and loved ones to embrace death in a shared appreciation of life. Support from professional caregivers is important in making dying by VSED comfortable. If acknowledged by its providers, this need for professional support has ancillary benefits: accurate information is more likely to be communicated to patients, and professional caregivers help normalize VSED and minimize abuses...
2016: Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics
R D Goodwin, M Robinson, P D Sly, P G Holt
BACKGROUND: Prior studies have suggested a relationship between atopy and mental health, although methodological barriers have limited the generalizability of these findings. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between early-life atopy and vulnerability to mental health problems among youth in the community. METHOD: Data were drawn from the Raine Study (N = 2868), a population-based birth cohort study in Western Australia. Logistic regression and generalized estimating equations were used to examine the relationship between atopy at ages 1-5 years [using parent report and objective biological confirmation (sera IgE)], and the range of internalizing and externalizing mental health problems at ages 5-17 years...
October 20, 2016: Psychological Medicine
Rowan Forbes Shepherd, Tamara Kayali Browne, Linda Warwick
Ethical issues arise for genetic counselors when a client fails to disclose a genetic diagnosis of hereditary disease to family: they must consider the rights of the individual client to privacy and confidentiality as well as the rights of the family to know their genetic risk. Although considerable work has addressed issues of non-disclosure from the client's perspective, there is a lack of qualitative research into how genetic counselors address this issue in practice. In this study, a qualitative approach was taken to investigate whether genetic counselors in Australia use a relational approach to encourage the disclosure of genetic information from hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) clients among family members; and if so, how they use it...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Genetic Counseling
Mehmet Erol Yıldırım, Metin Canbal, Ekrem Ozyuvali, Ömer Faruk Karataş
OBJECTIVE: Urinary tract conditions have been an important part of diseases from antiquity until today. Historically, many plants and herbs have been used for the treatment of urinary disorders. METHODS: Celâlüddîn Hızır bin Ali el-Konevi (Hadji Pasha) is one of the most famous physician who lived in Anatolia between 13th and 14th centuries. He has written one of the most important medical books of that era, "Müntehab-ıŞifa" (solution of wellness) in Turkish...
September 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Deborah J Cohen, Sara R Keller, Gillian R Hayes, David A Dorr, Joan S Ash, Dean F Sittig
BACKGROUND: Patient-generated health data (PGHD) are health-related data created or recorded by patients to inform their self-care and understanding about their own health. PGHD is different from other patient-reported outcome data because the collection of data is patient-driven, not practice- or research-driven. Technical applications for assisting patients to collect PGHD supports self-management activities such as healthy eating and exercise and can be important for preventing and managing disease...
October 19, 2016: JMIR Human Factors
Richard J Lilford, Oyinlola Oyebode, David Satterthwaite, G J Melendez-Torres, Yen-Fu Chen, Blessing Mberu, Samuel I Watson, Jo Sartori, Robert Ndugwa, Waleska Caiaffa, Tilahun Haregu, Anthony Capon, Ruhi Saith, Alex Ezeh
In the first paper in this Series we assessed theoretical and empirical evidence and concluded that the health of people living in slums is a function not only of poverty but of intimately shared physical and social environments. In this paper we extend the theory of so-called neighbourhood effects. Slums offer high returns on investment because beneficial effects are shared across many people in densely populated neighbourhoods. Neighbourhood effects also help explain how and why the benefits of interventions vary between slum and non-slum spaces and between slums...
October 12, 2016: Lancet
Avital Deutsch, Hadas Velan, Tamar Michaly
Complex words in Hebrew are composed of two non-concatenated morphemes: a consonantal root embedded in a nominal or verbal word-pattern morpho-phonological unit made up of vowels or vowels and consonants. The root carries the core meaning of the word, whereas the word-pattern creates variations on this meaning, determines the word's grammatical characteristics, and carries segmental and suprasegmental information about the word's structure. Research on written-word recognition has revealed a robust effect of the roots and the verbal-patterns, but not of the nominal-patterns, on word recognition...
October 19, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
Andrea Moretti, Jianfeng Li, Stefano Donini, Robert W Sobol, Menico Rizzi, Silvia Garavaglia
The aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A3 (ALDH1A3) catalyzes the oxidation of retinal to the pleiotropic factor retinoic acid using NAD(+). The level of ALDHs enzymatic activity has been used as a cancer stem cell marker and seems to correlate with tumour aggressiveness. Elevated ALDH1A3 expression in mesenchymal glioma stem cells highlights the potential of this isozyme as a prognosis marker and drug target. Here we report the first crystal structure of human ALDH1A3 complexed with NAD(+) and the product all-trans retinoic acid (REA)...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
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