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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454223/attention-as-the-glue-for-object-integration-in-parietal-extinction
#1
Markus Conci, Julia Groß, Ingo Keller, Hermann J Müller, Kathrin Finke
Patients with unilateral, parietal brain damage frequently show visual extinction, which manifests in a failure to identify contralesional stimuli when presented simultaneously with other, ipsilesional stimuli (but full awareness for single stimulus presentations). Extinction reflects an impairment of spatial selective attention, leaving basic preattentive processing unaffected. For instance, access to bilaterally grouped objects is usually spared in extinction, suggesting that grouping occurs at a stage preceding (in the patients: abnormally biased) spatial-attentional selection...
January 31, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453767/increasing-connectivity-between-metapopulation-ecology-and-landscape-ecology
#2
Paige E Howell, Erin Muths, Blake R Hossack, Brent H Sigafus, Richard B Chandler
Metapopulation ecology and landscape ecology aim to understand how spatial structure influences ecological processes, yet these disciplines address the problem using fundamentally different modeling approaches. Metapopulation models describe how the spatial distribution of patches affects colonization and extinction, but often do not account for the heterogeneity in the landscape between patches. Models in landscape ecology use detailed descriptions of landscape structure, but often without considering colonization and extinction dynamics...
February 17, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453509/critical-thresholds-for-eventual-extinction-in-randomly-disturbed-population-growth-models
#3
Scott D Peckham, Edward C Waymire, Patrick De Leenheer
This paper considers several single species growth models featuring a carrying capacity, which are subject to random disturbances that lead to instantaneous population reduction at the disturbance times. This is motivated in part by growing concerns about the impacts of climate change. Our main goal is to understand whether or not the species can persist in the long run. We consider the discrete-time stochastic process obtained by sampling the system immediately after the disturbances, and find various thresholds for several modes of convergence of this discrete process, including thresholds for the absence or existence of a positively supported invariant distribution...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452180/the-m-maze-task-an-automated-method-for-studying-fear-memory-in-rats-exposed-to-protracted-aversive-conditioning
#4
Rimenez R Souza, Nicole M Robertson, David T Pruitt, Lindsey Noble, Eric C Meyers, Phillip A Gonzales, Nathaniel P Bleker, Holle L Carey, Seth A Hays, Michael P Kilgard, Christa K McIntyre, Robert L Rennaker
BACKGROUND: Fear conditioning (FC) in rodents is the most used animal model to investigate the neurobiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although research using FC has generated a better understanding of fear memories, studies often rely on mild or moderate FC training and behavioral analysis generally focuses on measuring freezing responses within few test sessions. NEW METHOD: We introduce the M-Maze task, a system to measures extinction of conditioned fear using suppression of operant behavior...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452175/replacement-treatment-during-extinction-training-with-the-atypical-dopamine-uptake-inhibitor-jhw-007-reduces-relapse-to-methamphetamine-seeking
#5
Ashlea F Dassanayake, Juan J Canales
There are currently no approved medications to effectively counteract the effects of methamphetamine (METH), reduce its abuse and prolong abstinence from it. Data accumulated in recent years have shown that a range of N-substituted benztropine (BZT) analogues possesses psychopharmacological features consistent with those of a potential replacement or "substitute" treatment for stimulant addiction. On the other hand, the evidence that antidepressant therapy may effectively prevent relapse to stimulant seeking is controversial...
February 13, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451371/young-s-modulus-and-load-complexity-modeling-their-effects-on-proximal-femur-strain
#6
Adam D Sylvester, Patricia A Kramer
Finite element analysis (FEA) is a powerful tool for evaluating questions of functional morphology, but the application of FEA to extant or extinct creatures is a non-trivial task. Three categories of input data are needed to appropriately implement FEA: geometry, material properties, and boundary conditions. Geometric data are relatively easily obtained from imaging techniques, but often material properties and boundary conditions must be estimated. Here we conduct sensitivity analyses of the effect of the choice of Young's Modulus for elements representing trabecular bone and muscle loading complexity on the proximal femur using a finite element mesh of a modern human femur...
