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Klaus Kessler, Jason J Braithwaite
INTRODUCTION: Hallucinations that involve shifts in the subjectively experienced location of the self, have been termed "out-of-body experiences" (OBEs). Early psychiatric accounts cast OBEs as a specific instance of depersonalisation and derealisation disorder (DPD-DR). However, during feelings of alienation and lack of body realism in DPD-DR the self is experienced within the physical body. Deliberate forms of "disembodiment" enable humans to imagine another's visuo-spatial perspective taking (VPT), thus, if a strong relationship between deliberate and spontaneous forms of disembodiment could be revealed, then uncontrolled OBEs could be "the other side of the coin" of a uniquely human capacity...
August 10, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Michael Perdices
The Alice in Wonderland Syndrome (AWS) was first described more than 60 years ago by Lippman. It refers to episodes during which an individual may variously experience (as did Alice during her time in Wonderland) somatic, visuo-perceptual and/or visuo-spatial hallucinations, as well as feelings of depersonalisation, derealisation and distorted sense of time. Although the prevalence of AWS is unknown, indirect evidence from both retrospective and prospective studies suggests that it is a rare disorder. This paper describes the case of Zoe, a right-handed, native English speaker who was age 45 years when she experienced an episode of AWS...
September 5, 2016: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Hayley Dewe, Derrick G Watson, Jason J Braithwaite
INTRODUCTION: Depersonalisation and derealisation disorders refer to feelings of detachment and dissociation from one's "self" or surroundings. A reduced sense of self (or "presence") and emotional "numbness" is thought to be mediated by aberrant emotional processing due to biases in self-referent multi-sensory integration. This emotional "numbing" is often accompanied by suppressed autonomic arousal to emotionally salient stimuli. METHODS: 118 participants completed the Cambridge Depersonalisation scale [Sierra, & Berrios, 2000...
July 28, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Rogelio Luque-Luque, Geli Marie Chauca-Chauca, Pablo Alonso-Lobato, M Jose Jaen-Moreno
INTRODUCTION: The phenomena of depersonalisation/derealisation have classically been associated with the initial phases of psychosis, and it is assumed that they would precede (even by years) the onset of clinical psychosis, being much more common in the prodromal and acute phases of the illness. The aims of the present study are to analyse the differences in depersonalisation/derealisation between patients with initial and multiple episodes and the factors that could influence this. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A descriptive, controlled and cross-sectional study of 48 patients diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia (20 with an initial episode and 28 with multiple episodes)...
July 2016: Revista de Psiquiatrí́a y Salud Mental
Thomas Pokorny, Katrin H Preller, Rainer Kraehenmann, Franz X Vollenweider
The mixed serotonin (5-HT) 1A/2A/2B/2C/6/7 receptor agonist psilocybin dose-dependently induces an altered state of consciousness (ASC) that is characterized by changes in sensory perception, mood, thought, and the sense of self. The psychological effects of psilocybin are primarily mediated by 5-HT2A receptor activation. However, accumulating evidence suggests that 5-HT1A or an interaction between 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors may contribute to the overall effects of psilocybin. Therefore, we used a double-blind, counterbalanced, within-subject design to investigate the modulatory effects of the partial 5-HT1A agonist buspirone (20mg p...
April 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Erwin Lemche, Mauricio Sierra-Siegert, Anthony S David, Mary L Phillips, David Gasston, Steven C R Williams, Vincent P Giampietro
Previous studies have yielded evidence for cognitive processing abnormalities and alterations of autonomic functioning in depersonalization-derealization disorder (DPRD). However, multimodal neuroimaging and psychophysiology studies have not yet been conducted to test for functional and effective connectivity under cognitive stress in patients with DPRD. DPRD and non-referred control subjects underwent a combined Stroop/negative priming task, and the neural correlates of Stroop interference effect, negative priming effect, error rates, cognitive load span and average amplitude of skin conductance responses were ascertained for both groups...
