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Gautham Vasan, Patrick M Pilarski
Prosthetic arms should restore and extend the capabilities of someone with an amputation. They should move naturally and be able to perform elegant, coordinated movements that approximate those of a biological arm. Despite these objectives, the control of modern-day prostheses is often nonintuitive and taxing. Existing devices and control approaches do not yet give users the ability to effect highly synergistic movements during their daily-life control of a prosthetic device. As a step towards improving the control of prosthetic arms and hands, we introduce an intuitive approach to training a prosthetic control system that helps a user achieve hard-to-engineer control behaviours...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
Andrea Sarasola-Sanz, Nerea Irastorza-Landa, Eduardo Lopez-Larraz, Carlos Bibian, Florian Helmhold, Doris Broetz, Niels Birbaumer, Ander Ramos-Murguialday
Including supplementary information from the brain or other body parts in the control of brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) has been recently proposed and investigated. Such enriched interfaces are referred to as hybrid BMIs (hBMIs) and have been proven to be more robust and accurate than regular BMIs for assistive and rehabilitative applications. Electromyographic (EMG) activity is one of the most widely utilized biosignals in hBMIs, as it provides a quite direct measurement of the motion intention of the user...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
Francesca Marini, Charmayne M L Hughes, Pietro Morasso, Lorenzo Masia
This study examined wrist proprioception in a cross-sectional sample of 44 children aged between 8-to 14-years and a control group of 10 neurologically and physically healthy adults. Using a 3-degrees of freedom robotic device, participants performed an ipsilateral joint position matching task in which target amplitude (40% or 80% functional range of motion [fRoM]) and degrees-of-freedom (Flexion/Extension [FE], Radial/Ulnar deviation [RUD], Pronation/Supination [PS]) were manipulated. Results indicated that proprioceptive function became more accurate and consistent over the developmental spectrum, but that the ability to utilize proprioceptive feedback did not reach adult levels till the age of 10-11 years...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
Ahmed W Shehata, Erik J Scheme, Jonathon W Sensinger
The long-term performance of myoelectric prostheses is related not only to the short-term performance of the controller, but also to the user's ability to learn and adapt to the system. Different control architectures may have inherent tradeoffs between their short-term performance and the amount of relevant feedback that informs this adaptation. In this study we focused on the ability of two common types of myoelectric control interfaces: raw control with raw feedback, such as a regression, and filtered control with filtered feedback, such as a classifier, to affect user adaptation...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
Jongseung Lee, Nobutaka Mukae, Jumpei Arata, Hiroyuki Iwata, Keiji Iramina, Koji Iihara, Makoto Hashizume
There is a demand for a new neurorehabilitation modality with a brain-computer interface for stroke patients with insufficient or no remaining hand motor function. We previously developed a robotic hand rehabilitation system triggered by multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to address this demand. In a preliminary prototype system, a robotic hand orthosis, providing one degree-of-freedom motion for a hand's closing and opening, is triggered by a wireless command from a NIRS system, capturing a subject's motor cortex activation...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
Kathleen R Wilson, Kevin B Englehart, Jon W Sensinger
Understanding the stereotypical characteristics of human movement can better inform rehabilitation practices by providing a template of healthy and expected human motor control. Multiplicative noise is inherent in goal-directed movement, such as reaching to grasp an object. Multiplicative noise plays an important role in computational motor control models to help support phenomena such as stereotypical kinematic profiles in time-constrained and unconstrained tasks. Most tasks are not carried out along an isolated degree-of-freedom (DOF), and modelling the contribution of noise can be difficult...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
Anthony J Sigillito, Alexei M Tyryshkin, Thomas Schenkel, Andrew A Houck, Stephen A Lyon
The electronic and nuclear spin degrees of freedom of donor impurities in silicon form ultra-coherent two-level systems that are potentially useful for applications in quantum information and are intrinsically compatible with industrial semiconductor processing. However, because of their smaller gyromagnetic ratios, nuclear spins are more difficult to manipulate than electron spins and are often considered too slow for quantum information processing. Moreover, although alternating current magnetic fields are the most natural choice to drive spin transitions and implement quantum gates, they are difficult to confine spatially to the level of a single donor, thus requiring alternative approaches...
