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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636615/family-living-sets-the-stage-for-cooperative-breeding-and-ecological-resilience-in-birds
#1
Michael Griesser, Szymon M Drobniak, Shinichi Nakagawa, Carlos A Botero
Cooperative breeding is an extreme form of cooperation that evolved in a range of lineages, including arthropods, fish, birds, and mammals. Although cooperative breeding in birds is widespread and well-studied, the conditions that favored its evolution are still unclear. Based on phylogenetic comparative analyses on 3,005 bird species, we demonstrate here that family living acted as an essential stepping stone in the evolution of cooperative breeding in the vast majority of species. First, families formed by prolonging parent-offspring associations beyond nutritional independency, and second, retained offspring began helping at the nest...
June 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635140/noradrenergic-signaling-in-the-vta-modulates-cocaine-craving
#2
Wojciech Barnaba Solecki, Klaudia Szklarczyk, Kamil Pradel, Krystyna Kwiatkowska, Grzegorz Dobrzański, Ryszard Przewłocki
Exposure to drug-associated cues evokes drug-seeking behavior and is regarded as a major cause of relapse. Conditional stimulus upregulates noradrenaline (NA) system activity, but the drug-seeking behavior depends particularly on phasic dopamine signaling downstream from the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The VTA dopamine-ergic activity is regulated via the signaling of alpha1 -adrenergic and alpha2 -adrenergic receptors (α1 -ARs and α2 -ARs); thus, the impact of the conditional stimulus on drug-seeking behavior might involve NAergic signaling in the VTA...
June 21, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634257/two-fossil-species-of-metrosideros-myrtaceae-from-the-oligo-miocene-golden-fleece-locality-in-tasmania-australia
#3
Myall Tarran, Peter G Wilson, Michael K Macphail, Greg J Jordan, Robert S Hill
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The capsular-fruited genus Metrosideros (Myrtaceae) is one of the most widely distributed flowering plant genera in the Pacific but is extinct in Australia today. The center of geographic origin for the genus and the reason for and timing of its extinction in Australia remain uncertain. We identify fossil Metrosideros fruits from the newly discovered Golden Fleece fossil flora in the Oligo-Miocene of Tasmania, Australia, shedding further light on these problems. METHODS: Standard paleopalynological techniques were used to date the fossil-bearing sediments...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633953/reversal-learning-and-resurgence-of-operant-behavior-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#4
Toshikazu Kuroda, Yuto Mizutani, Carlos R X Cançado, Christopher A Podlesnik
Zebrafish are used extensively as vertebrate animal models in biomedical research for having such features as a fully sequenced genome and transparent embryo. Yet, operant-conditioning studies with this species are scarce. The present study investigated reversal learning and resurgence of operant behavior in zebrafish. A target response (approaching a sensor) was reinforced in Phase 1. In Phase 2, the target response was extinguished while reinforcing an alternative response (approaching a different sensor)...
June 17, 2017: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633358/phylogeography-of-herbarium-specimens-of-asexually-propagated-paper-mulberry-broussonetia-papyrifera-l-l-h%C3%A3-r-ex-vent-moraceae-reveals-genetic-diversity-across-the-pacific
#5
Claudia Payacan, Ximena Moncada, Gloria Rojas, Andrew Clarke, Kuo-Fang Chung, Robin Allaby, Daniela Seelenfreund, Andrea Seelenfreund
Background and Aims: Paper mulberry or Broussonetia papyrifera (L.) L'Hér. ex Vent. (Moraceae) is a dioecious species native to continental South-east Asia and East Asia, including Taiwan, that was introduced to the Pacific by pre-historic voyagers and transported intentionally and propagated asexually across the full range of Austronesian expansion from Taiwan to East Polynesia. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the dispersal of paper mulberry into Oceania through the genetic analysis of herbaria samples which represent a more complete coverage of the historical geographical range of the species in the Pacific before later introductions and local extinctions occurred...
June 14, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633110/emerging-contaminants-related-to-the-occurrence-of-forest-fires-in-the-spanish-mediterranean
#6
Julian Campo, María Lorenzo, Erik L H Cammeraat, Yolanda Picó, Vicente Andreu
Forest fires can be a source of contamination because, among others, of the use of chemicals to their extinction (flame retardants, FRs), or by the production of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) derived from high temperature alteration of organic matter. Up to our knowledge, this study is the first to assess the direct (PAHs 16 on the USA EPA's priority list), and indirect [tri- to hepta- brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organophosphorus flame retardants (PFRs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs)] contamination related to forest fires...
