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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033149/management-of-cervicofacial-infections-a-survey-of-current-practice-in-maxillofacial-units-in-the-uk
#1
C McDonald, A Hennedige, A Henry, B Dawoud, R Kulkarni, K Gilbert, P Kyzas, R Morrison, J A McCaul
Cervicofacial infections are common emergency presentations to maxillofacial departments in the UK, there is no consensus about their management and, in particular, the role of corticosteroids is not clear. Our aim was to find out the current practice of UK maxillofacial surgeons in managing these infections using a multicentre questionnaire study. The questionnaire was designed, piloted, and revised before distribution, and questions were asked to assess preoperative, operative, and postoperative management...
October 12, 2017: British Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030607/ccdc88b-is-required-for-pathogenesis-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#2
Nassima Fodil, Neda Moradin, Vicki Leung, Jean-Frederic Olivier, Irena Radovanovic, Thiviya Jeyakumar, Manuel Flores Molina, Ashley McFarquhar, Romain Cayrol, Dominique Bozec, Naglaa H Shoukry, Michiaki Kubo, Julia Dimitrieva, Edouard Louis, Emilie Theatre, Stephanie Dahan, Yukihide Momozawa, Michel Georges, Garabet Yeretssian, Philippe Gros
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) involves interaction between host genetic factors and environmental triggers. CCDC88B maps within one IBD risk locus on human chromosome 11q13. Here we show that CCDC88B protein increases in the colon during intestinal injury, concomitant with an influx of CCDC88B(+)lymphoid and myeloid cells. Loss of Ccdc88b protects against DSS-induced colitis, with fewer pathological lesions and reduced intestinal inflammation in Ccdc88b-deficient mice. In a T cell transfer model of colitis, Ccdc88b mutant CD4(+) T cells do not induce colitis in immunocompromised hosts...
October 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029604/trauma-burden-in-tanzania-a-one-day-survey-of-all-district-and-regional-public-hospitals
#3
Hendry R Sawe, Juma A Mfinanga, Khalid R Mbaya, Phillip M Koka, Said S Kilindimo, Michael S Runyon, Victor G Mwafongo, Lee A Wallis, Teri A Reynolds
BACKGROUND: Trauma contributes significantly to the burden of disease and mortality throughout the world, but particularly in developing countries. In Tanzania, there is an enormous research gap on trauma; the limited data available reflects realities in cities and areas with moderately- to highly-resourced treatment centers. Our aim was to provide a description of the injury epidemiology across all of Tanzania. Our data will serve as a basis for future larger studies. METHODS: This is a subgroup analysis of a cross-sectional, prospective study of the clinical epidemiology of patients presenting at all public district and regional hospitals in Tanzania...
October 13, 2017: BMC Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029368/who-accesses-surgery-at-district-level-in-sub-saharan-africa-evidence-from-malawi-and-zambia
#4
Jakub Gajewski, Rachel Dharamshi, Michael Strader, John Kachimba, Eric Borgstein, Gerald Mwapasa, Mweene Cheelo, Tracey McCauley, Leon Bijlmakers, Ruairi Brugha
OBJECTIVES: To examine age and gender distribution for the most common types of surgery in Malawi and Zambia. METHODS: Data were collected from major operating theatres in 8 district hospitals in Malawi and 9 in Zambia. Raw data on surgical procedures were coded by specialist surgeons for frequency analyses. RESULTS: In Malawi, female surgical patients had a mean age of 25 years, with 91% aged 16-40 years. Females accounted for 85%, and obstetric cases for 75%, of all surgical patients...
October 13, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026387/the-effect-of-a-preanaesthesia-clinic-consultation-on-adult-patient-anxiety-at-a-tertiary-hospital-in-kenya-a-cohort-study
#5
Anthony Kamau, Vitalis Mung'ayi, Gerald Yonga
BACKGROUND: Preoperative anxiety is a common perioperative complication seen in approximately 11-80% of adults undergoing surgery. One of the goals of the preanaesthesia clinic is to allay anxiety. A preanaesthesia clinic evaluation has been shown to reduce anxiety however current studies on anxiety and the preanaesthesia clinic have not quantified this reduction. OBJECTIVE: To determine the reduction in anxiety in patients evaluated in the clinic versus those evaluated in the ward...
March 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025455/the-burden-of-gunshot-injuries-on-orthopaedic-healthcare-resources-in-south-africa
#6
Case Martin, Gerhard Thiart, Graham McCollum, Stephen Roche, Sithombo Maqungo
BACKGROUND: Injuries inflicted by gunshot wounds (GSWs) are an immense burden on the South African (SA) healthcare system. In 2005, Allard and Burch estimated SA state hospitals treated approximately 127 000 firearm victims annually and concluded that the cost of treating an abdominal GSW was approximately USD1 467 per patient. While the annual number of GSW injuries has decreased over the past decade, an estimated 54 870 firearm-related injuries occurred in SA in 2012. No study has estimated the burden of these GSWs from an orthopaedic perspective...
