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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919491/comparing-outcomes-from-clinical-studies-of-oral-disease-modifying-therapies-dimethyl-fumarate-fingolimod-and-teriflunomide-in-relapsing-ms-assessing-absolute-differences-using-a-number-needed-to-treat-analysis
#1
Mark S Freedman, Xavier Montalban, Aaron E Miller, Catherine Dive-Pouletty, Steven Hass, Karthinathan Thangavelu, Thomas P Leist
Dimethyl fumarate (DMF), fingolimod, and teriflunomide are oral disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) indicated for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Despite well-established limitations of cross-trial comparisons, DMTs are still frequently compared in terms of relative reductions in specific endpoints, most commonly annualized relapse rate. Consideration of absolute risk reduction and number needed to treat (NNT) provides an alternative approach to assess the magnitude of treatment effect and can provide valuable additional information on therapeutic gain...
November 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917149/wavelet-packet-feature-assessment-for-high-density-myoelectric-pattern-recognition-and-channel-selection-toward-stroke-rehabilitation
#2
Dongqing Wang, Xu Zhang, Xiaoping Gao, Xiang Chen, Ping Zhou
This study presents wavelet packet feature assessment of neural control information in paretic upper limb muscles of stroke survivors for myoelectric pattern recognition, taking advantage of high-resolution time-frequency representations of surface electromyogram (EMG) signals. On this basis, a novel channel selection method was developed by combining the Fisher's class separability index and the sequential feedforward selection analyses, in order to determine a small number of appropriate EMG channels from original high-density EMG electrode array...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915111/clinical-outcomes-of-perampanel-vs-lacosamide-in-cohorts-of-consecutive-patients-with-severely-refractory-epilepsies-a-monocentric-retrospective-analysis-of-systematically-collected-data-from-the-german-kork-epilepsy-center
#3
Christoph Kurth, Edgar Kockelmann, Bernhard J Steinhoff
PURPOSE: Perampanel (PER) and lacosamide (LCM) are antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) approved for the adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures. At the time of market entry, information on clinical effectiveness of new AEDs is limited to results from pivotal trials, real-life or comparative data are missing. This analysis of data collected retrospectively in a German epilepsy center used unified evaluation criteria, and describes treatment outcomes with LCM and PER at 6 months. METHODS: Results of the first 70 consecutive patients who had received LCM or PER after their market entries in Germany were compared...
November 23, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914194/illness-narratives-of-people-who-are-homeless
#4
Cecilia Håkanson, Joakim Öhlén
Multiple illnesses are common in all homeless populations. While most previous studies have focused on experiences of mental illness, there is a scarcity of studies about experiences of bodily illness among people who are homeless. This study aimed to explore illness narratives of people who are homeless, and how homelessness as a social context shapes the experience of multiple and/or advancing somatic conditions. The design was a qualitative single-case study, using interpretive description. Data were generated through interviews, with nine participants who were homeless rough sleepers in Stockholm, Sweden, recruited while receiving care in a support home for homeless people with complex care needs...
2016: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893722/valley-photonic-crystals-for-control-of-spin-and%C3%A2-topology
#5
Jian-Wen Dong, Xiao-Dong Chen, Hanyu Zhu, Yuan Wang, Xiang Zhang
Photonic crystals offer unprecedented opportunity for light manipulation and applications in optical communication and sensing. Exploration of topology in photonic crystals and metamaterials with non-zero gauge field has inspired a number of intriguing optical phenomena such as one-way transport and Weyl points. Recently, a new degree of freedom, valley, has been demonstrated in two-dimensional materials. Here, we propose a concept of valley photonic crystals with electromagnetic duality symmetry but broken inversion symmetry...
November 28, 2016: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886080/three-dimensional-object-recognition-and-registration-for-robotic-grasping-systems-using-a-modified-viewpoint-feature-histogram
#6
Chin-Sheng Chen, Po-Chun Chen, Chih-Ming Hsu
This paper presents a novel 3D feature descriptor for object recognition and to identify poses when there are six-degrees-of-freedom for mobile manipulation and grasping applications. Firstly, a Microsoft Kinect sensor is used to capture 3D point cloud data. A viewpoint feature histogram (VFH) descriptor for the 3D point cloud data then encodes the geometry and viewpoint, so an object can be simultaneously recognized and registered in a stable pose and the information is stored in a database. The VFH is robust to a large degree of surface noise and missing depth information so it is reliable for stereo data...
November 23, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883299/should-mental-health-screening-and-psychotherapy-be-required-prior-to-body-modification-for-gender-expression
#7
Timothy F Murphy
Some people want to modify their bodies through hormonal and surgical treatments in order to resolve gender dysphoria, the distress they experience when their bodies do not align with their gender identity. The World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) offers guidelines to clinicians regarding treatment of people wanting to modify their bodies for this reason. Prior to these modifications, WPATH advises that mental health screening is needed and that psychotherapy is recommended though not a requirement...
