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Ashok Zachariah Samuel, Hiro-O Hamaguchi
A general method for estimating lamella thickness distribution in semi-crystalline polymers has been developed and applied to polyethylene (PE). The Longitudinal acoustic mode (LAM) of PE appears at very low frequencies (8 to 20 cm-1) in the Raman spectrum. It represents a distribution of lamellae of varying thicknesses. We propose here a distribution function that converts a low frequency LAM Raman band to the corresponding lamellae thicknesses distribution. Using this distribution function, we study lamella formation in crystallizing PE to elucidate the influence of supercooling, critical lamella thickness, minimum chain length at which folding occurs and determine associated thermodynamic parameters accurately...
April 24, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Shannon D Chilewski, Julie Shields, Johanna R Mora, Heather Myler
PEGylation is a modification commonly used to increase the half-life of therapeutic proteins. The strategy for immunogenicity testing of these compounds should include methods to detect both anti-protein and anti-PEG antibodies. We previously reported a method for the detection of anti-PEG antibodies using ProterixBio's (formerly BioScale) acoustic membrane microparticle (AMMP) technology. Our initial method development work showed the assay was capable of detecting antibodies in human serum with a sensitivity of 1 μg/mL with good reproducibility (CV < 7%)...
April 24, 2018: AAPS Journal
Yifan Zhu, Jie Hu, Xudong Fan, Jing Yang, Bin Liang, Xuefeng Zhu, Jianchun Cheng
The fine manipulation of sound fields is critical in acoustics yet is restricted by the coupled amplitude and phase modulations in existing wave-steering metamaterials. Commonly, unavoidable losses make it difficult to control coupling, thereby limiting device performance. Here we show the possibility of tailoring the loss in metamaterials to realize fine control of sound in three-dimensional (3D) space. Quantitative studies on the parameter dependence of reflection amplitude and phase identify quasi-decoupled points in the structural parameter space, allowing arbitrary amplitude-phase combinations for reflected sound...
April 24, 2018: Nature Communications
Daichi Yamada, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Xiaodong Li, Tsunehiko Kohashi, Yuki Ishikawa, Azusa Kamikouchi
Many animals use acoustic signals to attract a potential mating partner. In fruit flies ( Drosophila melanogaster ), the courtship pulse song has a species-specific inter-pulse interval (IPI) that activates mating. Although a series of auditory neurons in the fly brain exhibit different tuning patterns to IPIs, it is unclear how the response of each neuron is tuned. Here we studied the neural circuitry regulating the activity of AMMC-B1 neurons, key secondary auditory neurons in the excitatory neural pathway that relay song information...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
François Prévost, Alexandre Lehmann
Cochlear implants restore hearing in deaf individuals, but speech perception remains challenging. Poor discrimination of spectral components is thought to account for limitations of speech recognition in cochlear implant users. We investigated how combined variations of spectral components along two orthogonal dimensions can maximize neural discrimination between two vowels, as measured by mismatch negativity. Adult cochlear implant users and matched normal-hearing listeners underwent electroencephalographic event-related potentials recordings in an optimum-1 oddball paradigm...
April 1, 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
Xiangyan Ding, Feilong Li, Youxuan Zhao, Yongmei Xu, Ning Hu, Peng Cao, Mingxi Deng
This paper investigates the propagation of Rayleigh surface waves in structures with randomly distributed surface micro-cracks using numerical simulations. The results revealed a significant ultrasonic nonlinear effect caused by the surface micro-cracks, which is mainly represented by a second harmonic with even more distinct third/quadruple harmonics. Based on statistical analysis from the numerous results of random micro-crack models, it is clearly found that the acoustic nonlinear parameter increases linearly with micro-crack density, the proportion of surface cracks, the size of micro-crack zone, and the excitation frequency...
April 23, 2018: Materials
Luan Thanh Nguyen, Nikolay A Jr Poyarkov, Dzung Trung Le, Ba Dinh Vo, Hoa Thi Phan, Tang van Duong, Robert W Murphy, Sang Ngoc Nguyen
Morphological, acoustic and molecular analyses result in the description of Leptolalax rowleyae sp. nov., a new species of frog in the Megophryidae, belonging to the L. applebyi Rowley Cao species group from central Vietnam. It differs from its congeners by a combination of the following morphological attributes: (1) adult SVL 23.4-25.4 mm in males and 27-27.8 mm in females; (2) presence of distinct dark/brown dorsolateral markings, including black spots on flanks; (3) pinkish milk-white to light brown chest and belly with numerous white speckles; (4) tympanum distinct; (5) absence of webbing or lateral dermal fringes on fingers and toes; (6) pectoral glands comparatively small (3...