June 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632790/diversity-structure-of-culturable-bacteria-isolated-from-the-fildes-peninsula-king-george-island-antarctica-a-phylogenetic-analysis-perspective
#7
Gerardo González-Rocha, Gabriel Muñoz-Cartes, Cristian B Canales-Aguirre, Celia A Lima, Mariana Domínguez-Yévenes, Helia Bello-Toledo, Cristián E Hernández
It has been proposed that Antarctic environments select microorganisms with unique biochemical adaptations, based on the tenet 'Everything is everywhere, but, the environment selects' by Baas-Becking. However, this is a hypothesis that has not been extensively evaluated. This study evaluated the fundamental prediction contained in this hypothesis-in the sense that species are structured in the landscape according to their local habitats-, using as study model the phylogenetic diversity of the culturable bacteria of Fildes Peninsula (King George Island, Antarctica)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632204/successful-pharmacotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-severe-feeding-aversion-with-mechanistic-insights-from-cross-species-neuronal-remodeling
#8
W G Sharp, A G Allen, K H Stubbs, K K Criado, R Sanders, C E McCracken, R G Parsons, L Scahill, S L Gourley
Pediatric feeding disorders affect up to 5% of children, causing severe food intake problems that can result in serious medical and developmental outcomes. Behavioral intervention (BI) is effective in extinguishing feeding aversions, and also expert-dependent, time/labor-intensive and not well understood at a neurobiological level. Here we first conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial comparing BI with BI plus d-cycloserine (DCS). DCS is a partial N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor agonist shown to augment extinction therapies in multiple anxiety disorders...
June 20, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632170/current-research-in-lidar-technology-used-for-the-remote-sensing-of-atmospheric-aerosols
#9
REVIEW
Adolfo Comerón, Constantino Muñoz-Porcar, Francesc Rocadenbosch, Alejandro Rodríguez-Gómez, Michaël Sicard
Lidars are active optical remote sensing instruments with unique capabilities for atmospheric sounding. A manifold of atmospheric variables can be profiled using different types of lidar: concentration of species, wind speed, temperature, etc. Among them, measurement of the properties of aerosol particles, whose influence in many atmospheric processes is important but is still poorly stated, stands as one of the main fields of application of current lidar systems. This paper presents a review on fundamentals, technology, methodologies and state-of-the art of the lidar systems used to obtain aerosol information...
June 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631592/blastomonas-quesadae-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-saline-soil-by-dilution-to-extinction-cultivation
#10
David J Castro, Inmaculada Llamas, Victoria Béjar, Fernando Martínez-Checa
We isolated a Gram-stain-negative, aerobic bacterial strain, 912T, from a soil sample taken from Rambla Salada (Murcia), south-eastern Spain, by using the dilution-to-extinction method. Cells of the strain were motile with a polar flagellum, short rod-shaped, catalase- and oxidase-positive and grew at NaCl concentrations within the range 0-5 % (w/v) (optimum 3 %, w/v), at 4-32 °C (optimum 30 °C) and at pH 6-9 (optimum pH 7); bacteriochlorophyll a was produced. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that this strain belonged to the genus Blastomonas in the class Alphaproteobacteria...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631322/prolonged-embryogenesis-in-austrobaileya-scandens-austrobaileyaceae-its-ecological-and-evolutionary-significance
#11
Juan M Losada, Julien B Bachelier, William E Friedman
The embryology of basal angiosperm lineages (Amborella, Nymphaeales and Austrobaileyales) is central to reconstructing the early evolution of flowering plants. Previous studies have shown that mature seeds in Austrobaileyales are albuminous, with a small embryo surrounded by a substantial diploid endosperm. However, little is known of seed ontogeny and seedling germination in Austrobaileya scandens, sister to all other extant Austrobaileyales. Standard histochemical techniques were used to study ovule/seed development and germination of Austrobaileya...
July 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630745/correlation-between-hox-code-and-vertebral-morphology-in-the-mouse-towards-a-universal-model-for-synapsida
#12
Christine Böhmer
BACKGROUND: The importance of the cervical vertebrae as part of the skull-neck system in facilitating the success and diversity of tetrapods is clear. The reconstruction of its evolution, however, is problematic because of the variation in the number of vertebrae, making it difficult to identify homologous elements. Quantification of the morphological differentiation in the neck of diverse archosaurs established homologous units of vertebrae (i.e. modules) resulting from Hox gene expression patterns within the cervical vertebral column...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630337/stem-caecilian-from-the-triassic-of-colorado-sheds-light-on-the-origins-of-lissamphibia
#13
Jason D Pardo, Bryan J Small, Adam K Huttenlocker
The origin of the limbless caecilians remains a lasting question in vertebrate evolution. Molecular phylogenies and morphology support that caecilians are the sister taxon of batrachians (frogs and salamanders), from which they diverged no later than the early Permian. Although recent efforts have discovered new, early members of the batrachian lineage, the record of pre-Cretaceous caecilians is limited to a single species, Eocaecilia micropodia The position of Eocaecilia within tetrapod phylogeny is controversial, as it already acquired the specialized morphology that characterizes modern caecilians by the Jurassic...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630294/mercury-evidence-for-pulsed-volcanism-during-the-end-triassic-mass-extinction
