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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055099/regulation-of-glycosaminoglycan-biogenesis-is-critical-for-sensitive-period-dependent-vocal-ontogeny
#1
Caitlin P Mencio, Vy My Tran, Maritza V Quintero, Mamoru Koketsu, Franz Goller, Balagurunathan Kuberan
In the brain, the extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a central role during neural development and thus modulates critical-period regulated behavioral ontogeny. The major components of the ECM are glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) including chondroitin sulfate (CS). However, the specific roles of GAGs in behavioral development are largely unknown. It has been shown that xylosides affect the biological functions of GAGs through modulating GAG biosynthesis. Particularly, xylosides affect GAG biosynthesis through priming of GAG chains (priming activity), competing with endogenous core proteins that carry GAG initiation sites (decoy activity), or both...
October 21, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055094/divergent-migration-within-lake-sturgeon-acipenser-fulvescens-populations-multiple-distinct-patterns-exist-across-an-unrestricted-migration-corridor
#2
S T Kessel, D W Hondorp, C M Holbrook, J C Boase, J A Chiotti, M V Thomas, T C Wills, E F Roseman, R Drouin, C C Krueger
1.Population structure, distribution, abundance, and dispersal arguably underpin the entire field of animal ecology, with consequences for regional species persistence, and provision of ecosystem services. Divergent migration behaviours among individuals or among populations is an important aspect of the ecology of highly-mobile animals, allowing populations to exploit spatially- or temporally-distributed food and space resources. 2.This study investigated the spatial ecology of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) within the barrier free Huron-Erie Corridor (HEC), which connects Lake Huron and Lake Erie of the North American Laurentian Great Lakes...
October 21, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055058/the-neural-oscillations-of-speech-processing-and-language-comprehension-state-of-the-art-and-emerging-mechanisms
#3
Lars Meyer
Neural oscillations subserve a broad range of functions in speech processing and language comprehension. On the one hand, speech contains-somewhat-repetitive trains of air pressure bursts that occur at three dominant amplitude modulation frequencies, physically marking the linguistically meaningful progressions of phonemes, syllables, and intonational phrase boundaries. To these acoustic events, neural oscillations of isomorphous operating frequencies are thought to synchronize, presumably resulting in an implicit temporal alignment of periods of neural excitability to linguistically meaningful spectral information on the three low-level linguistic description levels...
October 20, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054171/the-evolution-of-human-sleep-technological-and-cultural-innovation-associated-with-sleep-wake-regulation-among-hadza-hunter-gatherers
#4
David R Samson, Alyssa N Crittenden, Ibrahim A Mabulla, Audax Z P Mabulla
Sleep is necessary for the survival of all mammalian life. In humans, recent investigations have generated critical data on the relationship between sleep and ecology in small-scale societies. Here, we report the technological and social strategies used to alter sleep environments and influence sleep duration and quality among a population of hunter-gatherers, the Hadza of Tanzania. Specifically, we investigated the effects that grass huts, sound levels, and fire had on sleep. We quantitatively compared thermal stress in outdoor environments to that found inside grass hut domiciles to test whether the huts function as thermoregulated microhabitats during the rainy season...
December 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053720/vocalizations-of-adult-male-asian-koels-eudynamys-scolopacea-in-the-breeding-season
#5
Abdul Aziz Khan, Irfan Zia Qureshi
Defining the vocal repertoire provides a basis for understanding the role of acoustic signals in sexual and social interactions of an animal. The Asian koel (Eudynamys scolopacea) is a migratory bird which spends its summer breeding season in the plains of Pakistan. The bird is typically wary and secretive but produces loud and distinct calls, making it easily detected when unseen. Like the other birds in the wild, presumably Asian koels use their calls for social cohesion and coordination of different behaviors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053591/real-time-monitoring-of-water-content-in-sandy-soil-using-shear-mode-piezoceramic-transducers-and-active-sensing-a-feasibility-study
#6
Qingzhao Kong, Hongli Chen, Yi-Lung Mo, Gangbing Song
A quantitative understanding of soil water content or soil water status is of great importance to many applications, such as landslide monitoring, rockfill dam health monitoring, precision agriculture, etc. In this paper, a feasibility study was conducted to monitor the soil water content in real time using permanent embedded piezoceramic-based transducers called smart aggregates (SAs). An active sensing approach using a customized swept acoustic wave with a frequency range between 100 Hz and 300 kHz was used to study the wave attenuation in the soil in correlation to soil moisture levels...