February 28, 2018: Zootaxa
Tokouaho Flora Kpan, N'goran Germain KouamÉ, Michael F Barej, Patrick joËl Adeba, Mike Emmrich, Caleb Ofori-Boateng, Mark-Oliver RÖdel
We describe a new species of Phrynobatrachus from swamp forests in the southern border region of Ivory Coast and Ghana. The new species differs from all other known West African Phrynobatrachus by the combination of adult snout-vent-length being between 20 and 30 mm; absence of a spiny tubercle on the eyelid; presence of a dark face mask; a black throat in adult males; narrow and partly indistinct scapular ridges or comma shaped warts; distinct spinulae on males' throats and dorsal surfaces; pronounced pedal webbing; round finger- and toe tips, not enlarged to discs; a white belly with small blackish spots in both sexes; more than one wide dark cross bar on hind legs; and rosé to reddish colour on ventral parts of hind legs in both sexes...
March 1, 2018: Zootaxa
Tainà Lucas Andreani, Seixas Rezende Oliveira, VinÍcius Guerra, RogÉrio Pereira Bastos, Alessandro Ribeiro De Morais
Dendropsophus cruzi (Pombal Bastos, 1998) is a small hylid (male snout-to-vent length = 16.3-19.4 mm; female SVL = 21.3-25.0 mm) that is allocated in the D. microcephalus group (Faivovich et al. 2005). It is commonly found in Open and forested areas from Central Brazil to Provincia Velasco, Departamento de Santa Cruz, Bolivia (Frost 2017; Tessarolo et al. 2016). Pombal Bastos (1998) described the advertisement call of D. cruzi as a single pulsed note. Posteriorly, studies uncovered relationships between dominant frequency variation in the advertisement calls of D...
February 13, 2018: Zootaxa
Danilo Silva Ruas, Caio Vinicius De Mira-Mendes, Maria lÚcia Del-Grande, Juliana Zina, Mirco SolÉ
Several frog species descriptions from this century provide larval morphology, acoustical, molecular, ecological and behavioral information that, together, provide a better species characterization (e.g., Glos et al. 2005; Toledo et al. 2010; Vassilieva et al. 2016). For the majority of anuran species, basic information is still lacking, despite being fundamental to understand the evolution of a taxonomic unit as well as phylogenetic relationships established between taxa. Such information can be particularly useful for species groups with unresolved taxonomic issues, such as the Dendropsophus marmoratus group (Bokermann 1964; Heyer 1977; Caramaschi Jim 1983; Gomes Peixoto 1996)...
January 24, 2018: Zootaxa
Iulia Grosu, Flaviu Bob, Ioan Sporea, Alina Popescu, Roxana Şirli, Adalbert Schiller
OBJECTIVES: Point shear wave elastography is a quantitative ultrasound-based imaging method used in the assessment of renal disease. Among point shear wave elastographic options, 2 techniques have been studied considerably: Virtual Touch quantification (VTQ; Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany) and ElastPQ (EPQ; Philips Healthcare, Bothell, WA). Both rely on the tissue response to an acoustic beam generated by the ultrasound transducer. The data on renal VTQ are more extensive, whereas EPQ has been used less thus far in the assessment of the kidneys...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Sun Zheng, Zheng Lan
Intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging can discriminate between normal arterial tissues and atheromatous plaques in images, particularly images of lipid-rich plaques with high spatial resolution and optical contrast. However, conventional IVPA only recovers the deposited optical energy that is the product of the tissue optical absorption coefficient and local optical fluence. Herein, a one-step model-based method for single-wavelength IVPA imaging system is proposed. The proposed method directly reconstructs the optical absorption coefficient from the boundary measurement of acoustic pressure...
April 21, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Jianjun Wu, Zhifeng Tang, Fuzai Lü, Keji Yang
As essential components of a high-speed railway system, switch rails can be easily damaged by sophisticated operating conditions. Therefore, precise online detection for switch rails is necessary. Methods based on ultrasonic guided waves are ideal candidates for structural integrity of the switch rails, which are natural waveguides with irregular cross-sections. However, energy decentralization in the wave propagation severely restricts detectability. Phased array systems have been developed and implemented to steer and focus acoustic energy in waveguides of ordinary cross-sections such as pipes and plates...
