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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036794/assessing-the-effect-of-different-operation-techniques-on-postoperative-duplex-ultrasound-quality-after-carotid-endarterectomy
#1
E Grambow, T Heller, P Wieneke, C Weiß, E Klar, M Weinrich
BACKGROUND: Duplex ultrasound is the first choice in diagnostics and surveillance of stenoses of the internal carotid arteries before and even after surgery. Therefore, the quality of duplex ultrasound is crucial to investigate these vascular pathologies. OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study was the evaluation whether different surgical techniques affect the postoperative quality of duplex ultrasound. METHODS: In a time period from January to May 2015 duplex ultrasound of the cervical vessels was performed in 75 patients after unilateral endarterectomy of the internal carotid artery at our department between 2006 and 2012...
October 7, 2017: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036328/phylogeography-and-population-genetic-analyses-in-the-iberian-toothcarp-aphanius-iberus-valenciennes-1846-at-different-time-scales
#2
Elena G Gonzalez, Carina Cunha, Hamid R Ghanavi, Francisco J Oliva-Paterna, Mar Torralva, Ignacio Doadrio
Secondary freshwater fish species inhabiting fluctuating and extreme environments are susceptible to changes in dispersion, effective population size, and genetic structure. The Iberian toothcarp Aphanius iberus is an endemic cyprinodontid of the Iberian Peninsula restricted to brackish water of salt marshes and coastal lagoons on the eastern Spanish Mediterranean coast. In this study we analysed mitochondrial cytochrome b DNA and microsatellite variation to evaluate ways in which the processes of extinction, dispersal, and colonization of A...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034568/innovation-not-recovery-dynamic-redox-promotes-metazoan-radiations
#4
Rachel Wood, Douglas H Erwin
Environmental fluctuations in redox may reinforce rather than hinder evolutionary transitions, such that variability in near-surface oceanic oxygenation can promote morphological evolution and novelty. Modern, low-oxygen regions are heterogeneous and dynamic habitats that support low diversity and are inhabited by opportunistic and non-skeletal metazoans. We note that several major radiation episodes follow protracted or repeating intervals (>1 million years) of persistent and dynamic shallow marine redox (oceanic anoxic events)...
October 16, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034479/scaling-of-the-ankle-extensor-muscle-tendon-units-and-the-biomechanical-implications-for-bipedal-hopping-locomotion-in-the-post-pouch-kangaroo-macropus-fuliginosus
#5
Edward P Snelling, Andrew A Biewener, Qiaohui Hu, David A Taggart, Andrea Fuller, Duncan Mitchell, Shane K Maloney, Roger S Seymour
Bipedal hopping is used by macropods, including rat-kangaroos, wallabies and kangaroos (superfamily Macropodoidea). Interspecific scaling of the ankle extensor muscle-tendon units in the lower hindlimbs of these hopping bipeds shows that peak tendon stress increases disproportionately with body size. Consequently, large kangaroos store and recover more strain energy in their tendons, making hopping more efficient, but their tendons are at greater risk of rupture. This is the first intraspecific scaling analysis on the functional morphology of the ankle extensor muscle-tendon units (gastrocnemius, plantaris and flexor digitorum longus) in one of the largest extant species of hopping mammal, the western grey kangaroo Macropus fuliginosus (5...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034185/ashtawarga-plants-suffering-a-triple-standardization-syndrome
#6
REVIEW
Jaswinder Kaur Virk, Vikas Gupta, Sanjiv Kumar, Ranjit Singh, Parveen Bansal
Ayurveda is one of the oldest known holistic health care systems recommending diverse medicinal uses of plants for prevention and cure of diseases and illness. World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the holistic system is gaining more popularity due to its easy availability, low cost, congeniality, better accessibility and higher safety than allopathic medicine. Demand of herbal drugs is increasing day-by-day because of increasing popularity of herbal drugs; however market fails to meet this supply due to numerous factors, one of the important factors being the extinction of these plants from local flora...
October 2017: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033326/genetic-discontinuity-between-the-maritime-archaic-and-beothuk-populations-in-newfoundland-canada
#7
Ana T Duggan, Alison J T Harris, Stephanie Marciniak, Ingeborg Marshall, Melanie Kuch, Andrew Kitchen, Gabriel Renaud, John Southon, Ben Fuller, Janet Young, Stuart Fiedel, G Brian Golding, Vaughan Grimes, Hendrik Poinar
Situated at the furthest northeastern edge of Canada, the island of Newfoundland (approximately 110,000 km(2)) and Labrador (approximately 295,000 km(2)) today constitute a province characterized by abundant natural resources but low population density. Both landmasses were covered by the Laurentide ice sheet during the Last Glacial Maximum (18,000 years before present [YBP]); after the glacier retreated, ice patches remained on the island until ca. 9,000 calibrated (cal) YBP [1]. Nevertheless, indigenous peoples, whose ancestors had trekked some 5,000 km from the west coast, arrived approximately 10,000 cal YBP in Labrador and ca...
