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Madeleine M Uys, Mohammed Shahid, Jukka Sallinen, Brian H Harvey
Depression involves deficits in monoaminergic neurotransmission. Differential roles for α2A, B and C subtypes of the α2-adrenoceptor (AR) are evident, with selective α2C-AR antagonists purported to have antidepressant and procognitive properties. However, this has not been demonstrated in a genetic animal model of depression. The role of the α2C-AR in modulating two key depression-related behaviours in the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rat was studied using a dose-response analysis following subcutaneous administration with the selective α2C-AR antagonist ORM-10921 (0...
September 30, 2016: Behavioural Pharmacology
Gajendra J Katuwal, Stefi A Baum, Nathan D Cahill, Chase C Dougherty, Eli Evans, David W Evans, Gregory J Moore, Andrew M Michael
Previous studies applying automatic preprocessing methods on Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI) report inconsistent neuroanatomical abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In this study we investigate inter-method differences as a possible cause behind these inconsistent findings. In particular, we focus on the estimation of the following brain volumes: gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and total intra cranial volume (TIV). T1-weighted sMRIs of 417 ASD subjects and 459 typically developing controls (TDC) from the ABIDE dataset were estimated using three popular preprocessing methods: SPM, FSL, and FreeSurfer (FS)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Raida Jallouli, Madiha Bouali, Youssef Gargouri, Sofiane Bezzine
Two lipases from Fusarium solani, FSL and FSL2, were efficiently expressed in Pichia pastoris. To check the influence of the expression on interfacial properties of FSL and to study kinetic properties of FSL2, interfacial parameters of FSL2, native FSL, untagged recombinant and tagged recombinant forms of FSL were compared using the monomolecular film technique. Kinetic study on the dependence of the stereoselectivity of these lipases on the surface pressure was performed using three dicaprin isomers spread in the form of monomolecular films at the air-water interface...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Sheena L Dupuy, Shahamat Tauhid, Shelley Hurwitz, Renxin Chu, Fawad Yousuf, Rohit Bakshi
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this pilot study was to compare cerebral gray matter (GM) atrophy over 1 year in patients starting dimethyl fumarate (DMF) for multiple sclerosis (MS) to that of patients on no disease-modifying treatment (noDMT). DMF is an established therapy for relapsing-remitting (RR) MS. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 20 patients with RRMS at the start of DMF [age (mean ± SD) 46.1 ± 10.2 years, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score 1...
October 15, 2016: Neurology and Therapy
Yi-Bin Xi, Fan Guo, Hua Li, Xiao Chang, Jin-Bo Sun, Yuan-Qiang Zhu, Wen-Ming Liu, Long-Biao Cui, Gang Chen, Hua-Ning Wang, Hong Yin
Heterogeneous findings across studies of structural abnormality in schizophrenia (SZ) have impeded the development a unified theory of white matter pathology. As a cardinal symptom of SZ, auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) has been suspected to be associated with improper communication among several brain regions, which might indicated white matter pathology. Participants comprised 25 first-episode (FE) patients with AVH, 25 patients without AVH and 25 healthy subjects. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures were calculated using the TBSS of FSL...
September 28, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Fabienne Harrisberger, Roman Buechler, Renata Smieskova, Claudia Lenz, Anna Walter, Laura Egloff, Kerstin Bendfeldt, Andor E Simon, Diana Wotruba, Anastasia Theodoridou, Wulf Rössler, Anita Riecher-Rössler, Undine E Lang, Karsten Heekeren, Stefan Borgwardt
Reduction in hippocampal volume is a hallmark of schizophrenia and already present in the clinical high-risk state. Nevertheless, other subcortical structures, such as the thalamus, amygdala and pallidum can differentiate schizophrenia patients from controls. We studied the role of hippocampal and subcortical structures in clinical high-risk individuals from two cohorts. High-resolution T1-weighted structural MRI brain scans of a total of 91 clinical high-risk individuals and 64 healthy controls were collected in two centers...
2016: NPJ Schizophrenia
Mariana P Nucci, Katerina Lukasova, João R Sato, Edson Amaro
To describe cerebral (structural and functional MRI) and neuropsychological long term changes in moderate drowning victim's compared to healthy volunteers in working memory and motor domains. We studied 15 adult drowning victim's in chronic stage (DV - out of 157 eligible cases of sea water rescues with moderate drowning classification) paired to 18 healthy controls (HC). All participants were investigated using intelligence, memory, and attention neuropsychological standard tests and underwent functional (motor and working memory tasks) and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a 3 T system...
