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Safa Alqudah, Mark Chertoff, Dianne Durham, Jackob Moskovitz, Hinrich Staecker, Marcello Peppi
Methionine sulfoxide reductases (MsrA and MsrB) protect the biological activity of proteins from oxidative modifications to methionine residues and are important for protecting against the pathological effects of neurodegenerative diseases. In the current study, we characterized the auditory phenotype of the MsrA knockout mouse. Young MsrA knockout mice showed small high-frequency threshold elevations for auditory brainstem response and distortion product otoacoustic emission compared to those of wild-type mice, which progressively worsened in older MsrA knockout mice...
June 21, 2018: Audiology & Neuro-otology
Gautam Dutta, Daljit Singh, Ravindra K Saran, Hukum Singh, Arvind K Srivastava, Anita Jagetia
Anaplastic gangliogliomas at the cerebellopontine angle are exceptionally rare with only a few cases reported in the literature. We present the case of a 32- year old lady with histologically confirmed cerebellopontine angle anaplastic ganglioglioma. The tumor jutted in to the porus acusticus causing widening of the internal acoustic meatus and mimicked clinically as well as radiologically as vestibular schwannoma. This unusual appearance of anaplastic ganglioglioma has not been previously described in literature...
June 18, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Netanel Shpigel, Mikhael D Levi, Sergey Sigalov, Tyler S Mathis, Yury Gogotsi, Doron Aurbach
Although significant progress has been achieved in understanding of ion-exchange mechanisms in the new family of 2D transition metal carbides and nitrides known as MXenes, direct gravimetric assessment of water insertion into the MXene interlayer spaces and mesopores has not been reported so far. Concurrently, the latest research on MXene and Birnessite electrodes shows that nanoconfined water dramatically improves their gravimetric capacity and rate capability . Hence quantification of the amount of confined water in solvated electrodes is becoming an important goal of energy-related research...
June 21, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Aneta Szymaszek, Anna Dacewicz, Paulina Urban, Elzbieta Szelag
Many studies revealed a link between temporal information processing (TIP) in a millisecond range and speech perception. Previous studies indicated a dysfunction in TIP accompanied by deficient phonemic hearing in children with specific language impairment (SLI). In this study we concentrate in SLI on phonetic identification, using the voice-onset-time (VOT) phenomenon in which TIP is built-in. VOT is crucial for speech perception, as stop consonants (like /t/ vs. /d/) may be distinguished by an acoustic difference in time between the onsets of the consonant (stop release burst) and the following vibration of vocal folds (voicing)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Lisa Lehnen, Wigbert Schorcht, Inken Karst, Martin Biedermann, Gerald Kerth, Sebastien J Puechmaille
Population sex ratios are of high ecological relevance, but are challenging to determine in species lacking conspicuous external cues indicating their sex. Acoustic sexing is an option if vocalizations differ between sexes, but is precluded by overlapping distributions of the values of male and female vocalizations in many species. A method allowing the inference of sex ratios despite such an overlap will therefore greatly increase the information extractable from acoustic data. To meet this demand, we developed a novel approach using Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) to infer the sex ratio of populations from acoustic data...
2018: PloS One
Katie Kowarski, Julien Delarue, Bruce Martin, Joanne O'Brien, Rossa Meade, Oliver Ó Cadhla, Simon Berrow
Little is known of the spatio-temporal occurrence of beaked whales off western Ireland, limiting the ability of Regulators to implement appropriate management and conservation measures. To address this knowledge gap, static acoustic monitoring was carried out using eight fixed bottom-mounted autonomous acoustic recorders: four from May to December 2015 on Ireland's northern slope and four from March to November 2016 on the western and southern slopes. Recorders ran for 205 to 230 days, resulting in 4.09 TB of data sampled at 250 kHz which could capture beaked whale acoustic signals...