October 10, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031851/constitutive-ret-signaling-leads-to-long-lasting-expression-of-amphetamine-induced-place-conditioning-via-elevation-of-mesolimbic-dopamine
#8
Jaakko Kopra, Marian Villarta-Aguilera, Mari Savolainen, Samo Weingerl, Timo T Myöhänen, Saara Rannanpää, Michael F Salvatore, Jaan-Olle Andressoo, T Petteri Piepponen
Addictive drugs enhance dopamine release in the striatum, which can lead to compulsive drug-seeking after repeated exposure. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is an important regulator of midbrain dopamine neurons, and may play a mechanistic role in addiction-related behaviors. To elucidate the components of GDNF-signaling that contribute to addiction-related behaviors of place preference and its extinction, we utilized two genetically modified GDNF mouse models in an amphetamine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm and evaluated how the behavioral findings correlate with dopamine signaling in the dorsal and ventral striatum...
October 12, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030899/onses-of-the-soil-fungal-communities-to-the-co-invasion-of-two-invasive-species-with-different-cover-classes
#9
Congyan Wang, Jiawei Zhou, Jun Liu, Kun Jiang, Hongguang Xiao, Daolin Du
Soil fungal communities may play an important role in the successful invasion of non-native species. It is common for two or more invasive species to co-occur in invaded ecosystems. This study aimed to determine the effects of the co-invasion of two invasive species (Erigeron annuus and Solidago canadensis) with different cover classes on soil fungal communities by using high-throughput sequencing. The invasion of E. annuus and/or S. canadensis exert positive effects on the sequence number, operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness, Shannon's diversity index, abundance-based coverage estimator (ACE index), and Chao1 index of soil fungal communities but exhibit negative effects on the Simpson index...
October 14, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030763/conservation-and-genetic-characterisation-of-common-bean-landraces-from-cilento-region-southern-italy-high-differentiation-in-spite-of-low-genetic-diversity
#10
Daniele De Luca, Paola Cennamo, Emanuele Del Guacchio, Riccardo Di Novella, Paolo Caputo
Since its introduction from Central-South America to Italy almost 500 years ago, the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was largely cultivated across the peninsula in hundreds of different landraces. However, globalisation and technological modernisation of agricultural practices in the last decades promoted the cultivation of few varieties at the expense of traditional and local agro-ecotypes, which have been confined to local markets or have completely disappeared. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity and differentiation in 12 common bean landraces once largely cultivated in the Cilento region (Campania region, southern Italy), and now the object of a recovery program to save them from extinction...
October 13, 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030297/impaired-extinction-of-cued-fear-memory-and-abnormal-dendritic-morphology-in-the-prelimbic-and-infralimbic-cortices-in-vpac2-receptor-vipr2-deficient-mice
#11
Yukio Ago, Atsuko Hayata-Takano, Takuya Kawanai, Ryosuke Yamauchi, Shuto Takeuchi, Jesse D Cushman, Abha K Rajbhandari, Michael S Fanselow, Hitoshi Hashimoto, James A Waschek
The structurally related neuropeptides vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) have been implicated in stress regulation and learning and memory. Several bodies of research have shown the impact of the PACAP specific receptor PAC1 on fear memory, but the roles of other PACAP receptors in regulating fear stress responses remain to be elucidated. Here we aimed to investigate the effects of genetic deletion of VIPR2 encoding the VPAC2 receptor, which binds both VIP and PACAP, on fear-related memory and on dendritic morphology in the brain regions of the fear circuitry...
October 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030219/local-infusion-of-ghrelin-into-the-lateral-amygdala-blocks-extinction-of-conditioned-taste-aversion-in-rats
#12
Ge Song, Qianqian Zhu, Fubing Han, Shuai Liu, Chenyang Zhao, Yu Zhou
Ghrelin is an orexigenic brain-gut hormone promoting feeding and regulating energy metabolism in human and rodents. Our previous study showed that ghrelin locally infused into the lateral amygdala (LA) activates its receptor GHS-R1a and blocks acquisition of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in rats. In this study, we further investigated the effect of ghrelin/GHS-R1a signaling on extinction of CTA. We found that local infusion of ghrelin (5μM, 0.5μl/side) into the LA not only interfered with CTA memory formation, but also the extinction of CTA memory...
October 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028150/potential-of-micrornas-as-novel-targets-in-the-alleviation-of-pathological-fear
#13
REVIEW
Conor P Murphy, Nicolas Singewald
The current treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), phobias and other anxiety disorders, remains insufficient particularly in producing long-lasting full symptom control. Dysfunctional fear processing is common in these disorders, including a deficiency in fear-inhibitory mechanisms and impairment in the ability to discriminate between safety and danger cues. Research has aimed to elucidate brain circuitries, neurotransmitters and downstream signaling pathways important in the alleviation of aberrant fear, with a specific focus on mechanisms modulating fear memory and its behavioral expression...