October 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053569/optimal-deployment-of-sensor-nodes-based-on-performance-surface-of-underwater-acoustic-communication
#7
Sunhyo Kim, Jee Woong Choi
The underwater acoustic sensor network (UWASN) is a system that exchanges data between numerous sensor nodes deployed in the sea. The UWASN uses an underwater acoustic communication technique to exchange data. Therefore, it is important to design a robust system that will function even in severely fluctuating underwater communication conditions, along with variations in the ocean environment. In this paper, a new algorithm to find the optimal deployment positions of underwater sensor nodes is proposed. The algorithm uses the communication performance surface, which is a map showing the underwater acoustic communication performance of a targeted area...
October 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053449/thermo-acoustic-ultrasound-for-detection-of-rf-induced-device-lead-heating-in-mri
#8
Neerav Dixit, Pascal P Stang, John M Pauly, Greig C Scott
Patients who have implanted medical devices with long conductive leads are often restricted from receiving MRI scans due to the danger of RF-induced heating near the lead tips. Phantom studies have shown that this heating varies significantly on a case-by-case basis, indicating that many patients with implanted devices can receive clinically useful MRI scans without harm. However, the difficulty of predicting RF-induced lead tip heating prior to scanning prevents numerous implant recipients from being scanned...
October 17, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052372/two-layer-heterogeneous-breast-phantom-for-photoacoustic-imaging
#9
Congxian Jia, William C Vogt, Keith A Wear, T Joshua Pfefer, Brian S Garra
Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) is emerging as a potentially important aid for breast cancer detection. Well-validated tissue-simulating phantoms are needed for objective, quantitative, and physically realistic testing for system development. Prior reported PAT phantoms with homogenous structures do not incorporate the irregular layered structure of breast tissue. To assess the impact of this simplification, we design and construct two-layer breast phantoms incorporating vessel-simulating inclusions and realistic undulations at the fat/fibroglandular tissue interface...
October 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051713/what-is-electromotility-the-history-of-its-discovery-and-its-relevance-to-acoustics
#10
William E Brownell
Experiments on an inner ear sensory cell revealed that it converts electrical energy directly into mechanical energy at acoustic frequencies.
2017: Acoustics Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051631/acoustic-streaming-an-arbitrary-lagrangian-eulerian-perspective
#11
Nitesh Nama, Tony Jun Huang, Francesco Costanzo
We analyse acoustic streaming flows using an arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) perspective. The formulation stems from an explicit separation of time scales resulting in two subproblems: a first-order problem, formulated in terms of the fluid displacement at the fast scale, and a second-order problem, formulated in terms of the Lagrangian flow velocity at the slow time scale. Following a rigorous time-averaging procedure, the second-order problem is shown to be intrinsically steady, and with exact boundary conditions at the oscillating walls...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Fluid Mechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051348/ultraslow-waves-on-the-nanoscale
#12
REVIEW
Kosmas L Tsakmakidis, Ortwin Hess, Robert W Boyd, Xiang Zhang
There has recently been a surge of interest in the physics and applications of broadband ultraslow waves in nanoscale structures operating below the diffraction limit. They range from light waves or surface plasmons in nanoplasmonic devices to sound waves in acoustic-metamaterial waveguides, as well as fermions and phonon polaritons in graphene and van der Waals crystals and heterostructures. We review the underlying physics of these structures, which upend traditional wave-slowing approaches based on resonances or on periodic configurations above the diffraction limit...
October 20, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051305/acoustic-change-complex-in-background-noise-phoneme-level-and-timing-effects
#13
Curtis J Billings, Leslie D Grush, Nashrah Maamor
The effects of background noise on speech-evoked cortical auditory evoked potentials (CAEPs) can provide insight into the physiology of the auditory system. The purpose of this study was to determine background noise effects on neural coding of different phonemes within a syllable. CAEPs were recorded from 15 young normal-hearing adults in response to speech signals /s/, /ɑ/, and /sɑ/. Signals were presented at varying signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). The effects of SNR and context (in isolation or within syllable) were analyzed for both phonemes...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050166/-clinic-pathological-and-ultrasonographic-features-of-primary-thyroid-lymphoma
#14
X M Zhang, L Nong, X Ran, M Li
Objective: To analyze the ultrasonographic and clinicopathological features of primary thyroid lymphoma(PTL). Methods: The ultrasonographic and clinicopathological featuresof 21 cases of pathologically-confirmed PTLs were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Of all 21 PTLs, 15 cases were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, 4 were mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue extranodular marginal zone B-cell lymphoma, 1 was small B-cell lymphoma and 1 was classical Hodgkin lymphoma. Eight cases were proved by pathology with concomitant Hashimoto's thyroiditis...