2018: PloS One
Raya Sorkin, Giulia Bergamaschi, Douwe Kamsma, Guy Brand, Elya Dekel, Yifat Ofir-Birin, Ariel Rudik, Marta Gironella, Felix Ritort, Neta Regev-Rudzki, Wouter Roos, Gijs J L Wuite
A large number of studies demonstrate that cell mechanics and pathology are intimately linked. In particular, Red Blood Cell (RBC) deformability is key to their function, and is dramatically altered in the time course of diseases such as anemia and malaria. Due to the physiological importance of cell mechanics, many methods for cell mechanical probing have been developed. While single cell methods provide very valuable information, they are often technically challenging and lack high data throughput needed to distinguish differences in heterogeneous populations, while fluid flow high throughput methods miss the accuracy to detect subtle differences...
June 21, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Yuan Wang, Moyang Wang, Guanyuan Song, Wei Wang, Bin Lv, Hao Wang, Yongjian Wu
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the optimal measurements for patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) preferred for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), our study compared intraoperative sizing with five different approaches by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (3DTEE) and computed tomography (CT). METHODS: We enrolled 104 BAV patients prescreened for TAVR but who underwent surgery with direct intraoperative annulus sizing...
June 20, 2018: European Radiology
Jasmine O Castro, Shwathy Ramesan, Amgad R Rezk, Leslie Y Yeo
Correction for 'Continuous tuneable droplet ejection via pulsed surface acoustic wave jetting' by Jasmine O. Castro et al., Soft Matter, 2018, DOI: 10.1039/c7sm02534c.
June 21, 2018: Soft Matter
Emelyne Teo, Krishna Chaithanya Batchu, Diogo Barardo, Linfan Xiao, Amaury Cazenave-Gassiot, Nicholas Tolwinski, Markus Wenk, Barry Halliwell, Jan Gruber
Exercise has been known to reduce the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome, but the mechanisms underlying many exercise benefits remain unclear. This is, in part, due to a lack of exercise paradigms in invertebrate model organisms that would allow rapid mechanistic studies to be conducted. Here we report a novel exercise paradigm in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) that can be implemented under standard laboratory conditions. Mechanical stimulus in the form of vibration was transduced to C. elegans grown on solid agar media using an acoustic actuator...
June 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Shamit Shrivastava, Kevin H Kang, Matthias F Schneider
Nerve impulses, previously proposed as manifestations of nonlinear acoustic pulses localized at the plasma membrane, can annihilate upon collision. However, whether annihilation of acoustic waves at interfaces takes place is unclear. We previously showed the propagation of nonlinear sound waves that propagate as solitary waves above a threshold (super-threshold) excitation in a lipid monolayer near a phase transition. Here we investigate the interaction of these waves. Sound waves were excited mechanically via a piezo cantilever in a lipid monolayer at the air-water interface and their amplitude is reported before and after a collision...
June 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
H Henny Yeung, Anjali Bhatara, Thierry Nazzi
Perceptual grouping is fundamental to many auditory processes. The Iambic-Trochaic Law (ITL) is a default grouping strategy, where rhythmic alternations of duration are perceived iambically (weak-strong), while alternations of intensity are perceived trochaically (strong-weak). Some argue that the ITL is experience dependent. For instance, French speakers follow the ITL, but not as consistently as German speakers. We hypothesized that learning about prosodic patterns, like word stress, modulates this rhythmic grouping...
June 20, 2018: Cognitive Science
William Connacher, Naiqing Zhang, An Huang, Jiyang Mei, Shuai Zhang, Tilvawala Gopesh, James Friend
Acoustic actuation of fluids at small scales may finally enable a comprehensive lab-on-a-chip revolution in microfluidics, overcoming long-standing difficulties in fluid and particle manipulation on-chip. In this comprehensive review, we examine the fundamentals of piezoelectricity, piezoelectric materials, and transducers; revisit the basics of acoustofluidics; and give the reader a detailed look at recent technological advances and current scientific discussions in the discipline. Recent achievements are placed in the context of classic reports for the actuation of fluid and particles via acoustic waves, both within sessile drops and closed channels...
