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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243111/retrospective-comparison-of-measured-stone-size-and-posterior-acoustic-shadow-width-in-clinical-ultrasound-images
#1
Jessica C Dai, Barbrina Dunmire, Kevan M Sternberg, Ziyue Liu, Troy Larson, Jeff Thiel, Helena C Chang, Jonathan D Harper, Michael R Bailey, Mathew D Sorensen
PURPOSE: Posterior acoustic shadow width has been proposed as a more accurate measure of kidney stone size compared to direct measurement of stone width on ultrasound (US). Published data in humans to date have been based on a research using US system. Herein, we compared these two measurements in clinical US images. METHODS: Thirty patient image sets where computed tomography (CT) and US images were captured less than 1 day apart were retrospectively reviewed. Five blinded reviewers independently assessed the largest stone in each image set for shadow presence and size...
December 14, 2017: World Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242894/gated-word-recognition-by-postlingually-deafened-adults-with-cochlear-implants-influence-of-semantic-context
#2
Chhayakanta Patro, Lisa Lucks Mendel
Purpose: The main goal of this study was to investigate the minimum amount of sensory information required to recognize spoken words (isolation points [IPs]) in listeners with cochlear implants (CIs) and investigate facilitative effects of semantic contexts on the IPs. Method: Listeners with CIs as well as those with normal hearing (NH) participated in the study. In Experiment 1, the CI users listened to unprocessed (full-spectrum) stimuli and individuals with NH listened to full-spectrum or vocoder processed speech...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242823/processing-of-natural-echolocation-sequences-in-the-inferior-colliculus-of-seba-s-fruit-eating-bat-carollia-perspicillata
#3
M Jerome Beetz, Sebastian Kordes, Francisco García-Rosales, Manfred Kössl, Julio C Hechavarría
For the purpose of orientation, echolocating bats emit highly repetitive and spatially directed sonar calls. Echoes arising from call reflections are used to create an acoustic image of the environment. The inferior colliculus (IC) represents an important auditory stage for initial processing of echolocation signals. The present study addresses the following questions: (1) how does the temporal context of an echolocation sequence mimicking an approach flight of an animal affect neuronal processing of distance information to echo delays? (2) how does the IC process complex echolocation sequences containing echo information from multiple objects (multiobject sequence)? Here, we conducted neurophysiological recordings from the IC of ketamine-anaesthetized bats of the species Carollia perspicillata and compared the results from the IC with the ones from the auditory cortex (AC)...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241214/nasalance-variability-in-3-to-5-year-old-children-during-production-of-speech-stimulus-in-three-vowel-contexts
#4
Seunghee Ha, Ilsan Shin
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether age and vowel contexts influence test-retest nasalance score variability in typically developing Korean children. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-five 3- to 5-year-old children with normal speech and resonance participated in the study. METHODS: All subjects were asked to repeat three 4-syllable speech stimuli in high, low, or mixed vowel contexts twice after the examiner. An immediate test-retest nasalance score was assessed with no headgear change...
December 14, 2017: Folia Phoniatrica et Logopaedica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241057/fe-analysis-of-surface-acoustic-wave-transmission-in-composite-piezoelectric-wedge-structures
#5
A N Darinskii, M Weihnacht, H Schmidt
The paper numerically investigates the transmission of harmonic surface acoustic waves (SAWs) across the perfectly bonded and perfectly sliding contacts between two 90°-wedges, at least one of which possessing piezoelectric properties. The finite element method in frequency domain is used. The structures are constructed of lithium niobate, fused quartz, silicon and gallium arsenide. The SAW is always incident from lithium niobate. The dependences of the transmission coefficient on the combination of materials and the orientation of the lithium niobate, as well as on the height of the step at the interface between the two parts of the structure are computed and analyzed...
November 27, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240814/towards-the-identification-of-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease-from-the-speech-new-articulatory-kinetic-biomarkers
#6
J I Godino-Llorente, S Shattuck-Hufnagel, J Y Choi, L Moro-Velázquez, J A Gómez-García
Although a large amount of acoustic indicators have already been proposed in the literature to evaluate the hypokinetic dysarthria of people with Parkinson's Disease, the goal of this work is to identify and interpret new reliable and complementary articulatory biomarkers that could be applied to predict/evaluate Parkinson's Disease from a diadochokinetic test, contributing to the possibility of a further multidimensional analysis of the speech of parkinsonian patients. The new biomarkers proposed are based on the kinetic behaviour of the envelope trace, which is directly linked with the articulatory dysfunctions introduced by the disease since the early stages...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240692/acoustic-anomalies-and-fast-relaxation-dynamics-of-amorphous-progesterone-as-revealed-by-brillouin-light-scattering
#7
Tae Hyun Kim, Hyojong Yoo, Jae-Hyeon Ko
The amorphous state of pharmaceuticals has attracted much attention due to its high bioavailability and other advantages. The stability of the amorphous state in relation with the local molecular mobility is important from both fundamental and practical points of view. The acoustic properties of amorphous progesterone, one of the representative steroid hormones, were investigated by using a Brillouin inelastic light scattering technique. The Brillouin spectrum of the longitudinal acoustic mode exhibited distinct changes at the glass transition and the cold-crystallization temperatures...