June 30, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022785/the-management-of-pretibial-lacerations
#7
P Singh, M Khatib, A Elfaki, N Hachach-Haram, E Singh, D Wallace
Introduction Pretibial lacerations are common injuries, often presenting in the elderly and infirm. Unclear management pathways often result in inappropriate care. We identify patient demographics, morbidity risk factors, injury severity and management options. Materials and methods This retrospective study involved analysing databases and hardcopy notes for patients admitted with pretibial lacerations to Addenbrooke's Hospital, January to December 2012. Microsoft Excel and Fishers exact test were used to analyse the data with a P-value of less than 0...
September 15, 2017: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022538/preoperative-fasting-times-prescribed-and-actual-fasting-times-at-universitas-hospital-annex-bloemfontein-south-africa
#8
G Lamacraft, C Labuschagne, S Pretorius, M C Prinsloo, M D Smit, J-R Steyn
BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend a preoperative fasting period of 6 hours for solid food and 2 hours for clear fluids. Because of fixed meal times and imprecise operation starting times, patients often fast for an extended period of time. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prescribed preoperative fasting times, and the actual duration of fasting, compared with the internationally accepted fasting times for solid food and clear fluids. METHODS: Patients (N=105) aged 14 - 60 years, who were scheduled for elective surgery in the morning session (list starting time 07h00), were included in this prospective study...
September 22, 2017: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020882/quality-of-time-spent-without-symptoms-of-disease-or-toxicity-of-treatment-for-transmetatarsal-amputation-versus-digital-amputation-in-diabetic-patients-with-digital-gangrene
#9
Mohamed Elsherif, Wael Tawfick, Patrick Canning, Niamh Hynes, Sherif Sultan
Aim We aim to compare the outcome of diabetic patients with gangrenous toes who were managed initially either by digital amputation or by transmetatarsal amputation. The null hypothesis is that transmetatarsal amputation had less theatre trips and better healing. Materials and Methods A parallel observational comparative study of all diabetic patients who underwent either digital or transmetatarsal amputation in a tertiary referral center from 2002 through 2015. Comorbid conditions, subsequent amputations, hospital stay, and readmission were noted...
January 1, 2017: Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016941/perceived-effect-of-deployment-on-families-of-uk-military-personnel
#10
G Thandi, N Greenberg, N T Fear, N Jones
Background: In the UK, little is known about the perceived effects of deployment, on military families, from military personnel in theatre. Aims: To investigate military personnel's perceptions of the impact of deployment on intimate relationships and children. Methods: Deployed service personnel who were in a relationship, and who had children, completed a survey while deployed on combat operations. Data were taken from four mental health surveys carried out in Iraq in 2009 and Afghanistan in 2010, 2011 and 2014...
September 15, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994673/an-innovative-technique-to-improve-safety-of-volatile-anesthetics-suction-from-the-cardiopulmonary-bypass-circuit
#11
Francesco De Simone, Luigi Cassarà, Salvatore Sardo, Elena Scarparo, Omar Saleh, Caetano Nigro Neto, Alberto Zangrillo, Giovanni Landoni
CONTEXT: Myocardial injury during cardiac surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a major determinant of morbidity and mortality. Preclinical and clinical evidence of dose- and time-related cardioprotective effects of volatile anesthetic drugs exist and their use during the whole surgery duration could improve perioperative cardiac protection. Even if administering volatile agents during CPB are relatively easy, technical problems, such as waste gas scavenging, may prevent safe and manageable administration of halogenated vapors during CPB...
October 2017: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994178/review-of-appendicectomies-over-a-decade-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-new-zealand
#12
Kirsten J de Burlet, Grant Crane, Ruth Cullinane, Peter D Larsen, Elizabeth R Dennett
BACKGROUND: Acute appendicectomy is the most common emergency operation for patients with abdominal pain. In the last decade, computed tomography (CT) scans have increasingly been used to aid in the diagnosis in order to reduce the negative appendicectomy rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate our institution's negative appendicectomy rate and the use of pre-operative imaging. METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken for all adult patients (>16 years), who underwent an appendicectomy on emergency basis in the years 2004, 2009 and 2014...
October 9, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988805/prediction-of-massive-blood-transfusion-in-battlefield-trauma-development-and-validation-of-the-military-acute-severe-haemorrhage-mash-score
#13
Jacqueline V Mclennan, Kevin C Mackway-Jones, Jason E Smith
BACKGROUND: The predominant cause of preventable trauma death is bleeding, and many of these patients need resuscitation with massive blood transfusion. In resource-constrained environments, early recognition of such patients can improve planning and reduce wastage of blood products. No existing decision rule is sufficiently reliable to predict those patients requiring massive blood transfusion. This study aims to produce a decision rule for use on arrival at hospital for patients sustaining battlefield trauma...
