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Freedom of Information

Antonio Addis, Luca De Fiore, Giuseppe Traversa
Some huge information technology companies have increased investment in biomedical research: recently Google, Microsoft, and Facebook. The latter presented the ambitious Zuckerberg-Chan Initiative involving three major Californian universities: UC San Francisco, Berkeley and Stanford. These important private investments arouse reflections. First, investing in scientific research improves the corporate image of the most generous companies and it is a great marketing strategy. Second, the availability of private funds is surely useful, especially if these funds are directed to relevant projects, and produce studies conducted and disseminated in a transparent way...
October 2016: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
M S Anwar, S R Lee, R Ishiguro, Y Sugimoto, Y Tano, S J Kang, Y J Shin, S Yonezawa, D Manske, H Takayanagi, T W Noh, Y Maeno
Efforts have been ongoing to establish superconducting spintronics utilizing ferromagnet/superconductor heterostructures. Previously reported devices are based on spin-singlet superconductors (SSCs), where the spin degree of freedom is lost. Spin-polarized supercurrent induction in ferromagnetic metals (FMs) is achieved even with SSCs, but only with the aid of interfacial complex magnetic structures, which severely affect information imprinted to the electron spin. Use of spin-triplet superconductors (TSCs) with spin-polarizable Cooper pairs potentially overcomes this difficulty and further leads to novel functionalities...
October 26, 2016: Nature Communications
Gitau Mburu, Enrique Restoy, Evaline Kibuchi, Paula Holland, Anthony D Harries
Adherence to treatment is a key element for global TB control. Public health laws can be used to enforce isolation, adherence, and completion of TB treatment. However, the practical application of public health laws can potentially range from voluntary measures to involuntary detention approaches. This paper explores the potential risks and impacts of using detention approaches to enforce TB treatment adherence. In August 2015, we conducted a literature search regarding the application of public health laws to enforce adherence to TB treatment globally, and specifically in Kenya...
June 2016: Health and Human Rights
Anna M Borghi, Edoardo Zarcone
One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Martin Eisenberger, Alan Bulava, Josef Kautzner, Petr Neuzil, Ales Mokracek, Jiri Hanis, Ladislav Dusek
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation is common in patients with structural heart disease who are undergoing cardiac surgery. Surgical CryoMaze has been shown to be an effective treatment in several trials, but success rates have varied considerably, between 47-95 %. The sequential hybrid approach, combining surgical CryoMaze followed by radiofrequency catheter ablation, can achieve high freedom from atrial arrhythmias, even when rigorous methods to detect arrhythmias after the procedure are used...
October 24, 2016: Trials
Pan-Pan Zhang, Alexander Eisfeld
Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy has become an important experimental technique to obtain information on, e.g., electronic coherences in large molecular complexes or vibronic couplings. For the correct interpretation of two-dimensional spectra, however, detailed theoretical calculations are required. Reliable theoretical calculations are impeded by large system sizes and number of vibrational degrees of freedom that need to be explicitly taken into account. Here we demonstrate that a numerical approach based on a stochastic hierarchy of pure states (HOPS) does allow to calculate two-dimensional spectra, notwithstanding the stochasticity of our method...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Hai-Rui Wei, Pei-Jin Zhu
It is desirable to implement an efficient quantum information process demanding fewer quantum resources. We designed two compact quantum circuits for determinately implementing four-qubit Toffoli and Fredkin gates on single-photon systems in both the polarization and spatial degrees of freedom (DoFs) via diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in resonators. The gates are heralded by the electron spins associated with the diamond NV centers. In contrast to the ones with one DoF, our implementations reduce the quantum resource and are robust against the decoherence...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Marcia Leonardi Baldisserotto, Mariza Miranda Theme Filha, Silvana Granado Nogueira da Gama
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends good practices for the conduct of uncomplicated labor and birth, with the aim of improving the quality of and assessment by women of childbirth care. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between adoption of good practices according to WHO's recommendation for normal labor and birth and assessment by women of the care received. METHODS: Birth in Brazil is a national hospital-based study with countrywide representation consisting of 23,894 mothers and their newborns, conducted between February 2011 and October 2012...
October 17, 2016: Reproductive Health
Marcelo Shigueo Yosikawa Motoki, Fabio Roberto Cabar, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira Francisco
OBJECTIVES: To compare the views of freshman students with senior students of the Faculty of Medicine- University of São Paulo concerning the respect for the mother's freedom of choice, the need to protect the unborn child, the proportionality between the mother's freedom of choice and the protection of the unborn child, and issues related to legal abortion. To determine whether the medical knowledge acquired throughout the academic years can influence the views of medical students on these issues...
October 1, 2016: Clinics
Mehrnaz Anvari, M Reza Rahimi Tabar, Joachim Peinke, Klaus Lehnertz
Complex systems involving a large number of degrees of freedom, generally exhibit non-stationary dynamics, which can result in either continuous or discontinuous sample paths of the corresponding time series. The latter sample paths may be caused by discontinuous events - or jumps - with some distributed amplitudes, and disentangling effects caused by such jumps from effects caused by normal diffusion processes is a main problem for a detailed understanding of stochastic dynamics of complex systems. Here we introduce a non-parametric method to address this general problem...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
Christine Elizabeth Friesen, Patrick Seliske, Andrew Papadopoulos
Objectives. Socioeconomic status (SES) is a comprehensive indicator of health status and is useful in area-level health research and informing public health resource allocation. Principal component analysis (PCA) is a useful tool for developing SES indices to identify area-level disparities in SES within communities. While SES research in Canada has relied on census data, the voluntary nature of the 2011 National Household Survey challenges the validity of its data, especially income variables. This study sought to determine the appropriateness of replacing census income information with tax filer data in neighbourhood SES index development...