August 14, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
Keith J Geraghty
Geraghty in the year 2016, outlines a range of controversies surrounding publication of results from the PACE trial and discusses a freedom of information case brought by a patient refused access to data from the trial. The PACE authors offer a response, writing 'Dr Geraghty's views are based on misunderstandings and misrepresentations of the PACE trial'. This article draws on expert commentaries to further detail the critical methodological failures and biases identified in the PACE trial, which undermine the reliability and credibility of the major findings to emerge from this trial...
August 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
John A Bittl, Yulei He
Bayesian analysis is firmly grounded in the science of probability and has been increasingly supplementing or replacing traditional approaches based on P values. In this review, we present gradually more complex examples, along with programming code and data sets, to show how Bayesian analysis takes evidence from randomized clinical trials to update what is already known about specific treatments in cardiovascular medicine. In the example of revascularization choices for diabetic patients who have multivessel coronary artery disease, we combine the results of the FREEDOM trial (Future Revascularization Evaluation in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: Optimal Management of Multivessel Disease) with prior probability distributions to show how strongly we should believe in the new Class I recommendation ("should be done") for a preference of bypass surgery over percutaneous coronary intervention...
August 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
Ralph Hertwig, Till Grüne-Yanoff
In recent years, policy makers worldwide have begun to acknowledge the potential value of insights from psychology and behavioral economics into how people make decisions. These insights can inform the design of nonregulatory and nonmonetary policy interventions-as well as more traditional fiscal and coercive measures. To date, much of the discussion of behaviorally informed approaches has emphasized "nudges," that is, interventions designed to steer people in a particular direction while preserving their freedom of choice...
August 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
S S Hakim, M H M Olsson, H O Sørensen, N Bovet, J Bohr, R Feidenhans'l, S L S Stipp
The structure and the strength of organic compound adsorption on mineral surfaces are of interest for a number of industrial and environmental applications, oil recovery, CO2 storage and contamination remediation. Biomineralised calcite plays an essential role in the function of many organisms that control crystal growth with organic macromolecules. Carbonate rocks, composed almost exclusively of calcite, host drinking water aquifers and oil reservoirs. In this study, we examined the ordering behaviour of several organic compounds and the thickness of the adsorbed layers formed on calcite {10...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Rasmus A X Persson, Viren Pattni, Anurag Singh, Stefan M Kast, Matthias Heyden
This study explores the thermodynamic and vibrational properties of water in the three-dimensional environment of solvated ions and small molecules using molecular simulations. The spectrum of intermolecular vibrations in liquid solvents provides detailed information on the shape of the local potential energy surface, which in turn determines local thermodynamic properties such as the entropy. Here, we extract this information using a spatially-resolved extension of the two-phase thermodynamics method to estimate hydration water entropies based on the local vibrational density of states (3D-2PT)...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Jonghwan Kim, Chenhao Jin, Bin Chen, Hui Cai, Tao Zhao, Puiyee Lee, Salman Kahn, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Sefaattin Tongay, Michael F Crommie, Feng Wang
The valley degree of freedom in two-dimensional (2D) crystals recently emerged as a novel information carrier in addition to spin and charge. The intrinsic valley lifetime in 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) is expected to be markedly long due to the unique spin-valley locking behavior, where the intervalley scattering of the electron simultaneously requires a large momentum transfer to the opposite valley and a flip of the electron spin. However, the experimentally observed valley lifetime in 2D TMDs has been limited to tens of nanoseconds thus far...
