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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944467/olfactory-dysfunction-predicts-subsequent-dementia-in-older-u-s-adults
#1
Dara R Adams, David W Kern, Kristen E Wroblewski, Martha K McClintock, William Dale, Jayant M Pinto
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between olfactory dysfunction and subsequent diagnosis of dementia. DESIGN: Longitudinal study of a population representative of U.S. older adults. SETTING: Home interviews (National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project). PARTICIPANTS: Men and women aged 57 to 85 (N = 2,906). MEASUREMENTS: Objective odor identification ability was measured at baseline using a validated five-item test...
September 25, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943486/endovascular-treatment-of-complex-aortic-disease-with-parallel-graft-endovascular-aneurysm-repair-retrospective-analysis-of-a-single-center-experience-and-midterm-results
#2
Adovasio Roberto, Chiarandini Stefano, Calvagna Cristiano, D'Oria Mario, Zamolo Francesca, Pipitone Marco Damiano, Sgorlon Giada
OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate the midterm results of parallel-graft-endovascular aneurysm repair (pg-EVAR) for complex aortic anatomy in high-risk candidates for open surgical repair of abdominal aortic aneurism (AAA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clinical and radiographic information on 35 patients treated by pg-EVAR between March 2010 and December 2015 was retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. All patients presented with symptomatic aneurysms and were treated within 3 days of clinical presentation...
September 21, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933439/3d-printing-of-high-strength-aluminium-alloys
#3
John H Martin, Brennan D Yahata, Jacob M Hundley, Justin A Mayer, Tobias A Schaedler, Tresa M Pollock
Metal-based additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3D) printing, is a potentially disruptive technology across multiple industries, including the aerospace, biomedical and automotive industries. Building up metal components layer by layer increases design freedom and manufacturing flexibility, thereby enabling complex geometries, increased product customization and shorter time to market, while eliminating traditional economy-of-scale constraints. However, currently only a few alloys, the most relevant being AlSi10Mg, TiAl6V4, CoCr and Inconel 718, can be reliably printed; the vast majority of the more than 5,500 alloys in use today cannot be additively manufactured because the melting and solidification dynamics during the printing process lead to intolerable microstructures with large columnar grains and periodic cracks...
September 20, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924488/trion-valley-coherence-in-monolayer-semiconductors
#4
Kai Hao, Lixiang Xu, Fengcheng Wu, Philipp Nagler, Kha Tran, Xin Ma, Christian Schüller, Tobias Korn, Allan H MacDonald, Galan Moody, Xiaoqin Li
The emerging field of valleytronics aims to exploit the valley pseudospin of electrons residing near Bloch band extrema as an information carrier. Recent experiments demonstrating optical generation and manipulation of exciton valley coherence (the superposition of electron-hole pairs at opposite valleys) in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) provide a critical step towards control of this quantum degree of freedom. The charged exciton (trion) in TMDs is an intriguing alternative to the neutral exciton for control of valley pseudospin because of its long spontaneous recombination lifetime, its robust valley polarization, and its coupling to residual electronic spin...
June 2017: 2d Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919288/control-of-unstable-processes-with-time-delays-via-adrc
#5
Caifen Fu, Wen Tan
Active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) treats the external disturbance and internal uncertainties as a general disturbance, and uses an extended state observer (ESO) to estimate it in real-time and feeds it back in the control loop, thus can achieve good disturbance rejection performance. However, ADRC is not quite suitable for unstable delayed processes due to its inherent structure. In this paper, a two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) control structure is proposed for unstable time- delayed systems. Set-point tracking and disturbance rejection are separated in this structure and ADRC is solely responsible for disturbance rejection...
September 14, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914395/repetitive-on-demand-drug-release-from-polymeric-matrices-containing-a-macroscopic-spherical-iron-core
#6
Stefan A Rovers, Maartje F Kemmere, Jos T F Keurentjes, Richard Hoogenboom
A system for multiple on-demand drug release has been prepared that can be activated with an alternating magnetic field as external trigger. The core/shell samples have been developed based on a macroscopic spherical iron core coated with a thermoresponsive polymer, poly(styrene-stat-butyl methacrylate), containing ibuprofen as a model drug. During exposure of the samples to the magnetic field (ON state), the release rate of ibuprofen is significantly increased, up to 35 times the release rate without the magnetic field (OFF state)...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904806/do-clinicians-receive-adequate-training-to-identify-trafficked-persons-a-scoping-review-of-nhs-foundation-trusts
#7
Charles Dr Thompson, Arun Mahay, David Stuckler, Sarah Steele
OBJECTIVE: We investigate whether physicians in secondary care in the English NHS receive adequate training to recognise and appropriately refer for services those persons suspected to be victims of human trafficking. DESIGN: Freedom of Information requests were sent to the 105 England's NHS Trusts delivering acute care in England. SETTING: NHS Trusts providing secondary care in England. PARTICIPANTS: English NHS Trusts...