November 1, 2016: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871188/what-can-35-years-and-over-700-000-measurements-tell-us-about-noise-exposure-in-the-mining-industry
#8
Benjamin Roberts, Kan Sun, Richard L Neitzel
OBJECTIVE: To analyse over 700,000 cross-sectional measurements from the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MHSA) and develop statistical models to predict noise exposure for a worker. DESIGN: Descriptive statistics were used to summarise the data. Two linear regression models were used to predict noise exposure based on MSHA-permissible exposure limit (PEL) and action level (AL), respectively. Twofold cross validation was used to compare the exposure estimates from the models to actual measurement...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870999/sparse-bayesian-registration-of-medical-images-for-self-tuning-of-parameters-and-spatially-adaptive-parametrization-of-displacements
#9
Loïc Le Folgoc, Hervé Delingette, Antonio Criminisi, Nicholas Ayache
We extend Bayesian models of non-rigid image registration to allow not only for the automatic determination of registration parameters (such as the trade-off between image similarity and regularization functionals), but also for a data-driven, multiscale, spatially adaptive parametrization of deformations. Adaptive parametrizations have been used with success to promote both the regularity and accuracy of registration schemes, but so far on non-probabilistic grounds - either as part of multiscale heuristics, or on the basis of sparse optimization...
November 9, 2016: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853566/zebrafish-response-to-a-robotic-replica-in-three-dimensions
#10
Tommaso Ruberto, Violet Mwaffo, Sukhgewanpreet Singh, Daniele Neri, Maurizio Porfiri
As zebrafish emerge as a species of choice for the investigation of biological processes, a number of experimental protocols are being developed to study their social behaviour. While live stimuli may elicit varying response in focal subjects owing to idiosyncrasies, tiredness and circadian rhythms, video stimuli suffer from the absence of physical input and rely only on two-dimensional projections. Robotics has been recently proposed as an alternative approach to generate physical, customizable, effective and consistent stimuli for behavioural phenotyping...
October 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834378/spin-injection-and-inverse-edelstein-effect-in-the-surface-states-of-topological-kondo-insulator-smb6
#11
Qi Song, Jian Mi, Dan Zhao, Tang Su, Wei Yuan, Wenyu Xing, Yangyang Chen, Tianyu Wang, Tao Wu, Xian Hui Chen, X C Xie, Chi Zhang, Jing Shi, Wei Han
There has been considerable interest in exploiting the spin degrees of freedom of electrons for potential information storage and computing technologies. Topological insulators (TIs), a class of quantum materials, have special gapless edge/surface states, where the spin polarization of the Dirac fermions is locked to the momentum direction. This spin-momentum locking property gives rise to very interesting spin-dependent physical phenomena such as the Edelstein and inverse Edelstein effects. However, the spin injection in pure surface states of TI is very challenging because of the coexistence of the highly conducting bulk states...
November 11, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827348/data-mining-graphene-correlative-analysis-of-structure-and-electronic-degrees-of-freedom-in-graphenic-monolayers-with-defects
#12
Maxim Ziatdinov, Shintaro Fujii, Manabu Kiguchi, Toshiaki Enoki, Stephen Jesse, Sergei V Kalinin
The link between changes in the material crystal structure and its mechanical, electronic, magnetic and optical functionalities-known as the structure-property relationship-is the cornerstone of modern materials science research. The recent advances in scanning transmission electron and scanning probe microscopies (STEM and SPM) have opened an unprecedented path towards examining the structure-property relationships of materials at the single-impurity and atomic-configuration levels. However, there are no statistics-based approaches for cross-correlation of structure and property variables obtained from the different information channels of STEM and SPM experiments...
November 9, 2016: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827276/influence-of-beliefs-about-health-and-illness-on-self-care-and-care-seeking-in-foreign-born-people-with-diabetic-foot-ulcers-dissimilarities-related-to-origin
#13
K Hjelm, J Apelqvist
OBJECTIVE: To describe beliefs about health and illness among foreign-born people with diabetic foot ulcers that might affect self-reported self-care and health-care seeking and to study whether there are dissimilarities related to origin. METHOD: Qualitative descriptive study. Semi-structured interviews with people aged 38-86 years; 13 born in European and 13 in non-European countries (all except one in the Middle East). All resident in Sweden for 7-60 years (median: 18...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819047/nonradiating-and-radiating-modes-excited-by-quantum-emitters-in-open-epsilon-near-zero-cavities
#14
Iñigo Liberal, Nader Engheta
Controlling the emission and interaction properties of quantum emitters (QEs) embedded within an optical cavity is a key technique in engineering light-matter interactions at the nanoscale, as well as in the development of quantum information processing. State-of-the-art optical cavities are based on high quality factor photonic crystals and dielectric resonators. However, wealthier responses might be attainable with cavities carved in more exotic materials. We theoretically investigate the emission and interaction properties of QEs embedded in open epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) cavities...