April 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Joar Øveraas Halvorsen, Håkon Stenmark, Frank Neuner, Hans M Nordahl
UNLABELLED: Dissociative symptoms, especially depersonalisation and derealisation, are often perceived as a contraindication for exposure-based treatments of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) despite limited empirical evidence. The present paper examines whether derealisation and depersonalisation influence the treatment outcomes of narrative exposure therapy (NET) and treatment as usual (TaU) among severely traumatised asylum seekers and refugees. We performed a secondary analysis of a recently published randomized controlled multicentre trial comparing NET and TaU for the treatment of PTSD in asylum seekers and refugees...
June 2014: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Anna Comparelli, Georgios D Kotzalidis, Simone Di Pietro, Antonio Del Casale, Antonella De Carolis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2014: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Anna Comparelli, Georgios D Kotzalidis, Simone Di Pietro, Antonio Del Casale, Antonella De Carolis
The delusional misidentification syndromes, occurring within the context of different nosological settings, such as schizophrenia, are psychopathological phenomena related to the experience of depersonalisation/derealisation. Extensive research indicates that individuals meeting specific "prodromal" criteria, such as attenuated psychotic symptoms, brief intermittent psychotic symptoms, or functional decline and family history of schizophrenia have increased risk for impending psychosis. Despite depersonalisation and/or derealisation often precede psychotic onset, they are not included among the prodromal criteria of the Australian-American approach...
January 2014: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Charlotte Warren-Gash, Adam Zeman
BACKGROUND: Déjà vu can occur as an aura of temporal lobe epilepsy and in some psychiatric conditions but is also common in the general population. It is unclear whether any clinical features distinguish pathological and physiological forms of déjà vu. METHODS: 50 epileptic patients with ictal déjà vu, 50 non-epileptic patients attending general neurology clinics and 50 medical students at Edinburgh University were recruited. Data were collected on demographic factors, the experience of déjà vu using a questionnaire based on Sno's Inventory for Déjà Vu Experiences Assessment, symptoms of anxiety and depression using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale as well as seizure characteristics, anti-epileptic medications, handedness, EEG and neuroimaging findings for epileptic patients...
February 2014: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Isabelle Arnulf, Thomas J Rico, Emmanuel Mignot
Kleine-Levin syndrome is a rare sleep disorder that mainly affects adolescents and is characterised by relapsing-remitting episodes of severe hypersomnia, cognitive impairment, apathy, derealisation, and psychiatric and behavioural disturbances. Boys are more frequently affected than girls. Just over half of patients have hyperphagia, are hypersexual (mainly boys), or have depressed mood (mainly girls), and 30% become anxious, delusional, and have hallucinations. Although some symptoms are similar to those in patients with encephalopathy, imaging and laboratory findings are unremarkable...
October 2012: Lancet Neurology
Farah N Khalid, Tamsin Ford, Barbara Maughan
BACKGROUND: Despite evidence of an increased risk of violence among adults suffering from psychosis, very little is currently known about the relationship between early onset psychosis and aggressive behaviour. We aimed to identify and examine overlaps between aggressive behaviour and psychosis in a referred child and adolescent sample to assess whether potential risk factors and other associated features of this co-occurring pattern can be identified at a young age. METHODS: Standardised item sheet data on young people referred to the Child and Adolescent Department of the Maudsley Hospital between 1973 and 2004 were used to contrast three groups: (1) aggressive-only (n = 1,346), (2) psychosis-only (n = 173), and (3) co-occurring aggression and psychosis (n = 39) on a range of comorbid symptoms and potential risk factors...
November 2012: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Giovanni Stanghellini, Paolo Fusar-Poli
Early psychopathological attempts to characterize the vulnerability to schizophrenia were based on the phenomenological method. From the beginning, phenomenologically-oriented psychopathologists have searched the basic vulnerability underlying schizophrenic phenomena in two main domains: depersonalization and derealisation/desocialization. Schizophrenic persons undergo a special kind of depersonalisation: the living body becomes a functioning body, a thing-like mechanism in which feelings, perceptions, and actions take place as if they happened in an outer space...