October 13, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028057/exploring-the-coherent-interaction-in-a-hybrid-system-of-hollow-gold-nanoprisms-and-cyanine-dye-j-aggregates-role-of-plasmon-hybridization-mediated-local-electric-field-enhancement
#14
Kamalika Das, Bidhan Hazra, Manabendra Chandra
In this work, we probed the possibility of observing strong plasmon-exciton interactions in hollow gold nanoprism-J-aggregate nanocomposites. Several different hollow gold nanoprisms (HGNs) with different aspect ratios were synthesized. This allowed us to systematically tune the LSPR energies through the exciton energy of the PIC-J-aggregate, which in turn allowed us to have direct determination of the coupling strength of HGN-J-aggregate composites. Hybrid nanosystems were prepared by adsorbing and assembling 1,1'-diethyl-2,2'-cyanine (pseudoisocyanine or PIC) iodide onto the surface of hollow gold nanoprisms...
October 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028055/laser-written-polarizing-directional-coupler-with-reduced-interaction-length
#15
I V Dyakonov, M Yu Saygin, I V Kondratyev, A A Kalinkin, S S Straupe, S P Kulik
Integrated optical waveguides, manufactured with femtosecond laser writing (FSLW) technology, enable precise control and manipulation of light in complicated photonic chips. However, due to the intrinsically low anisotropy of FSLW waveguides, polarizing integrated devices have had a relatively large footprint. In this Letter, we demonstrate an approach based on stress-induced anisotropy, allowing us to decrease the size of polarizing directional couplers down to 3.7 mm, almost an order of magnitude shorter than previously reported...
October 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028030/mode-selecting-switch-using-multimode-interference-for-on-chip-optical-interconnects
#16
Rubana B Priti, Hamed Pishvai Bazargani, Yule Xiong, Odile Liboiron-Ladouceur
A novel mode selecting switch (MSS) is experimentally demonstrated for on-chip mode-division multiplexing (MDM) optical interconnects. The MSS consists of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with tapered multi-mode interference couplers and TiN thermo-optic phase shifters for conversion and switching between the optical data encoded on the fundamental and first-order quasi-transverse electric (TE) modes. The C-band MSS exhibits a >25  dB switching extinction ratio and < -12 dB crosstalk. We validate the dynamic switching with a 25...
October 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027198/shape-analysis-of-spatial-relationships-between-orbito-ocular-and-endocranial-structures-in-modern-humans-and-fossil-hominids
#17
Ana Sofia Pereira-Pedro, Michael Masters, Emiliano Bruner
The orbits and eyes of modern humans are situated directly below the frontal lobes and anterior to the temporal lobes. Contiguity between these orbital and cerebral elements could generate spatial constraints, and potentially lead to deformation of the eye and reduced visual acuity during development. In this shape analysis we evaluate whether and to what extent covariation exists between ocular morphology and the size and spatial position of the frontal and temporal areas in adult modern humans. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to investigate patterns of variation among the brain and eyes, while computed tomography (CT) was used to compare cranial morphology in this anatomical region among modern humans, extinct hominids and chimpanzees...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026343/photothermal-stability-of-biologically-and-chemically-synthesized-gold-nanoprisms
#18
Magdalena Klekotko, Joanna Olesiak-Banska, Katarzyna Matczyszyn
We report here the influence of the irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses on the gold nanoprisms synthesized using biological and chemical methods. For the bio-mediated growth, we used plant extract as a source of reducing, structure-directing, and stabilizing agents, while for the chemical method, we applied three-step protocol, involving chemicals commonly used in the synthesis of nanostructures. Exposition of the nanostructures to the laser beam causes morphological changes, which affect their extinction spectra...
2017: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025687/serine-racemase-and-d-serine-in-the-amygdala-are-dynamically-involved-in-fear-learning
#19
Darrick T Balu, Kendall Taylor Presti, Cathy C Y Huang, Kevin Muszynski, Inna Radzishevsky, Herman Wolosker, Guia Guffanti, Kerry J Ressler, Joseph T Coyle
BACKGROUND: The amygdala is a central component of the neural circuitry that underlies fear learning. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-dependent plasticity in the amygdala is required for pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation requires the binding of a coagonist, D-serine, which is synthesized from L-serine by the neuronal enzyme serine racemase (SR). However, little is known about SR and D-serine function in the amygdala. METHODS: We used immunohistochemical methods to characterize the cellular localization of SR and D-serine in the mouse and human amygdala...
August 26, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024752/overtraining-modifies-spatial-memory-susceptibility-to-corticosterone-administration
#20
Alejandro Múnera, Mayerli A Prado-Rivera, D Carolina Cárdenas-Poveda, Marisol R Lamprea
Even though the effects of overtraining and glucocorticoids on different phases of spatial memory are known, the interaction between these factors on the retrieval and extinction of spatial memory has not yet been described. Adult male Wistar rats received eight training trials per day in the Barnes maze for either one or two days. Twenty-four hours after the last training trial they were randomly assigned for receiving an intraperitoneal vehicle or corticosterone injection (0.125 or 0.5 mg/kg) and ten minutes later they were given a memory test, followed by seven extinction trials...
October 9, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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