December 14, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240679/fiber-optic-sensor-based-remote-acoustic-emission-measurement-in-a-1000-%C3%A2-c-environment
#8
Fengming Yu, Yoji Okabe
Recently, the authors have proposed a remote acoustic emission (AE) measurement configuration using a sensitive fiber-optic Bragg grating (FBG) sensor. In the configuration, the FBG sensor was remotely bonded on a plate, and an optical fiber was used as the waveguide to propagate AE waves from the adhesive point to the sensor. The previous work (Yu et al., Smart Materials and Structures 25 (10), 105,033 (2016)) has clarified the sensing principle behind the special remote measurement system that enables accurate remote sensing of AE signals...
December 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240559/fluorescence-detection-enumeration-and-characterization-of-single-circulating-cells-in-vivo-technology-applications-and-future-prospects
#9
Carolin Hartmann, Roshani Patil, Charles P Lin, Mark Niedre
There are many diseases and biological processes that involve circulating cells in the bloodstream, such as cancer metastasis, immunology, reproductive medicine, and stem cell therapies. This has driven significant interest in new technologies for the study of circulating cells in small animal research models and clinically. Most currently used methods require drawing and enriching blood samples from the body, but these suffer from a number of limitations. In contrast, 'in vivo flow cytometry' (IVFC) refers to set of technologies that allow study of cells directly in the bloodstream of the organism in vivo...
December 14, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240188/modeling-the-sensitivity-dependence-of-silicon-photonics-based-ultrasound-detectors
#10
Shai Tsesses, Daniel Aronovich, Assaf Grinberg, Evgeny Hahamovich, Amir Rosenthal
With recent advances in optical technology, interferometric sensing has grown into a highly versatile approach for ultrasound detection, with many interferometric detectors relying on optical waveguides to achieve high levels of sensitivity and miniaturization. In this Letter, we establish a practical model for assessing the sensitivity of silicon-photonics waveguides to acoustic waves. The analysis is performed for different polarizations, waveguide dimensions, and acoustic wave types. Our model was validated experimentally in the acoustic frequency band of 1-13 MHz by measuring the sensitivities of the two polarization modes in a silicon strip waveguide...
December 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240153/effect-of-pulse-asymmetry-and-nonlinear-chirp-on-the-accuracy-of-ultrafast-pulsed-laser-interferometry
#11
Lei Shao, John R Lawall, Jason J Gorman
Ultrafast pulsed laser interferometry (PLI) can measure picometer displacements at sub-nanosecond time scales, such as acoustic waves and vibrations in microstructures. In this Letter, the effects of pulse characteristics on the accuracy of PLI are investigated through measurements and modeling. The results show that the effective wavelength of PLI, λeff, varies significantly as a function of overlap between the interfering pulses due to pulse asymmetry and nonlinear chirp. This variation presents a serious limitation on the accuracy of PLI if unaddressed...
December 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238539/dispersal-influences-genetic-and-acoustic-spatial-structure-for-both-males-and-females-in-a-tropical-songbird
#12
Brendan A Graham, Daniel D Heath, Daniel J Mennill
Animals exhibit diverse dispersal strategies, including sex-biased dispersal, a phenomenon common in vertebrates. Dispersal influences the genetic structure of populations as well as geographic variation in phenotypic traits. Patterns of spatial genetic structure and geographic variation may vary between the sexes whenever males and females exhibit different dispersal behaviors. Here, we examine dispersal, spatial genetic structure, and spatial acoustic structure in Rufous-and-white Wrens, a year-round resident tropical bird...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238525/have-bird-distributions-shifted-along-an-elevational-gradient-on-a-tropical-mountain
#13
Marconi Campos-Cerqueira, Wayne J Arendt, Joseph M Wunderle, T Mitchell Aide
An upward shift in elevation is one of the most conspicuous species responses to climate change. Nevertheless, downward shifts and, apparently, the absences of response have also been recently reported. Given the growing evidence of multiple responses of species distributions due to climate change and the paucity of studies in the tropics, we evaluated the response of a montane bird community to climate change, without the confounding effects of land-use change. To test for elevational shifts, we compared the distribution of 21 avian species in 1998 and 2015 using occupancy models...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238295/audio-visual-integration-in-a-redundant-target-paradigm-a-comparison-between-rhesus-macaque-and-man
#14
Peter Bremen, Rooholla Massoudi, Marc M Van Wanrooij, A J Van Opstal
The mechanisms underlying multi-sensory interactions are still poorly understood despite considerable progress made since the first neurophysiological recordings of multi-sensory neurons. While the majority of single-cell neurophysiology has been performed in anesthetized or passive-awake laboratory animals, the vast majority of behavioral data stems from studies with human subjects. Interpretation of neurophysiological data implicitly assumes that laboratory animals exhibit perceptual phenomena comparable or identical to those observed in human subjects...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237854/oceanic-swarms-of-antarctic-krill-perform-satiation-sinking
#15
Geraint A Tarling, Sally E Thorpe
Antarctic krill form some of the highest concentrations of animal biomass observed in the world's oceans potentially due to their prolific ability to swarm. Determining the movement of Antarctic krill within swarms is important to identify drivers of their behaviour and their biogeochemical impact on their environment. We examined vertical velocity within approximately 2000 krill swarms through the combined use of a shipborne echosounder and an acoustic Doppler current profiler. We revealed a pronounced downward anomaly in vertical velocity within swarms of -0...