#14
Lawrence M E Percival, Micha Ruhl, Stephen P Hesselbo, Hugh C Jenkyns, Tamsin A Mather, Jessica H Whiteside
The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) has long been proposed as having a causal relationship with the end-Triassic extinction event (∼201.5 Ma). In North America and northern Africa, CAMP is preserved as multiple basaltic units interbedded with uppermost Triassic to lowermost Jurassic sediments. However, it has been unclear whether this apparent pulsing was a local feature, or if pulses in the intensity of CAMP volcanism characterized the emplacement of the province as a whole. Here, six geographically widespread Triassic-Jurassic records, representing varied paleoenvironments, are analyzed for mercury (Hg) concentrations and Hg/total organic carbon (Hg/TOC) ratios...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630256/the-small-gtpase-rac1-contributes-to-extinction-of-aversive-memories-of-drug-withdrawal-by-facilitating-gabaa-receptor-endocytosis-in-the-vmpfc
#15
Wei-Sheng Wang, Yun-Yue Ju, Qi-Xin Zhou, Jian-Xin Tang, Meng Li, Lei Zhang, Shuo Kang, Zhong-Guo Chen, Yu-Jun Wang, Hui Ji, Yu-Qiang Ding, Lin Xu, Jing-Gen Liu
Extinction of aversive memories has been a major concern in neuropsychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorders and drug addiction. However, the mechanisms underlying extinction of aversive memories are not fully understood. Here, we report that extinction of conditioned place aversion (CPA) to naloxone-precipitated opiate withdrawal in male rats activates Rho GTPase Rac1 in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in a BDNF-dependent manner, which determines GABAA receptor (GABAAR) endocytosis via triggering synaptic translocation of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) through facilitating actin polymerization...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630115/discovering-complete-quasispecies-in-bacterial-genomes
#16
Frederic Bertels, Chaitanya S Gokhale, Arne Traulsen
Mobile genetic elements can be found in almost all genomes. Possibly the most common non-autonomous mobile genetic elements in bacteria are REPINs that can occur hundreds of times within a genome. The sum of all REPINs in a genome can be viewed as an evolving population because REPINs replicate and mutate. In contrast to most other biological populations, we know the exact composition of the REPIN population and the sequence of each member of the population. Here, we model the evolution of REPINs as quasispecies...
June 19, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630002/inhibition-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-by-iwr1-induces-expression-of-foxd3-to-promote-mouse-epiblast-stem-cell-self-renewal
#17
Kuisheng Liu, Yuanyuan Sun, Dahai Liu, Shoudong Ye
Inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling facilitates the derivation of mouse epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs), as well as dramatically promotes EpiSC self-renewal. The specific mechanism, however, is still unclear. Here, we showed that IWR1, a Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibitor, allowed long-term self-renewal of EpiSCs in serum medium in combination with ROCK inhibitor Y27632. Through transcriptome data analysis, we arrived at a set of candidate transcription factors induced by IWR1. Among these, Forkhead box D3 (Foxd3) was most abundant...
June 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629655/protocols-for-sperm-cryopreservation-in-the-domestic-cat-a-review
#18
REVIEW
K Buranaamnuay
The main objectives of sperm cryopreservation in domestic cats are to preserve these gametes for future use, especially in valuable domestic cat breeds and to use knowledge-gained for developing sperm preservation techniques in wild felids that are threatened with extinction. To achieve acceptable quality of post-thaw sperm and results after insemination, sperm samples must be properly handled, cryopreserved and thawed by using appropriate protocols. In this paper, cryopreservation protocols of domestic cat sperm that have been reported previously are described...
June 13, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627226/light-absorptive-properties-of-articular-cartilage-ecm-molecules-synovial-fluid-and-photoinitiators-as-potential-barriers-to-light-initiated-polymer-scaffolding-procedures
#19
Anthony J Finch, Jamie M Benson, Patrick E Donnelly, Peter A Torzilli
Objective Many in vivo procedures to repair chondral defects use ultraviolet (UV)-photoinitiated in situ polymerization within the cartilage matrix. Chemical species that absorb UV light might reduce the effectiveness of these procedures by acting as light absorption barriers. This study evaluated whether any of the individual native biochemical components in cartilage and synovial fluid interfered with the absorption of light by common scaffolding photosensitizers. Materials UV-visible spectroscopy was performed on each major component of cartilage in solution, on bovine synovial fluid, and on four photosensitizers, riboflavin, Irgacure 2959, quinine, and riboflavin-5'-phosphate...
June 1, 2017: Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626951/considering-the-unintentional-consequences-of-pollinator-gardens-for-urban-native-plants-is-the-road-to-extinction-paved-with-good-intentions
#20
Anna L Johnson, Andrea M Fetters, Tia-Lynn Ashman
Urban centers are important foci for plant biodiversity and yet widespread planting of wildflower gardens in cities to sustain pollinator biodiversity is on the rise, without full consideration of potential ecological consequences. The impact of intentional wildflower plantings on remnant native plant diversity in urban and peri-urban settings has not received attention, although shared pollinators are likely to mediate several types of biotic interactions between human-introduced plants and remnant native ones...
June 19, 2017: New Phytologist
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