2016: Online Journal of Public Health Informatics
Katherine J Hahn, Shannon J Morales, James H Lewis
Anticoagulants are a well known cause of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). We recently encountered a 45-year-old male who developed DILI during treatment with enoxaparin, a low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), for dural venous thrombosis. The man received enoxaparin 80 mg subcutaneously, twice daily. After 4 days, the patient was asymptomatic but he developed liver aminotransferase elevations: AST 340 U/L and ALT 579 U/L. Investigation revealed an R ratio of 19.9 by day 5 and a Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method score of 10, giving a high probable likelihood that enoxaparin was the cause of hepatic injury...
December 2015: Drug Saf Case Rep
Sophie Lèbre, Olivier Gascuel
Overlapping genes exist in all domains of life and are much more abundant than expected upon their first discovery in the late 1970s. Assuming that the reference gene is read in frame +0, an overlapping gene can be encoded in two reading frames in the sense strand, denoted by +1 and +2, and in three reading frames in the opposite strand, denoted by -0, -1, and -2. This motivated numerous researchers to study the constraints induced by the genetic code on the various overlapping frames, mostly based on information theory...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Timothy F Leslie, Erica J Street, Paul L Delamater, Y Tony Yang, Kathryn H Jacobsen
OBJECTIVES: To compile substate-level data on US school-age children's vaccination rates. METHODS: For states that did not have suitable data online, in 2015 we submitted information requests to the state health department and followed up with the state's Freedom of Information Act when necessary. RESULTS: The accessibility, scale, and types of vaccination data varied considerably. Whereas 26 states provided data online, 14 released data only after a Freedom of Information Act request...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Kati Päätalo, Helvi Kyngäs
BACKGROUND: Valid and reliable methods to measure nurses' well-being at work are needed. Well-being at work refers to a positive viewpoint and experience in a work context. AIM: The aim of this study is to test the psychometric properties of Nurses' well-being at work -scale (NWB). METHOD: The scale (NWB) was tested in a Finnish hospital (N=233) using statistical methods. RESULTS: The NWB consists of 67 items and 12 factors: patients' experience of high-quality care, assistance and support among nurses, nurses' togetherness and collaboration, satisfying practical organization of work, challenging and meaningful work, freedom to express diverse feelings in a work community, well-conducted everyday nursing, status related to the work itself, fair and supportive leadership, opportunities for professional development, fluent communication with other professionals and being together with other nurses in an informal way...
October 13, 2016: Contemporary Nurse
Motamed Elsayed Mahmoud, Fatma Ali Mahmoud, Adel Elsayed Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Improvement of dairy farms economics requires intensification, automatic milking, and artificial rearing methods. The ability to express normal behavior is one of the five freedoms to achieve animal welfare, whereas the display of abnormal behaviors is considered as an indicator of poor welfare. Cross-sucking is defined as sucking any body parts of pen-mate calves, whereas inter-sucking in cows is defined as sucking the udder or udder area. Previous studies showed that self- and cross-sucking during the calf-hood period could be a causal factor of milk sucking in adulthood...
September 2016: Veterinary World
Sarah Bigi
The paper discusses the role of argumentative competencies for the achievement of patient engagement through communication in doctor-patient consultations. The achievement of patient engagement is being proposed by recent studies as a condition that can facilitate in particular patient adherence, which involves behavior change. One obstacle to behavior change that has been observed is reactance, i.e., resistance to persuasive messages when a threat to freedom is perceived. In the medical field, reactance theory has been mostly applied in the field of mental health, less frequently to understand non-adherence in general...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Jessica Eleanor Stokes, Matthew Baylis, Jennifer Sarah Duncan
In 2011-2012, northern European livestock faced a threat from a newly emerged virus, Schmallenberg virus (SBV), only a few years after a major outbreak of bluetongue serotype 8 (BTV-8). Like BTV-8, SBV is transmitted by Culicoides biting midges to ruminants and spread throughout Europe. SBV, however, spread faster, reaching the UK within three months of initial discovery. Adult ruminants show only mild, if any, clinical signs; however, infection of naive ruminants by SBV during the vulnerable period of gestation leads to abortions, stillbirths and fetal malformations...
October 11, 2016: Veterinary Record
Shaun A Hussain, Gary W Mathern, Raman Sankar, Joyce Y Wu
OBJECTIVE: Fast ripples (FR, 250-500Hz) are proposed biomarkers of the epileptogenic zone on the basis of several retrospective reports linking postoperative seizure freedom to their complete resection. There are no clinical trials or prospective reports validating the use of FR as characterized by electrocorticography (ECoG), to guide the scope of epilepsy surgery, and to inform prognosis thereafter. We set out to prospectively evaluate the utility of FR resection to predict postoperative epilepsy outcomes, and examine the feasibility of "live" intraoperative FR ascertainment...
September 23, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Marina Macchiagodena, Giordano Mancini, Marco Pagliai, Vincenzo Barone
In this contribution we show that it is possible to build accurate force fields for small organic molecules allowing the reliable reproduction of a large panel of bulk properties, which are seldom addressed in the same context. Starting from the results obtained in recent studies, we developed a protocol for charge estimation and virtual site generation for the amide class of molecules. The parametrization of electrostatic properties is based on population analysis and orbital localization of quantum mechanical computations rooted in density functional theory and the polarizable continuum model, without any additional external information...
September 14, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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