June 20, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Hossam A Shaltout, Sung W Lee, Catherine L Tegeler, Joshua R Hirsch, Sean L Simpson, Lee Gerdes, Charles H Tegeler
Background: Heart rate variability (HRV) is an indicator of dynamic adaptability of the autonomic nervous system. Few interventions target upstream, cerebral cortex components of the heart-brain system for autonomic management. We report changes in HRV and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), associated with use of a noninvasive, closed-loop, allostatic, computer-guided, acoustic stimulation neurotechnology. Methods: Over 5 years, 220 subjects with heterogeneous neurological, cardiovascular, and psychophysiological conditions consecutively enrolled in a naturalistic, single-arm study exploring clinical effects associated with use of the neurotechnology...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Brittany L Aguilar, Patrick A Forcelli, Ludise Malkova
The basal ganglia are an evolutionarily old group of structures, with gross organization conserved across species. Despite this conservation, there is evidence suggesting that anatomical organization of a key output nucleus of the basal ganglia, the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr), diverges across species. Nevertheless, there are relatively few comparative studies examining the impact of manipulations of SNpr across species. Here, we evaluated the role of SNpr in a highly conserved behavior: prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response (PPI)...
June 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Takuma Sugi, Ryuji Igarashi, Masaki Nishimura
Physical forces are transduced into chemical reactions, thereby ultimately making a large impact on the whole-animal level phenotypes such as homeostasis, development and behavior. To understand mechano-chemical transduction, mechanical input should be quantitatively delivered with controllable vibration properties⁻frequency, amplitude and duration, and its chemical output should be noninvasively quantified in an unconstrained animal. However, such an experimental system has not been established so far. Here, we develop a noninvasive and unconstrained mechanochemical imaging microscopy...
June 19, 2018: Materials
M H Zhou, Y L Zhao, Y J Zhang, S T Zhang
Objective: To investigate efficacy of individualized nasal cavity ventilation expansion techniques for OSAHS patients with nasal obstruction. Method: One hundred and twelve OSAHS patients with nasal obstruction were included in this study. Nasal cavity ventilation expansion techniques were performed. Every patient took the examination of acoustic rhinometry, nasal respiration volume, rhinomanometry and polysomnography, and filled VAS of nasal obstruction and Epworth Sleep Scores(ESS) before surgery and three months after surgery...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
X L Zhao, L H Huang, X Y Wang, Yt DU, Xl Wang, X H Cheng, L P Zhao, Y Li
Objective: To explore the correlation of SLC26A4 genotype and audiology. Method: The subjects were 70 children aged 0 to 7 years old, who were admitted to otological outpatient department.All subjects received nine crystal hereditary deafness gene chip and confirmed by (or)SLC26A4 gene full coding region detection.The patients were diagnosed as homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations.At the same time,acoustic immittance,auditory brainstem response, auditory steady state response and pediatric behavior audiometry, newborn hearing screening and other audiological tests were displayed...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Kathleen S Lynch, Matthew I M Louder, Mark E Hauber
Species recognition mediates the association of individuals with conspecifics. Learned cues often facilitate species recognition via early social experience with parents and siblings. Yet, in some songbirds, the production of species-typical vocalizations develops in the absence of early social experiences. Here, we investigate the auditory-evoked neural responses of juvenile red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), a nonparasitic (parental) species within the Icterid family and contrast these results with a closely related Icterid parasitic species that lacks parental care, the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater)...
June 19, 2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Boran Wu, Meng Zhou, Xiaohu Dai, Xiaoli Chai
This study visually tracked the micro-spatial water distribution in bio-flocs of waste activated sludge through in situ synchrotron X-ray computed microtomography. Primarily, the two fractions of bound water, the vicinal water adhering to the surface of organic compositions and the interstitial water mechanically trapped in the net-like structure of bio-flocs, were proposed based on the cross-section imaging results. Furthermore, the determinants on bound water occurrences were explored in terms of viscoelastic acoustic responses of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS)...
June 5, 2018: Water Research
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