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Won Kyung Lee, Dohee Lim, Hyesook Park
A system for assessing the burdens imposed by disease and injury was developed to meet healthcare, priority setting, and policy planning needs. The first such system, the Global Burden of Disease (GBD), was implemented in 1990. However, problems associated with limited data and assumed disability weightings remain to be resolved. The purpose of the present study was to estimate national burdens of injuries in Korea using more reliable data and disability weightings. The incidences of injuries were estimated using the Korean National Hospital Discharge Survey and the mortality data from the Korean National Statistical Office in 2010...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Dohee Lim, Won Kyung Lee, Hyesook Park
The purpose of this study was to estimate the national burden of mental substance disorders on medical care utilization in Korea using National Health Insurance System (NHIS) data and updated disability weight, in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). For each of the 24 disorders, the incident years lived with disability (YLDs) was calculated, using NHIS data to estimate prevalence and incidence rates. The DisMod-II software program was used to model duration and remission. The years of life lost (YLLs) due to premature death were calculated from causes of death statistics...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Seon Ha Kim, Hyeon Jeong Lee, Minsu Ock, Dun Sol Go, Hyun Joo Kim, Jin Yong Lee, Min Woo Jo
Maternal and child health is an important issue throughout the world. Given their impact on maternal and child health, nutritional issues need to be carefully addressed. Accordingly, the effect of maternal, child, and nutritional disorders on disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) should be calculated. The present study used DALYs to estimate the burden of disease of maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders in the Korean population in 2012. For this purpose, we used claim data of the Korean National Health Insurance Service, DisMod II, and death data of the Statistics Korea and adhered to incidence-based DALY estimation methodology...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Ye Rin Lee, Kanghee Moon, Young Ae Kim, So Youn Park, Chang Mo Oh, Kyung Suk Lee, In Hwan Oh
Globally, the incidence of communicable diseases has decreased compared to non-communicable diseases. However, chronic communicable diseases such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis persist worldwide. Furthermore, emerging new infections such as H1N1 influenza pose a new threat to public health. However, most studies have focused on non-communicable diseases because of their increasing incidence, with fewer studies investigating communicable diseases. Therefore, we estimated the burden of communicable diseases in Korea using national representative 2012 data...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Young Hoon Gong, Seok Jun Yoon, Min Woo Jo, Arim Kim, Young Ae Kim, Jihyun Yoon, Hyeyoung Seo, Dongwoo Kim
Cancer causes a significant deterioration in health and premature death and is a national socioeconomic burden. This study aimed to measure the burden of cancer using the disability-adjusted life year (DALY) metric based on the newly adopted methodology from the Global Burden of Disease Study in 2010. This study was conducted based on data from the Korean National Cancer Registry. The DALYs were calculated using a prevalence-based method instead of the incidence-based method used by previous studies. The total burden of cancer in 2012 was 3,470...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Jihyun Yoon, Hyeyoung Seo, In Hwan Oh, Seok Jun Yoon
In recognition of Korea's rising burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), we investigated the nation's NCD status and extracted detailed information from the 2012 Korean Burden of Disease study. Consistent with that study, we used disability-adjusted life year (DALY) as a metric. Using national data sources and disability weights specific to the Korean population, we analyzed 116 disaggregated NCDs from the study's four-level disease and injury hierarchy for both sexes and nine age groups. Per 100,000 population, 21,019 DALYs were lost to 116 NCDs...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Jihyun Yoon, In Hwan Oh, Hyeyoung Seo, Eun Jung Kim, Young Hoon Gong, Minsu Ock, Dohee Lim, Won Kyung Lee, Ye Rin Lee, Dongwoo Kim, Min Woo Jo, Hyesook Park, Seok Jun Yoon
This study is part of a 5-year research project on the national burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors in Korea. Using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), a metric introduced by the 1990 Global Burden of Disease (GBD) project, we performed a comprehensive and detailed assessment of the magnitude and distribution of both fatal and non-fatal health problems in the Korean population. The concept and general approach were consistent with the original GBD study, with some methodological modifications to make the study more suitable for Korea...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Jihyun Yoon, Seok Jun Yoon
Quantitative assessments of the health status of a population are essential to make decisions and set priorities in the field of public health. Changing epidemiologic patterns increase the demand for comprehensive estimates of population health across the full health spectrum, including non-communicable diseases and injuries. Burden of disease (BoD) analysis has helped meet this need. With the success of the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study, the BoD technique has become predominantly associated with the GBD approach and its methodology using disability-adjusted life year (DALY) has been rapidly disseminated and generally accepted over the last several years...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Sijie Zhou, Jing Jin, Ian Daly, Xingyu Wang, Andrzej Cichocki
Many recent studies have focused on improving the performance of event-related potential (ERP) based brain computer interfaces (BCIs). The use of a face pattern has been shown to obtain high classification accuracies and information transfer rates (ITRs) by evoking discriminative ERPs (N200 and N400) in addition to P300 potentials. Recently, it has been proved that the performance of traditional P300-based BCIs could be improved through a modification of the mismatch pattern. In this paper, a mismatch inverted face pattern (MIF-pattern) was presented to improve the performance of the inverted face pattern (IF-pattern), one of the state of the art patterns used in visual-based BCI systems...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
David I W Phillips, Clive Osmond, Martin L Williams, Alexander Jones
BACKGROUND: Chronic rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remains a globally important cause of heart disease. The reasons for the continuing high prevalence of this disease are obscure, but it may have its origins in the poor social and economic conditions with which the disease has been consistently and strongly linked. Mortality studies from the UK have suggested the importance of adverse environmental factors in early life; these studies demonstrated specific geographical associations between high rates of chest infection during infancy and subsequent RHD...
