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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241002/the-future-of-multiplexed-eukaryotic-genome-engineering
#1
David B Thompson, Soufiane Aboulhouda, Eriona Hysolli, Cory J Smith, Stan Wang, Oscar Castanon, George M Church
Multiplex genome editing is the simultaneous introduction of multiple distinct modifications to a given genome. Though in its infancy, maturation of this field will facilitate powerful new biomedical research approaches, and will enable a host of far-reaching biological engineering applications, including new therapeutic modalities and industrial applications, as well as 'genome writing' and de-extinction efforts. In this perspective, we focus on multiplex editing of large eukaryotic genomes. We describe the current state of multiplexed genome editing, the current limits of our ability to multiplex edits, and provide perspective on the many applications that fully-realized multiplex editing technologies would enable in higher eukaryotic genomes...
December 14, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240156/experimental-demonstration-of-critical-coupling-of-whispering-gallery-mode-cavities-on-a-bloch-surface-wave-platform
#2
B Vosoughi Lahijani, H Badri Ghavifekr, R Dubey, M-S Kim, I Vartiainen, M Roussey, H P Herzig
We experimentally demonstrate critical coupling of whispering gallery mode (WGM) disk resonators implemented on a Bloch surface wave platform using scanning near-field optical microscopy. The studied structure is a 60 nm thick TiO2 WGM disk cavity (radius of 100 μm) operating within the C-band telecommunication wavelength. An extinction ratio of 26 dB and a quality factor of 2200 are measured. Such a high extinction ratio verifies the critical coupling of the WGM resonator. This result paves the way to planar optical signal processing devices based on the proposed geometry, for which a critical coupling condition is a guarantee of optimum performance...
December 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239379/tasmanian-tiger-genome-offers-clues-to-its-extinction
#3
Ewen Callaway
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238619/hippocampal-regulation-of-postsynaptic-density-homer1-by-associative-learning
#4
Nicholas E Clifton, Darren Cameron, Simon Trent, Lucy H Sykes, Kerrie L Thomas, Jeremy Hall
Genes involved in synaptic plasticity, particularly genes encoding postsynaptic density proteins, have been recurrently linked to psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and autism. Postsynaptic density Homer1 proteins contribute to synaptic plasticity through the competing actions of short and long isoforms. The activity-induced expression of short Homer1 isoforms, Homer1a and Ania-3, is thought to be related to processes of learning and memory. However, the precise regulation of Homer1a and Ania-3 with different components of learning has not been investigated...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238549/rapid-extirpation-of-a-north-american-frog-coincides-with-an-increase-in-fungal-pathogen-prevalence-historical-analysis-and-implications-for-reintroduction
#5
Andrea J Adams, Allan P Pessier, Cheryl J Briggs
As extinctions continue across the globe, conservation biologists are turning to species reintroduction programs as one optimistic tool for addressing the biodiversity crisis. For repatriation to become a viable strategy, fundamental prerequisites include determining the causes of declines and assessing whether the causes persist in the environment. Invasive species-especially pathogens-are an increasingly significant factor contributing to biodiversity loss. We hypothesized that Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the causative agent of the deadly amphibian disease chytridiomycosis, was important in the rapid (<10 years) localized extirpation of a North American frog (Rana boylii) and that Bd remains widespread among extant amphibians in the region of extirpation...
December 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238279/elimination-of-grapevine-leafroll-associated-virus-3-grapevine-rupestris-stem-pitting-associated-virus-and-grapevine-virus-a-from-a-tunisian-cultivar-by-somatic-embryogenesis-and-characterization-of-the-somaclones-using-ampelographic-descriptors
#6
Badra Bouamama-Gzara, Ilhem Selmi, Samir Chebil, Imene Melki, Ahmed Mliki, Abdelwahed Ghorbel, Angela Carra, Francesco Carimi, Naima Mahfoudhi
Prospecting of local grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) germplasm revealed that Tunisia possesses a rich patrimony which presents diversified organoleptic characteristics. However, viral diseases seriously affect all local grapevine cultivars which risk a complete extinction. Sanitation programs need to be established to preserve and exploit, as a gene pool, the Tunisian vineyards areas. The presence of the Grapevine leafroll associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3), Grapevine stem pitting associated virus (GRSPaV) and Grapevine virus A (GVA), were confirmed in a Tunisian grapevine cultivar using serological and molecular analyses...