February 16, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448886/augmenting-treatment-efficiency-in-exposure-therapy-for-ptsd-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial-of-yohimbine-hcl
#7
Peter W Tuerk, Bethany C Wangelin, Mark B Powers, Jasper A J Smits, Ron Acierno, Ursula S Myers, Scott P Orr, Edna B Foa, Mark B Hamner
The alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, yohimbine, can facilitate fear extinction in animals and humans. One potential mechanism is increased noradrenergic activity and associated arousal in the presence of conditioned stimuli. Accordingly, yohimbine might augment prolonged exposure (PE) therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), where heightened exposure-oriented arousal is a theorized driver and empirical predictor of treatment success. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial (NCT 01031979) piloted yohimbine augmentation in 26 males with combat-related PTSD...
February 15, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448658/the-effect-of-au-ag-bimetallic-thin-films-on-surface-plasmon-resonance-properties-comparing-with-those-of-au-and-ag-single-thin-films
#8
Seon Hoon Kim, Tae Un Kim, Haeng Yun Jung, Hyun Chul Ki, Doo Gun Kim, Byung-Teak Lee
The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) properties of Au/Ag bimetallic thin-film nanostructures were investigated to improve the chemical stability and the figure of merit (FOM) in the SPR sensors. The SPR characteristics such as resonance angle, extinction ratio, and full width half maximum (FWHM) were calculated by the simulation of the finite-difference time-domain method and were measured using the laser with a 632.8 nm wavelength in the Kretschmann-Raether configuration. The measured resonance angle, extinction ratio, FWHM of Au(20 nm)/Ag(20 nm) thin-film nanostructure were found to be 44°, 0...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448360/enhancement-of-large-fluctuations-to-extinction-in-adaptive-networks
#9
Jason Hindes, Ira B Schwartz, Leah B Shaw
During an epidemic, individual nodes in a network may adapt their connections to reduce the chance of infection. A common form of adaption is avoidance rewiring, where a noninfected node breaks a connection to an infected neighbor and forms a new connection to another noninfected node. Here we explore the effects of such adaptivity on stochastic fluctuations in the susceptible-infected-susceptible model, focusing on the largest fluctuations that result in extinction of infection. Using techniques from large-deviation theory, combined with a measurement of heterogeneity in the susceptible degree distribution at the endemic state, we are able to predict and analyze large fluctuations and extinction in adaptive networks...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448159/polyploid-arabidopsis-species-originated-around-recent-glaciation-maxima
#10
REVIEW
Polina Yu Novikova, Nora Hohmann, Yves Van de Peer
Polyploidy may provide adaptive advantages and is considered to be important for evolution and speciation. Polyploidy events are found throughout the evolutionary history of plants, however they do not seem to be uniformly distributed along the time axis. For example, many of the detected ancient whole-genome duplications (WGDs) seem to cluster around the K/Pg boundary (∼66Mya), which corresponds to a drastic climate change event and a mass extinction. Here, we discuss more recent polyploidy events using Arabidopsis as the most developed plant model at the level of the entire genus...
February 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447757/using-the-covariation-of-extant-hominoid-upper-and-lower-jaws-to-predict-dental-arcades-of-extinct-hominins
#11
Stefanie Stelzer, Philipp Gunz, Simon Neubauer, Fred Spoor
Upper and lower jaws are well represented in the fossil record of mammals and are frequently used to diagnose species. Some hominin species are only known by either their maxillary or mandibular morphology, and in this study, we explore the possibility of predicting their complementary dental arcade shape to aid the recognition of conspecific specimens in the fossil record. To this end, we apply multiple multivariate regression to analyze 3D landmark coordinates collected on associated upper and lower dental arcades of extant Homo, Pan, Gorilla, Pongo, and Hylobates...