October 23, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Arindam Nandi, Devra M Barter, Shankar Prinja, T Jacob John
OBJECTIVE: In March 2014, India, the country with historically the highest burden of polio, was declared polio free, with no reported cases since January 2011. We estimate the health and economic benefits of polio elimination in India with the oral polio vaccine (OPV) during 1982-2012. METHODS: Based on a pre-vaccine incidence rate, we estimate the counterfactual burden of polio in the hypothetical absence of the national polio elimination program in India. We attribute differences in outcomes between the actual (adjusted for under-reporting) and hypothetical counterfactual scenarios in our model to the national polio program...
August 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Jack J Olney, Paula Braitstein, Jeffrey W Eaton, Edwin Sang, Monicah Nyambura, Sylvester Kimaiyo, Ellen McRobie, Joseph W Hogan, Timothy B Hallett
BACKGROUND: With expanded access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa, HIV mortality has decreased, yet life-years are still lost to AIDS. Strengthening of treatment programmes is a priority. We examined the state of an HIV care programme in Kenya and assessed interventions to improve the impact of ART programmes on population health. METHODS: We created an individual-based mathematical model to describe the HIV epidemic and the experiences of care among adults infected with HIV in Kenya...
October 19, 2016: Lancet HIV
Khurshid Alam, Ajay Mahal
Globally, road traffic injuries accounted for about 1.36 million deaths in 2015 and are projected to become the fourth leading cause of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) lost by 2030. One-fifth of these deaths occurred in South Asia where road traffic injuries are projected to increase by 144% by 2020. Despite this rapidly increasing disease burden there is limited evidence on the economic burden of road traffic injuries on households in South Asia. We applied a novel coarsened exact matching method to assess the household economic burden of road traffic injuries using nationally representative World Health Survey data from five South Asian countries- Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka collected during 2002-2003...
2016: PloS One
Isabel Huang-Doran, Patsy Tomlinson, Felicity Payne, Alexandra Gast, Alison Sleigh, William Bottomley, Julie Harris, Allan Daly, Nuno Rocha, Simon Rudge, Jonathan Clark, Albert Kwok, Stefano Romeo, Emma McCann, Barbara Müksch, Mehul Dattani, Stefano Zucchini, Michael Wakelam, Lazaros C Foukas, David B Savage, Rinki Murphy, Stephen O'Rahilly, Inês Barroso, Robert K Semple
Obesity-related insulin resistance is associated with fatty liver, dyslipidemia, and low plasma adiponectin. Insulin resistance due to insulin receptor (INSR) dysfunction is associated with none of these, but when due to dysfunction of the downstream kinase AKT2 phenocopies obesity-related insulin resistance. We report 5 patients with SHORT syndrome and C-terminal mutations in PIK3R1, encoding the p85α/p55α/p50α subunits of PI3K, which act between INSR and AKT in insulin signaling. Four of 5 patients had extreme insulin resistance without dyslipidemia or hepatic steatosis...
October 20, 2016: JCI Insight
Marymegan Daly, H Gibbs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 6, 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Vanaja Konduri, Dali Li, Matthew M Halpert, Dan Liang, Zhengdong Liang, Yunyu Chen, William E Fisher, Silke Paust, Jonathan M Levitt, Qizhi Cathy Yao, William K Decker
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States, exhibiting a five-year overall survival (OS) of only 7% despite aggressive standard of care. Recent advances in immunotherapy suggest potential application of immune-based treatment approaches to PDAC. To explore this concept further, we treated orthotopically established K-ras(G12D)/p53(-/-) PDAC tumors with gemcitabine and a cell-based vaccine previously shown to generate durable cell-mediated (TH1) immunity...
2016: Oncoimmunology
G F Medley, H C Turner, R F Baggaley, C Holland, T D Hollingsworth
Diagnostics play a crucial role in determining treatment protocols and evaluating success of mass drug administration (MDA) programmes used to control soil-transmitted helminths (STHs). The current diagnostic, Kato-Katz, relies on inexpensive, reusable materials and can be used in the field, but only trained microscopists can read slides. This diagnostic always underestimates the true prevalence of infection, and the accuracy worsens as the true prevalence falls. We investigate how more sensitive diagnostics would impact on the management and life cycle of MDA programmes, including number of mass treatment rounds, health impact, number of unnecessary treatments and probability of elimination...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
Viktória E Varga, Hajnalka Lőrincz, Noémi Zsíros, Péter Fülöp, Ildikó Seres, György Paragh, József Balla, Mariann Harangi
BACKGROUND: Selective low-density lipoprotein (LDL) apheresis is commonly used to treat patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Chemerin is an adipokine with putative roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism. METHODS: In our pilot study, we measured serum chemerin levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in six severe heterozygous FH patients before and after their first LDL apheresis treatments using the technique of direct adsorption of lipoproteins (DALI)...
October 18, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
Alessandro Cassini, Diamantis Plachouras, Tim Eckmanns, Muna Abu Sin, Hans-Peter Blank, Tanja Ducomble, Sebastian Haller, Thomas Harder, Anja Klingeberg, Madlen Sixtensson, Edward Velasco, Bettina Weiß, Piotr Kramarz, Dominique L Monnet, Mirjam E Kretzschmar, Carl Suetens
BACKGROUND: Estimating the burden of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) compared to other communicable diseases is an ongoing challenge given the need for good quality data on the incidence of these infections and the involved comorbidities. Based on the methodology of the Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe (BCoDE) project and 2011-2012 data from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) point prevalence survey (PPS) of HAIs and antimicrobial use in European acute care hospitals, we estimated the burden of six common HAIs...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
Wenshan Xing, Dali Mu, Qian Wang, Su Fu, Minqiang Xin, Jie Luan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2016: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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