2012: Current Pharmaceutical Design
H D Chopra, J A Beatson
Borderline Personality Disorder has received diagnostic respectability with its inclusion in DSM III. Unfortunately, its popularity has outstripped its clarity. It is receiving widespread clinical attention, yet its phenomenology remains unclear. This paper describes a study of brief psychotic and depressive symptoms in inpatients with narrowly defined Borderline Personality Disorder. Almost all the cases present with evidence of brief psychotic symptoms, most common symptoms being the dissociative type (derealisation/depersonalisation); some patients also experience non-drug induced psychotic symptoms mainly hallucinations which are brief and appear only in stressful circumstances...
July 1988: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
S Khanna, R Ramasubbu, S M Channabasavanna
All 12 cases who received a diagnosis of depersonalisation neurosis over a 6½ year period were studied. The illness was found to occur in young males. It usually took a deteroriating course after starting insidiously. Anxiety, depression and derealisation were common concomitants. Other associated symptoms included deaffectualisation, disturbed sleep and appetite, obsessive ruminations and hypochondriacal preoccupations. An attempt was made to classify the phenomenon of depersonalisation and 7 groups were found...
January 1985: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
S Gautam, I D Gupta, L Batra, H Sharma, R Khandelwal, A Pant
Thirty one victims of bomb blast in a bus caused by terrorist activity in Dausa district, Rajasthan on 22.5.96, were evaluated for psychological reactions 3 days & 2 weeks after the incident. All hospitalized & non hospitalised bomb blast victims were assessed within 3 days of injury by objective predictors (percent of burnt area, facial disfigurement, limb amputations, fractures etc.) and subjective predictors (emotional distress and perceived social support). Detailed history, physical and mental state examination of all patients was carried out and for those having scores more then 17 on GHQ-60 (Hindi version), IPIS was administered...
January 1998: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Iby Neerakal, K Srinivasan
We studied 94 panic subjects with a view to identify clinical subtypes of panic disorder. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation of 13 DSM-IV panic symptoms yielded four clinically meaningful factors. Factor I with hot flushes, trembling and sweating was suggestive of a general autonomic hyperactivity. Factor II had cognitive symptoms such as fear of loss of control or going crazy and derealisation. Factor III was mixed in nature but had symptoms of fear of dying and chest pain. Factor-IV had respiratory symptoms in the form of choking sensation and being short of breath...
April 2002: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
H Merckelbach, T Giesbrecht, M Jelicic, T Smeets
BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of psychiatric research is based on surveys that rely on self-report scales. Little is known about careless respondents in such surveys. AIM: To explore to what extent careless respondents may bias the outcomes of surveys. METHOD: Three surveys were conducted among paid volunteers (undergraduates). RESULTS: A small but non-trivial proportion of undergraduates admitted that they often intentionally gave wrong answers in surveys...
2010: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Tanja Grahovac, Klementina Ruzić, Paola Medved, Aristea Pavesić-Radonja, Elizabeta Dadić-Hero
A 47 year old patient has been treated for psychotic depression for the last 5 years. The illness began manifesting through the symptoms of depressive thoughts, intrapsychic tension, projectivity, derealisation phenomena and pre-psychotic fears. She was treated with a combination of antidepressives, anxiolitics and hypnotics in ambulatory conditions. The therapy applied did not obtain the effects expected due to which an atypical antipsychotic was administered subsequently - risperidone, a 2 mg dose in the evening...
March 2010: Psychiatria Danubina
Vikki Wise, Alexander C McFarlane, C Richard Clark, Malcolm Battersby
Various empirical data suggest that individuals with Panic Disorder (PD) fail to appropriately assign significance to sensory stimuli within the internal and external milieu, including those stimuli which are patently threat-neutral. The failure to appropriately discriminate 'signal' stimuli from among 'noise' signals [Gordon, E., Liddell, B.J., Brown, K.J., Bryant, R., Clark, C.R., Das, P., et al. 2007. Integrating objective gene-brain-behavior markers of psychiatric disorders. J. Integr. Neurosci. 6, 1-34...
October 2009: International Journal of Psychophysiology
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