October 12, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Yuankai Huo, Andrew J Asman, Andrew J Plassard, Bennett A Landman
Total intracranial volume (TICV) is an essential covariate in brain volumetric analyses. The prevalent brain imaging software packages provide automatic TICV estimates. FreeSurfer and FSL estimate TICV using a scaling factor while SPM12 accumulates probabilities of brain tissues. None of the three provide explicit skull/CSF boundary (SCB) since it is challenging to distinguish these dark structures in a T1-weighted image. However, explicit SCB not only leads to a natural way of obtaining TICV (i.e., counting voxels inside the skull) but also allows sub-definition of TICV, for example, the posterior fossa volume (PFV)...
October 11, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Laura Senst, Dinara Baimoukhametova, Toni-Lee Sterley, Jaideep Singh Bains
Many species use social networks to buffer the effects of stress. The mere absence of a social network, however, may also be stressful. We examined neuroendocrine, PVN CRH neurons and report that social isolation alters the intrinsic properties of these cells in sexually dimorphic fashion. Specifically, isolating preadolescent female mice from littermates for <24 hr increased first spike latency (FSL) and decreased excitability of CRH neurons. These changes were not evident in age-matched males. By contrast, subjecting either males (isolated or grouped) or group housed females to acute physical stress (swim), increased FSL...
October 11, 2016: ELife
Yukun Ren, Weiyu Liu, Jiangwei Liu, Ye Tao, Yongbo Guo, Hongyuan Jiang
We describe a novel rotating trait of induced-charge electroosmotic slip above a planar metal surface, a phenomenon termed "Rotating induced-charge electro-osmosis" (ROT-ICEO), in the context of a new microfluidic technology for tunable particle rotation or rotational trap. ROT-ICEO has a dynamic flow stagnation line (FSL) that rotates synchronously with a background circularly polarized electric field. We reveal that the rotating FSL of ROT-ICEO gives rise to a net hydrodynamic torque that is responsible for rotating fluids or particles in the direction of the applied rotating electric field either synchronously or asynchronously, the magnitude of which is adjusted by a balance between rotation of FSL and amplitude of angular-direction flow component oscillating at twice the field frequency...
September 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Miao Wei, Anand A Joshi, Mingxia Zhang, Leilei Mei, Franklin R Manis, Qinghua He, Rachel L Beattie, Gui Xue, David W Shattuck, Richard M Leahy, Feng Xue, Suzanne M Houston, Chuansheng Chen, Qi Dong, Zhong-Lin Lu
In the present study, we explored how Age of Acquisition (AoA) of L2 affected brain structures in bilingual individuals. Thirty-six native English speakers who were bilingual were scanned with high resolution MRI. After MRI signal intensity inhomogeneity correction, we applied both voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and surface-based morphometry (SBM) approaches to the data. VBM analysis was performed using FSL's standard VBM processing pipeline. For the SBM analysis, we utilized a semi-automated sulci delineation procedure, registered the brains to an atlas, and extracted measures of twenty four pre-selected regions of interest...
November 2015: Journal of Neurolinguistics
Sarel Jacobus Brand, Brian Herbert Harvey
OBJECTIVE: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) displays high co-morbidity with major depression and treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Earlier work demonstrated exaggerated depressive-like symptoms in a gene×environment model of TRD and an abrogated response to imipramine. We extended the investigation by studying the behavioural and monoaminergic response to multiple antidepressants, viz. venlafaxine and ketamine with/without imipramine. METHODS: Male Flinders sensitive line (FSL) rats, a genetic model of depression, were exposed to a time-dependent sensitisation (TDS) model of PTSD and compared with stress naive controls...
October 3, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
K Ghazikhanlou-Sani, S M P Firoozabadi, L Agha-Ghazvini, H Mahmoodzadeh
INTRODUCTION: There is many ways to assessing the electrical conductivity anisotropy of a tumor. Applying the values of tissue electrical conductivity anisotropy is crucial in numerical modeling of the electric and thermal field distribution in electroporation treatments. This study aims to calculate the tissues electrical conductivity anisotropy in patients with sarcoma tumors using diffusion tensor imaging technique. MATERIALS AND METHOD: A total of 3 subjects were involved in this study...