December 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236757/high-genetic-structure-and-low-mitochondrial-diversity-in-bottlenose-dolphins-of-the-archipelago-of-bocas-del-toro-panama-a-population-at-risk
#7
Dalia C Barragán-Barrera, Laura J May-Collado, Gabriela Tezanos-Pinto, Valentina Islas-Villanueva, Camilo A Correa-Cárdenas, Susana Caballero
The current conservation status of the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) under the IUCN is 'least concern'. However, in the Caribbean, small and localized populations of the 'inshore form' may be at higher risk of extinction than the 'worldwide distributed form' due to a combination of factors including small population size, high site fidelity, genetic isolation, and range overlap with human activities. Here, we study the population genetic structure of bottlenose dolphins from the Archipelago of Bocas del Toro in Panama...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235515/discrete-and-continuous-character-based-disparity-analyses-converge-to-the-same-macroevolutionary-signal-a-case-study-from-captorhinids
#8
Marco Romano, Neil Brocklehurst, Jörg Fröbisch
The relationship between diversity and disparity during the evolutionary history of a clade provides unique insights into evolutionary radiations and the biological response to bottlenecks and to extinctions. Here we present the first comprehensive comparison of diversity and disparity of captorhinids, a group of basal amniotes that is important for understanding the early evolution of high-fiber herbivory. A new fully resolved phylogeny is presented, obtained by the inclusion of 31 morphometric characters...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234135/comparative-epidemiology-of-poliovirus-transmission
#9
Navideh Noori, John M Drake, Pejman Rohani
Understanding the determinants of polio transmission and its large-scale epidemiology remains a public health priority. Despite a 99% reduction in annual wild poliovirus (WPV) cases since 1988, tackling the last 1% has proven difficult. We identified key covariates of geographical variation in polio transmission patterns by relating country-specific annual disease incidence to demographic, socio-economic and environmental factors. We assessed the relative contributions of these variables to the performance of computer-generated models for predicting polio transmission...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234099/characterization-of-ozone-in-the-lower-troposphere-during-the-2016-g20-conference-in-hangzhou
#10
Wenjing Su, Cheng Liu, Qihou Hu, Guangqiang Fan, Zhouqing Xie, Xin Huang, Tianshu Zhang, Zhenyi Chen, Yunsheng Dong, Xiangguang Ji, Haoran Liu, Zhuang Wang, Jianguo Liu
Recently, atmospheric ozone pollution has demonstrated an aggravating tendency in China. To date, most research about atmospheric ozone has been confined near the surface, and an understanding of the vertical ozone structure is limited. During the 2016 G20 conference, strict emission control measures were implemented in Hangzhou, a megacity in the Yangtze River Delta, and its surrounding regions. Here, we monitored the vertical profiles of ozone concentration and aerosol extinction coefficients in the lower troposphere using an ozone lidar, in addition to the vertical column densities (VCDs) of ozone and its precursors in the troposphere through satellite-based remote sensing...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233973/parasitised-feathered-dinosaurs-as-revealed-by-cretaceous-amber-assemblages
#11
Enrique Peñalver, Antonio Arillo, Xavier Delclòs, David Peris, David A Grimaldi, Scott R Anderson, Paul C Nascimbene, Ricardo Pérez-de la Fuente
Ticks are currently among the most prevalent blood-feeding ectoparasites, but their feeding habits and hosts in deep time have long remained speculative. Here, we report direct and indirect evidence in 99 million-year-old Cretaceous amber showing that hard ticks and ticks of the extinct new family Deinocrotonidae fed on blood from feathered dinosaurs, non-avialan or avialan excluding crown-group birds. A †Cornupalpatum burmanicum hard tick is entangled in a pennaceous feather. Two deinocrotonids described as †Deinocroton draculi gen...
December 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233642/acute-inescapable-stress-alleviates-fear-extinction-recall-deficits-caused-by-serotonin-transporter-abolishment
#12
Pieter Schipper, Marloes J A G Henckens, Dora Lopresto, Tamas Kozicz, Judith R Homberg
Life stress increases risk for developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and more prominently so in short-allele carriers of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR). Serotonin transporter knockout (5-HTT-/-) rats show compromised extinction (recall) of conditioned fear, which might mediate the increased risk for PTSD and reduce the therapeutic efficacy of exposure therapy. Here, we assessed whether acute inescapable stress (IS) differentially affects fear extinction and extinction recall in 5-HTT-/- rats and wildtype controls...
December 9, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230354/ecomorphological-inferences-in-early-vertebrates-reconstructing-dunkleosteus-terrelli-arthrodira-placodermi-caudal-fin-from-palaeoecological-data
#13
Humberto G Ferrón, Carlos Martínez-Pérez, Héctor Botella
Our knowledge about the body morphology of many extinct early vertebrates is very limited, especially in regard to their post-thoracic region. The prompt disarticulation of the dermo-skeletal elements due to taphonomic processes and the lack of a well-ossified endoskeleton in a large number of groups hinder the preservation of complete specimens. Previous reconstructions of most early vertebrates known from partial remains have been wholly based on phylogenetically closely related taxa. However, body design of fishes is determined, to a large extent, by their swimming mode and feeding niche, making it possible to recognise different morphological traits that have evolved several times in non-closely related groups with similar lifestyles...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230027/genome-of-the-tasmanian-tiger-provides-insights-into-the-evolution-and-demography-of-an-extinct-marsupial-carnivore
#14
Charles Y Feigin, Axel H Newton, Liliya Doronina, Jürgen Schmitz, Christy A Hipsley, Kieren J Mitchell, Graham Gower, Bastien Llamas, Julien Soubrier, Thomas N Heider, Brandon R Menzies, Alan Cooper, Rachel J O'Neill, Andrew J Pask
The Tasmanian tiger or thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus) was the largest carnivorous Australian marsupial to survive into the modern era. Despite last sharing a common ancestor with the eutherian canids ~160 million years ago, their phenotypic resemblance is considered the most striking example of convergent evolution in mammals. The last known thylacine died in captivity in 1936 and many aspects of the evolutionary history of this unique marsupial apex predator remain unknown. Here we have sequenced the genome of a preserved thylacine pouch young specimen to clarify the phylogenetic position of the thylacine within the carnivorous marsupials, reconstruct its historical demography and examine the genetic basis of its convergence with canids...