April 11, 2018: Ultrasonics
Jantien L Vroegop, André Goedegebure, Marc P van der Schroeff
OBJECTIVES: Bimodal hearing has shown to improve speech recognition in quiet and in noise and to improve sound localization compared with unilateral cochlear implant (CI) use alone. Fitting the CI and hearing aid (HA) separately has been described well, but HA fitting procedures for bimodal CI users are not well researched or widely accepted. The aim of the present study was to systematically review the literature on the effect of different HA fitting strategies on auditory performance in bimodal CI users...
April 20, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Shawn M Stevens, Kiefer Hock, Ravi N Samy, Myles L Pensak
Objectives (1) Compare lateral skull base (LSB) height/thickness in patients with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid otorrhea (CSF), superior canal dehiscence (SCD), acoustic neuromas (AN), and otosclerosis (OTO). (2) Perform correlations between age, body mass index (BMI), sex, and LSB height/thickness. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Tertiary referral center. Subjects and Methods Patients with CSF, SCD, AN, and OTO diagnosed from 2006 to 2016 were included if they had high-definition temporal bone computed tomography (CT) and absence of trauma, radiation, chronic ear disease, and/or congenital anomaly...
April 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
V Malizia, S Fasola, G Ferrante, G Cilluffo, R Gagliardo, M Landi, L Montalbano, D Marchese, S La Grutta
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The effect of intranasal corticosteroids and oral antihistamines on acoustic rhinometry parameters was not directly compared in previous studies. Objectives: The primary aim was to compare the effect of 21-day treatment with nasal beclomethasone dipropionate (nBDP) versus cetirizine (CTZ) on nasal patency measured by acoustic rhinometry in children with PAR. Comparing their effect on nasal cytology, symptom severity, sleep quality and quality of life was the secondary aim...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
Thomas R Carey, Kristen L Cotner, Brian Li, Lydia L Sohn
Advancements in microfluidic technologies have led to the development of many new tools for both the characterization and sorting of single cells without the need for exogenous labels. Label-free microfluidics reduce the preparation time, reagents needed, and cost of conventional methods based on fluorescent or magnetic labels. Furthermore, these devices enable analysis of cell properties such as mechanical phenotype and dielectric parameters that cannot be characterized with traditional labels. Some of the most promising technologies for current and future development toward label-free, single-cell analysis and sorting include electronic sensors such as Coulter counters and electrical impedance cytometry; deformation analysis using optical traps and deformation cytometry; hydrodynamic sorting such as deterministic lateral displacement, inertial focusing, and microvortex trapping; and acoustic sorting using traveling or standing surface acoustic waves...
April 24, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Jeffrey C Davids, Martine M Rutten, Ram Devi T Shah, Deep N Shah, Nischal Devkota, Petra Izeboud, Anusha Pandey, Nick van de Giesen
Land development without thoughtful water supply planning can lead to unsustainability. In practice, management of our lands and waters is often unintegrated. We present new land-use, ecological stream health, water quality, and streamflow data from nine perennial watersheds in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, in the 2016 monsoon (i.e., August and September) and 2017 pre-monsoon (i.e., April and May) periods. Our goal was to improve understanding of the longitudinal linkages between land-use and water. At a total of 38 locations, the Rapid Stream Assessment (RSA) protocol was used to characterize stream ecology, basic water quality parameters were collected with a handheld WTW multi-parameter meter, and stream flow was measured with a SonTek FlowTracker Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter...
April 23, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Ioanna Salvarina, Dorian Gravier, Karl-Otto Rothhaupt
Knowledge of aquatic food resources entering terrestrial systems is important for food web studies and conservation planning. Bats, among other terrestrial consumers, often profit from aquatic insect emergence and their activity might be closely related to such events. However, there is a lack of studies which monitor bat activity simultaneously with aquatic insect emergence, especially from lakes. Thus, our aim was to understand the relationship between insect emergence and bat activity, and investigate whether there is a general spatial or seasonal pattern at lakeshores...
April 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Ching-Hsiang Fan, Ya-Hsuan Lee, Yi-Ju Ho, Chung-Hsin Wang, Shih-Tsung Kang, Chih-Kuang Yeh
The major challenges in treating malignant tumors are transport of therapeutic agents to hypoxic regions and real-time assessment of successful drug release via medical imaging modalities. In this study, we propose the use of macrophages (RAW 264.7 cells) as carriers of drug-loaded phase-change droplets to penetrate ischemic or hypoxic regions within tumors. The droplets consist of perfluoropentane, lipid and the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOX, DOX-droplets). The efficiency of DOX-droplet uptake, migration mobility and viability of DOX-droplet-loaded macrophages (DLMs) were measured using a transmembrane cell migration assay, the alamarBlue assay and flow cytometric analysis, respectively...
April 20, 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
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