September 2017: JRSM Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903700/motivational-differences-in-seeking-out-evaluative-categorization-information
#8
Rachel Smallman, Brittney Becker
Previous research shows that people draw finer evaluative distinctions when rating liked versus disliked objects (e.g., wanting a 5-point scale to evaluate liked cuisines and a 3-point scale to rate disliked cuisines). Known as the preference-categorization effect, this pattern may exist not only in how individuals form evaluative distinctions but also in how individuals seek out evaluative information. The current research presents three experiments that examine motivational differences in evaluative information seeking (rating scales and attributes)...
July 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901756/using-fundamental-spectroscopy-to-elucidate-kinetic-and-energetic-mechanisms-within-environmentally-relevant-inductively-coupled-plasma-systems
#9
Angela Hanna, Joshua Blechle, Ellen R Fisher
Understanding energy distributions and kinetic processes in NxOy plasma systems is vital to realizing their potential in a range of applications, including pollution abatement. Energy partitioning between degrees of freedom and multiple molecules formed within NxOy plasma systems (N2, N2O, N2/O2) was investigated using both optical emission and broadband absorption spec-troscopies. Specifically, we have determined electron temperatures (Te), as well as rotational (TR) and vibrational (TV) temperatures for various N2 (B(3)Πg and C(3)Πu) and NO (X(2)Π and A(2) Σ(+)) states...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900104/geometrically-controlled-polarisation-processing-in-femtosecond-laser-written-photonic-circuits
#10
Ioannis Pitsios, Farid Samara, Giacomo Corrielli, Andrea Crespi, Roberto Osellame
Polarisation of light is a powerful and widely used degree of freedom to encode information, both in classical and quantum applications. In particular, quantum information technologies based on photons are being revolutionised by the use of integrated photonic circuits. It is therefore very important to be able to manipulate the polarisation of photons in such circuits. We experimentally demonstrate the fabrication by femtosecond laser micromachining of components such as polarisation insensitive and polarising directional couplers, operating at 1550 nm wavelength, where the two opposite behaviours are achieved just by controlling the geometric layout of the photonic circuits, being the waveguides fabricated with the same irradiation recipe...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890303/a-simulation-framework-for-humeral-head-translations
#11
Ehsan Sarshari, Alain Farron, Alexandre Terrier, Dominique Pioletti, Philippe Mullhaupt
Humeral head translations (HHT) play a crucial role in the glenohumeral (GH) joint function. The available shoulder musculoskeletal models developed based on inverse dynamics however fall short of predicting the HHT. This study aims at developing a simulation framework that allows forward-dynamics simulation of a shoulder musculoskeletal model with a 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) GH joint. It provides a straightforward solution to the HHT prediction problem. We show that even within a forward-dynamics simulation addressing the HHT requires further information about the contact...
September 7, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885929/the-relationship-between-emerging-adult-alcohol-consumption-and-military-enlistment
#12
Mojtaba Shirvani, Mark B Reed, Sarah Clingan
BACKGROUND: The use and abuse of alcohol among active duty personnel is well documented in the research literature. Over the last decade rates of heavy and excessive drinking within the military have increased significantly, coinciding with both Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom. The heavy use of alcohol by military personnel can be attributed to multiple factors such as the psychosocial and environmental stressors of military life and is frequently linked to mental health issues, the transient nature of the armed forces, the number and length of deployments, and exposure to life-threatening situations in combat environments...
September 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880183/gaussian-process-autoregression-for-simultaneous-proportional-multi-modal-prosthetic-control-with-natural-hand-kinematics
#13
Michele Xiloyannis, Constantinos Gavriel, Andreas A C Thomik, A Aldo Faisal
Matching the dexterity, versatility and robustness of the human hand is still an unachieved goal in bionics, robotics and neural engineering. A major limitation for hand prosthetics lies in the challenges of reliably decoding user intention from muscle signals when controlling complex robotic hands. Most of the commercially available prosthetic hands use musclerelated signals to decode a finite number of predefined motions and some offer proportional control of open/close movements of the whole hand. Here, in contrast, we aim to offer users flexible control of individual joints of their artificial hand...
August 31, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874136/himme-using-genetic-patterns-as-a-proxy-for-genome-assembly-reliability-assessment
#14
Jordi Abante, Noushin Ghaffari, Charles D Johnson, Aniruddha Datta
BACKGROUND: The information content of genomes plays a crucial role in the existence and proper development of living organisms. Thus, tremendous effort has been dedicated to developing DNA sequencing technologies that provide a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of cellular processes. Advances in the development of sequencing technology have made it possible to sequence genomes in a relatively fast and inexpensive way. However, as with any measurement technology, there is noise involved and this needs to be addressed to reach conclusions based on the resulting data...