December 11, 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229901/functional-reduction-in-pollination-through-herbivore-induced-pollinator-limitation-and-its-potential-in-mutualist-communities
#15
Paul Glaum, André Kessler
Plant-pollinator interactions are complex because they are affected by both interactors' phenotypes and external variables. Herbivory is one external variable that can have divergent effects on the individual and the population levels depending on specific phenotypic plastic responses of a plant to herbivory. In the wild tomato, Solanum peruvianum, herbivory limits pollinator visits, which reduces individual plant fitness due to herbivore-induced chemical defenses and signaling on pollinators (herbivore-induced pollinator limitation)...
December 11, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229398/can-an-aversive-extinction-resistant-memory-trigger-impairments-in-walking-adaptability-an-experimental-study-using-adult-rats
#16
Filipe Mello Medeiros, Jociane de Carvalho Myskiw, Pedro Porto Alegre Baptista, Laura Tartari Neves, Lucas Athaydes Martins, Cristiane Regina Guerino Furini, Iván Izquierdo, Léder Leal Xavier, Kristen Hollands, Régis Gemerasca Mestriner
Cognitive demands can influence the adaptation of walking, a crucial skill to maintain body stability and prevent falls. Whilst previous research has shown emotional load tunes goal-directed movements, little attention has been given to this finding. This study sought to assess the effects of suffering an extinction-resistant memory on skilled walking performance in adult rats, as an indicator of walking adaptability. Thus, 36 Wistar rats were divided in a two-part experiment. In the first part (n=16), the aversive, extinction-resistance memory paradigm was established using a fear-conditioning chamber...
December 8, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228053/traditional-scientific-data-vs-uncoordinated-citizen-science-effort-a-review-of-the-current-status-and-comparison-of-data-on-avifauna-in-southern-brazil
#17
Louri Klemann-Junior, Marcelo Alejandro Villegas Vallejos, Pedro Scherer-Neto, Jean Ricardo Simões Vitule
Data generated by citizen science is particularly valuable in ecological research. If used discerningly with data from traditional scientific references, citizen science can directly contribute to biogeography knowledge and conservation policies by increasing the number of species records in large geographic areas. Considering the current level of knowledge on south Brazilian avifauna, the large volume of data produced by uncoordinated citizen science effort (CS), and the growing need for information on changes in abundance and species composition, we have compiled an updated, general list of bird species occurrence within the state of Paraná...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227156/the-characterization-of-biosignatures-in-caves-using-an-instrument-suite
#18
Kyle Uckert, Nancy J Chanover, Stephanie Getty, David G Voelz, William B Brinckerhoff, Nancy McMillan, Xifeng Xiao, Penelope J Boston, Xiang Li, Amy McAdam, David A Glenar, Arriana Chavez
The search for life and habitable environments on other Solar System bodies is a major motivator for planetary exploration. Due to the difficulty and significance of detecting extant or extinct extraterrestrial life in situ, several independent measurements from multiple instrument techniques will bolster the community's confidence in making any such claim. We demonstrate the detection of subsurface biosignatures using a suite of instrument techniques including IR reflectance spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy...
December 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226617/activation-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptors-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-attenuates-cocaine-seeking-in-rats
#19
Nicole S Hernandez, Bernadette O'Donovan, Pavel I Ortinski, Heath D Schmidt
Recent evidence indicates that activation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors reduces cocaine-mediated behaviors and cocaine-evoked dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). However, no studies have examined the role of NAc GLP-1 receptors in the reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior, an animal model of relapse. Here, we show that systemic infusion of a behaviorally relevant dose of the GLP-1 receptor agonist exendin-4 penetrated the brain and localized with neurons and astrocytes in the NAc...
December 11, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225045/post-reexposure-administration-of-riluzole-attenuates-the-reconsolidation-of-conditioned-fear-memory-in-rats
#20
Kie Akagi, Misa Yamada, Akiyoshi Saitoh, Jun-Ichiro Oka, Mitsuhiko Yamada
Recently, we demonstrated that riluzole, which has been shown to block the glutamatergic system, facilitates fear extinction in rats. Here, we undertook experiments on contextual fear conditioning to clarify the actions of riluzole on the reconsolidation of fear memory in rats. We used the fast-acting benzodiazepine midazolam as a reconsolidation-inhibiting control drug. We demonstrated that riluzole (3 mg/kg) and midazolam (1 mg/kg) impaired the reconsolidation of contextual fear memory. Results from spontaneous recovery experiments also suggested that riluzole attenuated reconsolidation...
December 7, 2017: Neuropharmacology
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