October 10, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050101/-factors-of-hearing-preservation-in-acoustic-neuroma-surgery
#15
H Y Tan, Z Y Wang, H Wu
Over the past 50 years, the focus of acoustic neuroma surgery has shifted from low mortality and tumor resection to retention of neurological function. Hearing preservation is another point in addition to facial nerve function preservation. Hearing preservation rates overall ranged from 2% to 93% in recent studies. Characteristics such as approach, pre-operative neurological function, tumor size, nerve of origin and fundal fluid of the internal auditory canal have been reported as possible influencing factors...
October 7, 2017: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049603/enhancing-auditory-selective-attention-using-a-visually-guided-hearing-aid
#16
Gerald Kidd
Purpose: Listeners with hearing loss, as well as many listeners with clinically normal hearing, often experience great difficulty segregating talkers in a multiple-talker sound field and selectively attending to the desired "target" talker while ignoring the speech from unwanted "masker" talkers and other sources of sound. This listening situation forms the classic "cocktail party problem" described by Cherry (1953) that has received a great deal of study over the past few decades. In this article, a new approach to improving sound source segregation and enhancing auditory selective attention is described...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049602/speech-understanding-in-complex-listening-environments-by-listeners-fit-with-cochlear-implants
#17
Michael F Dorman, Rene H Gifford
Purpose: The aim of this article is to summarize recent published and unpublished research from our 2 laboratories on improving speech understanding in complex listening environments by listeners fit with cochlear implants (CIs). Method: CI listeners were tested in 2 listening environments. One was a simulation of a restaurant with multiple, diffuse noise sources, and the other was a cocktail party with 2 spatially separated point sources of competing speech. At issue was the value of the following sources of information, or interventions, on speech understanding: (a) visual information, (b) adaptive beamformer microphones and remote microphones, (c) bimodal fittings, that is, a CI and contralateral low-frequency acoustic hearing, (d) hearing preservation fittings, that is, a CI with preserved low-frequency acoustic in the same ear plus low-frequency acoustic hearing in the contralateral ear, and (e) bilateral CIs...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049601/age-related-changes-in-objective-and-subjective-speech-perception-in-complex-listening-environments
#18
Karen S Helfer, Gabrielle R Merchant, Peter A Wasiuk
Purpose: A frequent complaint by older adults is difficulty communicating in challenging acoustic environments. The purpose of this work was to review and summarize information about how speech perception in complex listening situations changes across the adult age range. Method: This article provides a review of age-related changes in speech understanding in complex listening environments and summarizes results from several studies conducted in our laboratory. Results: Both degree of high frequency hearing loss and cognitive test performance limit individuals' ability to understand speech in difficult listening situations as they age...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049600/speech-perception-in-complex-acoustic-environments-developmental-effects
#19
Lori J Leibold
Purpose: The ability to hear and understand speech in complex acoustic environments follows a prolonged time course of development. The purpose of this article is to provide a general overview of the literature describing age effects in susceptibility to auditory masking in the context of speech recognition, including a summary of findings related to the maturation of processes thought to facilitate segregation of target from competing speech. Method: Data from published and ongoing studies are discussed, with a focus on synthesizing results from studies that address age-related changes in the ability to perceive speech in the presence of a small number of competing talkers...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048535/symposium-overview-integrating-cognitive-motivational-and-sensory-biases-underlying-acoustic-and-multimodal-based-mate-choice
#20
Kathleen S Lynch, Scott A MacDougall-Shackleton
The goal of this symposium "Integrating Cognitive, Motivational and Sensory Biases Underlying Acoustic and Multimodal-Based Mate Choice" was to build a more complete framework in which to understand the mate choice brain. The presentations and papers within this symposium incorporate studies of motivational, cognitive, sensory and salience components of mate choice and highlight future directions that are needed to understand the biological basis of mate choice decision-making.
October 1, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
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