June 2016: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
James Dormer, Xulei Qin, Ming Shen, Silun Wang, Xiaodong Zhang, Rong Jiang, Mary B Wagner, Baowei Fei
Accurate extraction of cardiac fiber orientation from diffusion tensor imaging is important for determining heart structure and function. However, the acquisition of magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion tensor images is costly and time consuming. By comparison, cardiac ultrasound imaging is rapid and relatively inexpensive, but it lacks the capability to directly measure fiber orientations. In order to create a detailed heart model from ultrasound data, a three-dimensional (3D) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) with known fiber orientations can be registered to an ultrasound volume through a geometric mask...
February 27, 2016: Proceedings of SPIE
Farida Grinberg, Ivan I Maximov, Ezequiel Farrher, Irene Neuner, Laura Amort, Heike Thönneßen, Eileen Oberwelland, Kerstin Konrad, N Jon Shah
The most common modality of diffusion MRI used in the ageing and development studies is diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) providing two key measures, fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity. Here, we investigated diffusional changes occurring between childhood (average age 10.3 years) and mitddle adult age (average age 54.3 years) with the help of diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI), a recent novel extension of DTI that provides additional metrics quantifying non-Gaussianity of water diffusion in brain tissue...
September 14, 2016: NeuroImage
Gayane Aghakhanyan, Paolo Bonanni, Giovanna Randazzo, Sara Nappi, Federica Tessarotto, Lara De Martin, Francesca Frijia, Daniele De Marchi, Francesco De Masi, Beate Kuppers, Francesco Lombardo, Davide Caramella, Domenico Montanaro
Angelman syndrome (AS) is a rare neurogenetic disorder due to loss of expression of maternal ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A (UBE3A) gene. It is characterized by severe developmental delay, speech impairment, movement or balance disorder and typical behavioral uniqueness. Affected individuals show normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, although mild dysmyelination may be observed. In this study, we adopted a quantitative MRI analysis with voxel-based morphometry (FSL-VBM) method to investigate disease-related changes in the cortical/subcortical grey matter (GM) structures...
2016: PloS One
Kristian Gaarn du Jardin, Heidi Kaastrup Müller, Connie Sanchez, Gregers Wegener, Betina Elfving
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with dysfunctional serotonergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission, and the genetic animal model of depression Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats display alterations in these systems relatively to their control strain Flinders Resistant Line (FRL). However, changes on transcript level related to serotonergic and glutamatergic signaling have only been sparsely studied in this model. The non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine has fast-onset antidepressant properties, and recent data implicate serotonergic neurotransmission in ketamine's antidepressant-like activities in rodents...
September 2, 2016: Synapse
David Parker, Xueqing Liu, Qolamreza R Razlighi
Due to the nature of fMRI acquisition protocols, slices in the plane of acquisition are not acquired simultaneously or sequentially, and therefore are temporally misaligned with each other. Slice timing correction (STC) is a critical preprocessing step that corrects for this temporal misalignment. Interpolation-based STC is implemented in all major fMRI processing software packages. To date, little effort has gone towards assessing the optimal method of STC. Delineating the benefits of STC can be challenging because of its slice-dependent gain as well as its interaction with other fMRI artifacts...
August 24, 2016: Medical Image Analysis
Sarel Jacobus Brand, Brian Herbert Harvey
OBJECTIVE: Co-morbid depression with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is often treatment resistant. In developing a preclinical model of treatment-resistant depression (TRD), we combined animal models of depression and PTSD to produce an animal with more severe as well as treatment-resistant depressive-like behaviours. METHODS: Male Flinders sensitive line (FSL) rats, a genetic animal model of depression, were exposed to a stress re-stress model of PTSD [time-dependent sensitisation (TDS)] and compared with stress-naive controls...
August 30, 2016: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
Rahul Dimber, Qi Guo, Courtney Bishop, Adine Adonis, Aisling Buckley, Agnes Kocsis, David Owen, Nicola Kalk, Rexford Newbould, Roger Gunn, Eugenii Rabiner, Graham P Taylor
: HAM is a chronic debilitating neuroinflammatory disease with a predilection for the thoracic cord. Tissue damage is attributed to the cellular immune response to HTLV-1 infected lymphocytes. Using a specific 18KDa Translocator Protein ligand, [(11)C] PBR28, T1-weighted and Diffusion Weighted magnetic resonance imaging, the brains of HTLV-1 infected patients, with and without HAM but no clinical evidence of brain involvement, were examined. METHODS: Five subjects with HAM and two HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers (AC) were studied...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
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