December 20, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237810/behavioural-tuning-in-a-tropical-amphibian-along-an-altitudinal-gradient
#16
Sebastiaan W F Meenderink, Patricia M Quiñones, Peter M Narins
Males of the coqui treefrog, Eleutherodactylus coqui, produce a distinct two-note 'co-qui' advertisement call from sunset to midnight throughout most of the year. Previous work established that both the spectrotemporal aspects of the call and the frequency of highest inner-ear sensitivity change with altitude above sea level. These variations are such that the frequency of the emitted co-note closely matches the frequency to which the inner ear is most sensitive. Given this parallel variation, we expected that the call-evoked behavioural response of male coqui treefrogs would also show an altitude dependence, and hypothesized that males would produce their most robust acoustical territorial response to advertisement calls that match calls from their own altitude...
December 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237765/sensing-in-a-noisy-world-lessons-from-auditory-specialists-echolocating-bats
#17
REVIEW
Aaron J Corcoran, Cynthia F Moss
All animals face the essential task of extracting biologically meaningful sensory information from the 'noisy' backdrop of their environments. Here, we examine mechanisms used by echolocating bats to localize objects, track small prey and communicate in complex and noisy acoustic environments. Bats actively control and coordinate both the emission and reception of sound stimuli through integrated sensory and motor mechanisms that have evolved together over tens of millions of years. We discuss how bats behave in different ecological scenarios, including detecting and discriminating target echoes from background objects, minimizing acoustic interference from competing conspecifics and overcoming insect noise...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237551/dose-dependent-and-opposite-effects-of-orexin-a-on-prepulse-inhibition-response-in-sleep-deprived-and-non-sleep-deprived-rats
#18
Pınar Öz, H Kübra Gökalp, Tansu Göver, Tayfun Uzbay
Orexin is a novel neurotransmitter released from lateral hypothalamus, that is a crucial modulator in sleep/wakefulness system. Recent studies also suggest its possible role in the neurodevelopmental disorders, such as schizophrenia. Our study consists of two experiments, where we investigate the effect of orexin A (OXA), one of two isoforms of orexin that can pass blood brain barrier, on the prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle reflex. The first experiment tested the effect of OXA on PPI response of non-sleep-deprived rats via intraperitoneal injection 30min before testing...
December 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236906/auditory-perceptual-and-acoustic-analysis-of-voices-of-hiv-infected-children
#19
Eliane Cristina Pereira, Cristina de Oliveira Rodrigues, Kelly Cristina Alves Silvério, Glaucya Madazio, Mara Behlau
PURPOSE: To compare vocal and acoustic parameters of HIV-infected children and non-HIV-infected children. METHODS: Vocal samples were submitted to auditory-perceptual and acoustic analysis. Samples of the sustained vowel /ε/ and continuous speech of 74 children between 6 and incomplete 12 years old were analyzed, divided into two groups: 37 HIV-infected children (GHIV) and 37 non-HIV-infected children, the control group (CG), age and gender-matched and without previous vocal evaluation; they were all prepubescent by the Tanner Stages (MS, 2014)...
December 11, 2017: CoDAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236878/analysis-of-possible-factors-of-vocal-interference-during-the-teaching-activity
#20
Bárbara Gabriela Silva, Tiago Visacre Chammas, Marcia Simões Zenari, Renata Rodrigues Moreira, Alessandra Giannella Samelli, Kátia Nemr
OBJECTIVE: To measure the risk of dysphonia in teachers, as well as investigate whether the perceptual-auditory and acoustic aspects of the voice of teachers in situations of silence and noise, the signal-to-noise ratio, and the noise levels in the classroom are associated with the presence of dysphonia. METHODS: This is an observational cross-sectional research with 23 primary and secondary school teachers from a private school in the municipality of São Paulo, Brazil, divided into the groups without dysphonia and with dysphonia...
December 11, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
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