September 28, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988190/the-outcome-of-patients-in-traumatic-cardiac-arrest-presenting-to-deployed-military-medical-treatment-facilities-data-from-the-uk-joint-theatre-trauma-registry
#14
Ed B G Barnard, P A F Hunt, P E H Lewis, J E Smith
BACKGROUND: The UK military was continuously engaged in armed conflict in Iraq and Afghanistan between 2003 and 2014, resulting in 629 UK fatalities. Traumatic cardiac arrest (TCA) is a precursor to traumatic death, but data on military outcomes are limited. In order to better inform military treatment protocols, the aim of this study was to define the epidemiology of TCA in the military population with a particular focus on survival rates and injury patterns. METHODS: A retrospective database analysis of the UK Joint Theatre Trauma Registry was undertaken...
October 6, 2017: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982819/uk-based-multisite-prospective-cohort-study-of-small-bowel-obstruction-in-acute-surgical-services-national-audit-of-small-bowel-obstruction-nasbo-protocol
#15
Matthew J Lee, Adele E Sayers, Thomas M Drake, Marianne Hollyman, Mike Bradburn, Daniel Hind, Timothy R Wilson, Nicola S Fearnhead
INTRODUCTION: Small bowel obstruction (SBO) is a common indication for emergency laparotomy in the UK, which is associated with a 90-day mortality rate of 13%. There are currently no UK clinical guidelines for the management of this condition. The aim of this multicentre prospective cohort study is to describe the burden, variation in management and associated outcomes of SBO in the UK adult population. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: UK hospitals providing emergency general surgery are eligible to participate...
October 5, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978608/aspiration-of-nasopore-nasal-packing
#16
Jonathan Smith, Ekambar Reddy
We present a case of postoperative Nasopore aspiration in an otherwise fit and well 11-year-old. An endoscopic adenoidectomy had been performed without incident and Nasopore packing placed into each nasal cavity. Immediately after extubation, there was marked hypoxia, tachypnoea and high clinical suspicion of pack aspiration. The patient returned to theatre for emergency rigid bronchoscopy and retrieval of nasal packing.
October 4, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975600/randomized-clinical-trial-of-immersive-virtual-reality-tour-of-the-operating-theatre-in-children-before-anaesthesia
#17
J-H Ryu, S-J Park, J-W Park, J-W Kim, H-J Yoo, T-W Kim, J S Hong, S-H Han
BACKGROUND: A virtual reality (VR) tour of the operating theatre before anaesthesia could provide a realistic experience for children. This study was designed to determine whether a preoperative VR tour could reduce preoperative anxiety in children. METHODS: Children scheduled for elective surgery under general anaesthesia were randomized into a control or VR group. The control group received conventional information regarding anaesthesia and surgery. The VR group watched a 4-min video showing Pororo, the famous little penguin, visiting the operating theatre and explaining what is in it...
October 4, 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974068/continuous-monitoring-and-feedback-of-quality-of-recovery-indicators-for-anaesthetists-a-qualitative-investigation-of-reported-effects-on-professional-behaviour
#18
D D'Lima, G Arnold, S J Brett, A Bottle, A Smith, J Benn
Background: Research suggests that providing clinicians with feedback on their performance can result in professional behaviour change and improved clinical outcomes. Departments would benefit from understanding which characteristics of feedback support effective quality monitoring, professional behaviour change and service improvement. This study aimed to report the experience of anaesthetists participating in a long-term initiative to provide comprehensive personalized feedback to consultants on patient-reported quality of recovery indicators in a large London teaching hospital...
July 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970317/respiratory-adaptation-in-term-infants-following-elective-caesarean-section
#19
Daragh Finn, Julie De Meulemeester, Lisa Dann, Ita Herlihy, Vicki Livingstone, Geraldine B Boylan, C Anthony Ryan, Eugene M Dempsey
OBJECTIVE: To determine respiratory rate (RR), tidal volume (TV) and end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) values in full-term infants immediately after caesarean section, and to assess whether infants that develop transient tachypnoea of the newborn (TTN) follow the same physiological patterns. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: A Respironics NM3 Monitor (Philips, Netherlands) continuously measured RR, TV and EtCO2 for 7 min in infants >37 weeks' gestation following elective caesarean section (ECS)...
September 29, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965897/professional-development-for-radiographers-and-post-graduate-nurses-in-radiological-interventions-building-teamwork-and-collaboration-through-drama
#20
M Lundén, S M Lundgren, M Morrison-Helme, M Lepp
INTRODUCTION: The rapid development within Interventional Radiology presents new challenges. Hybrid operating rooms consist of interventional radiology, open surgery, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and other techniques. This means that several disciplines and professionals need to work in new constellations creating a multidisciplinary team around the patient. In accordance with this development, higher professional education must provide new pedagogic strategies to successfully address the knowledge expected in today's complex working life...
November 2017: Radiography
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