July 2017: Science Advances
Sapfo Lignou
Cluster randomised trials are an increasingly important methodological tool in health research but they present challenges to the informed consent requirement. In the relatively limited literature on the ethics of cluster research there is not much clarity about the reasons for which seeking informed consent in cluster randomised trials may be morally challenging. In this paper, I distinguish between the cases where informed consent in cluster trials may be problematic due to the distinct features of 'population-based' interventions, which have not been adequately discussed in the research ethics literature, and the cases where informed consent may be problematic for reasons that investigators also encounter in other research designs...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
Kyoung-Nam Kim, Mee-Ri Lee, Youn-Hee Lim, Yun-Chul Hong
OBJECTIVES: Homocysteine has been causally associated with various adverse health outcomes. Evidence supporting the relationship between lead and homocysteine levels has been accumulating, but most prior studies have not focused on the interaction with genetic polymorphisms. METHODS: From a community-based prospective cohort, we analysed 386 participants (aged 41-71 years) with information regarding blood lead and plasma homocysteine levels. Blood lead levels were measured between 2001 and 2003, and plasma homocysteine levels were measured in 2007...
August 3, 2017: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Oleg Shchyglo, Thomas Hammerschmidt, Miroslav Čak, Ralf Drautz, Ingo Steinbach
In this study we propose a unified multi-scale chemo-mechanical description of the BCT (Body-Centered Tetragonal) to BCC (Body-Centered Cubic) order-disorder transition in martensitic steel by adding the mechanical degrees of freedom to the standard CALPHAD (CALculation of PHAse Diagrams) type Gibbs energy description. The model takes into account external strain, the effect of carbon composition on the lattice parameter and elastic moduli. The carbon composition effect on the lattice parameters and elastic constants is described by a sublattice model with properties obtained from DFT (Density Functional Theory) calculations; the temperature dependence of the elasticity parameters is estimated from available experimental data...
August 9, 2016: Materials
Jin Lan, Weichao Yu, Jiang Xiao
As a collective quasiparticle excitation of the magnetic order in magnetic materials, spin wave, or magnon when quantized, can propagate in both conducting and insulating materials. Like the manipulation of its optical counterpart, the ability to manipulate spin wave polarization is not only important but also fundamental for magnonics. With only one type of magnetic lattice, ferromagnets can only accommodate the right-handed circularly polarized spin wave modes, which leaves no freedom for polarization manipulation...
August 2, 2017: Nature Communications
Thangarasu Sriraman, Barnali Chakrabarti, Andrea Trombettoni, Paulsamy Muruganandam
Calculation of the Shannon information entropy (S) and its connection with the order-disorder transition and with inter-particle interaction provide a challenging research area in the field of quantum information. Experimental progress with cold trapped atoms has corroborated this interest. In the present work, S is calculated for the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) with dominant dipolar interaction for different dipole strengths, trap aspect ratios, and number of particles (N). Trapped dipolar bosons in an anisotropic trap provide an example of a system where the effective interaction is strongly determined by the trap geometry...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
Satoshi Suzuki
This study investigated the spatial distribution of brain activity on body schema (BS) modification induced by natural body motion using two versions of a hand-tracing task. In Task 1, participants traced Japanese Hiragana characters using the right forefinger, requiring no BS expansion. In Task 2, participants performed the tracing task with a long stick, requiring BS expansion. Spatial distribution was analyzed using general linear model (GLM)-based statistical parametric mapping of near-infrared spectroscopy data contaminated with motion artifacts caused by the hand-tracing task...
July 29, 2017: Brain Informatics
Gregory T A Kovacs, Mark Shadden
NASA's periodic selection of astronauts is a highly selective process accepting applications from the general population, wherein the mechanics of selection are not made public. This research was an effort to determine if biases (specifically age) exist in the process and, if so, at which points they might manifest. Two sets of analyses were conducted. The first utilized data requested via the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) on NASA astronaut applicants for the 2009 and 2013 selection years. Using a series of multinomial and logistic regressions, the data were analyzed to uncover whether age of the applicants linearly or nonlinearly affected their likelihood of receiving an invitation, as well as their likelihood of being selected into the astronaut program...
2017: PloS One
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