October 2016: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812523/when-there-is-not-enough-evidence-and-when-evidence-is-not-enough-an-australian-indigenous-smoking-policy-study
#15
Daniel Vujcich, Mike Rayner, Steven Allender, Ray Fitzpatrick
BACKGROUND: The Indigenous Tobacco Control Initiative and Tackling Indigenous Smoking Measure were both announced by the Australian Government at a time when its rhetoric around the importance of evidence-based policy making was strong. This article will (1) examine how the Rudd Government used evidence in Indigenous tobacco control policy making and (2) explore the facilitators of and barriers to the use of evidence. METHODS: Data were collected through (1) a review of primary documents largely obtained under the Freedom of Information Act 1982 (Commonwealth of Australia) and (2) interviews with senior politicians, senior bureaucrats, government advisors, Indigenous health advocates, and academics...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807418/evaluating-emg-feature-and-classifier-selection-for-application-to-partial-hand-prosthesis-control
#16
Adenike A Adewuyi, Levi J Hargrove, Todd A Kuiken
Pattern recognition-based myoelectric control of upper-limb prostheses has the potential to restore control of multiple degrees of freedom. Though this control method has been extensively studied in individuals with higher-level amputations, few studies have investigated its effectiveness for individuals with partial-hand amputations. Most partial-hand amputees retain a functional wrist and the ability of pattern recognition-based methods to correctly classify hand motions from different wrist positions is not well studied...
2016: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807258/-pace-gate-when-clinical-trial-evidence-meets-open-data-access
#17
EDITORIAL
Keith J Geraghty
Science is not always plain sailing and sometimes the voyage is across an angry sea. A recent clinical trial of treatments for chronic fatigue syndrome (the PACE trial) has whipped up a storm of controversy. Patients claim the lead authors overstated the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy and graded exercise therapy by lowering the thresholds they used to determine improvement. In this extraordinary case, patients discovered that the treatments tested had much lower efficacy after an information tribunal ordered the release of data from the PACE trial to a patient who had requested access using a freedom of information request...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797706/men-s-health-supplement-use-and-outcomes-in-men-receiving-definitive-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-for-localized-prostate-cancer
#18
Nicholas G Zaorsky, Thomas M Churilla, Karen Ruth, Shelly B Hayes, Mark L Sobczak, Mark A Hallman, Marc C Smaldone, David Yt Chen, Eric M Horwitz
BACKGROUND: Approximately 50% of newly diagnosed cancer patients start taking dietary supplements. Men's health supplements (MHSs), which we define as supplements that are specifically marketed with the terms men's health and prostate health (or similar permutations), are often mislabeled as having potential anticancer benefits. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effects of MHSs on patient outcomes and toxicities in patients who were undergoing definitive intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for localized prostate cancer...
October 26, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788449/epilepsy-surgery-in-the-posterior-part-of-the-brain
#19
Alexandra Liava, Roberto Mai, Francesco Cardinale, Laura Tassi, Giuseppe Casaceli, Francesca Gozzo, Massimo Cossu, Lino Nobili, Laura Castana, Ivana Sartori, Giorgio Lo Russo, Stefano Francione
Posterior cortex epilepsy surgery is rarely performed and is associated with a high number of surgical failures, partly because accurate localization of the epileptogenic zone in the posterior part of the brain is extremely difficult. We present the characteristics as well as the surgical outcome and its determinants of a cohort of 208 consecutive patients (adults/children: 125/83) operated on for drug-resistant posterior cortex epilepsy at the "Claudio Munari" Epilepsy Surgery Centre, Milan between May 1996 and May 2013 (mean postsurgical follow-up: 9...
November 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782225/-biomedical-research-from-philanthropy-to-scarcity
#20
Antonio Addis, Luca De Fiore, Giuseppe Traversa
Some huge information technology companies have increased investment in biomedical research: recently Google, Microsoft, and Facebook. The latter presented the ambitious Zuckerberg-Chan Initiative involving three major Californian universities: UC San Francisco, Berkeley and Stanford. These important private investments arouse reflections. First, investing in scientific research improves the corporate image of the most generous companies and it is a great marketing strategy. Second, the availability of private funds is surely useful, especially if these funds are directed to relevant projects, and produce studies conducted and disseminated in a transparent way...
October 2016: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
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