September 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856057/comparison-of-pump-probe-and-hyperspectral-imaging-in-unstained-histology-sections-of-pigmented-lesions
#15
Jesse W Wilson, Francisco E Robles, Sanghamitra Deb, Warren S Warren, Martin C Fischer
Microscopic variations in melanin composition can be mapped through linear and nonlinear optical responses. Though instrumentation to measure linear attenuation is simple and inexpensive, the nonlinear response provides more degrees of freedom with which to spectroscopically resolve pigments. The objective of this study is to assess differences in imaging melanin contrast by comparing hyperspectral (linear) versus pump-probe (nonlinear) microscopy of unstained histology sections of pigmented lesions. The images and analysis we have presented here show that pump-probe uncovers a greater variation in pigment composition, compared with hyperspectral microscopy, and that the two methods yield complimentary biochemical information...
August 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851719/surgical-and-catheter-based-reinterventions-are-common-in-long-term-survivors-of-the-fontan-operation
#16
Tacy E Downing, Kiona Y Allen, David J Goldberg, Lindsay S Rogers, Chitra Ravishankar, Jack Rychik, Stephanie Fuller, Lisa M Montenegro, James M Steven, Matthew J Gillespie, Jonathan J Rome, Thomas L Spray, Susan C Nicolson, J William Gaynor, Andrew C Glatz
BACKGROUND: There are limited follow-up studies examining surgical and catheter-based reinterventions in long-term survivors of the Fontan operation. METHODS AND RESULTS: All 773 patients who underwent Fontan at our institution between 1992 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. Current information regarding post-Fontan intervention was available for 70%. By 20 years after Fontan, 65% of patients had experienced either surgical or transcatheter intervention. The median time to first reintervention was 9...
September 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842156/beyond-ether-and-chloroform-a-major-breakthrough-with-halothane
#17
Lisa Huang, Christine N Sang, Manisha S Desai
BACKGROUND: The use of equipment powered by electricity in the operating room increased the risk of fires in the presence of flammable agents such as ether and cyclopropane. Chloroform was associated with cardiac arrhythmias and liver damage. The introduction of halothane in the late 1950s was heralded as a solution to many problems facing the specialty of anesthesia. We explore whether the manufacturer promptly reported halothane's adverse effects to regulatory agencies and practitioners...
July 2017: Journal of Anesthesia History
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841472/neuropsychological-outcomes-following-stereotactic-laser-amygdalohippocampectomy
#18
Melanie R F Greenway, John A Lucas, Anteneh M Feyissa, Sanjeet Grewal, Robert E Wharen, William O Tatum
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to analyze neuropsychological testing data from 15 patients before and after stereotactic laser ablation surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy and to describe the seizure outcomes after stereotactic laser ablation surgery. METHODS: A retrospective review of 15 patients who underwent stereotactic laser ablation and who also underwent neuropsychological testing before and after surgery was performed. Verbal and visual memory was assessed in all 15 patients using California Verbal Learning Test and Wechsler Memory Scale IV...
August 22, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841198/social-environment-of-older-people-during-the-first-year-in-senior-housing-and-its-association-with-physical-performance
#19
Sinikka Lotvonen, Helvi Kyngäs, Pentti Koistinen, Risto Bloigu, Satu Elo
Increasing numbers of older people relocate into senior housing when their physical performance declines. The change in social environment is known to affect their wellbeing, providing both challenges and opportunities, but more information on the relations between social and physical parameters is required. Thus, we elicited perceptions of the social environment of 81 older people (aged 59-93 years, living in northern Finland) and changes in it 3 and 12 months after relocation to senior housing. We also measured their physical performance, then analysed associations between the social and physical variables...
August 25, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838100/long-term-results-of-the-mitroflow-aortic-pericardial-bioprosthesis-in-over-800-patients-limited-durability-and-mechanisms-of-dysfunction
#20
Fabio Ius, Julia Schulz, Mazen Roumieh, Felix Fleissner, Issam Ismail, Igor Tudorache, Gregor Warnecke, Andreas Martens, Malakh Shrestha, Dietmar Boethig, Axel Haverich, Serghei Cebotari
OBJECTIVES: The Mitroflow aortic pericardial bioprosthesis was widely employed in the past. However, some authors have recently reported early structural valve deterioration (SVD) of the Mitroflow LA/LXA model. Thus, we reviewed our experience with the Mitroflow bioprosthesis and studied the risk factors for SVD and mortality. METHODS: Records of patients who underwent aortic valve replacement with a Mitroflow bioprosthesis between November 2005 and January 2015 were retrospectively evaluated with Kaplan-Meier, Cox-regression and multistate analysis...
August 1, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
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