January 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447472/viable-cell-culture-banking-for-biodiversity-characterization-and-conservation
#12
Oliver A Ryder, Manabu Onuma
Because living cells can be saved for indefinite periods, unprecedented opportunities for characterizing, cataloging, and conserving biological diversity have emerged as advanced cellular and genetic technologies portend new options for preventing species extinction. Crucial to realizing the potential impacts of stem cells and assisted reproductive technologies on biodiversity conservation is the cryobanking of viable cell cultures from diverse species, especially those identified as vulnerable to extinction in the near future...
February 15, 2018: Annual Review of Animal Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447117/on-the-high-lift-characteristics-of-a-bio-inspired-slotted-delta-wing
#13
Kaley Ann Sheppard, David Emory Rival
A bio-inspired, slotted delta wing was abstracted from a multi-vane propulsor geometry ubiquitous in nature, and analysed to investigate aerodynamic performance during acceleratory and steady-state motions. Evolutionary convergence of slotted geometries in nature suggests an aerodynamic benefit in manoeuvrability, as exemplified in the fins and wings of a broad range of extant and extinct swimmers and flyers, respectively. Through direct force measurements and stereoscopic particle image velocimetry, it was found that the abstracted, slotted geometry exhibited a region of steady-state lift and drag enhancement at angles of attack greater than 25° when compared to a reference profile based on a delta-wing plate...
February 15, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446700/an-interview-informed-synthesized-contingency-analysis-to-inform-the-treatment-of-challenging-behavior-in-a-young-child-with-autism
#14
Ciara Herman, Olive Healy, Sinéad Lydon
PURPOSE: Experimental Functional analysis (EFA) is considered the "gold standard" of behavioural assessment and its use is predictive of treatment success. However, EFA has a number of limitations including its lengthy nature, the high level of expertise required, and the reinforcement of challenging behaviour. This study aimed to further validate a novel interview-informed synthesised contingency analysis (IISCA). METHODS: An open-ended interview and brief direct observation informed an IISCA for a young boy with autism who engaged in challenging behaviour...
February 15, 2018: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446627/ultrabright-and-fluorogenic-probes-for-multicolor-imaging-and-tracking-of-lipid-droplets-in-cells-and-tissues
#15
Mayeul Collot, Tkhe-Kyong Fam, Pichandi Ashokkumar, Orestis Faklaris, Thierry Galli, Lydia Danglot, Andrey S Klymchenko
Lipid droplets (LDs) are intracellular lipid-rich organelles that regulate the storage of neutral lipids and were recently found to be involved in many physiological processes, metabolic disorders as well as diseases including obesity, diabetes and cancers. Herein we present a family of new fluorogenic merocyanine fluorophores based on an indolenine moiety and a dioxaborine barbiturate derivative. These so-called StatoMerocyanines (SMCy) span their fluorescence from yellow to the near infrared (NIR) in oil with an impressive fluorescence enhancement compared to aqueous media...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446399/us-bill-illustrates-how-conservation-triage-can-lead-to-extinctions
#16
Guillaume Chapron, Yaffa Epstein, José Vicente López-Bao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446091/an-evaluation-of-delay-to-reinforcement-and-mand-variability-during-functional-communication-training
#17
Colin S Muething, Terry S Falcomata, Raechal Ferguson, Samantha Swinnea, Cayenne Shpall
Children with autism spectrum disorder and other developmental disabilities often exhibit invariant responding (i.e., restricted behavioral repertoires), deficits in communication, and challenging behavior. Approaches demonstrated in the basic and applied literature to increase response variability include extinction, lag schedules of reinforcement, and percentile schedules of reinforcement. Results of basic studies have also indicated that delays to reinforcement often produce increases in response variability...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446081/under-the-weather-the-direct-effects-of-climate-warming-on-a-threatened-desert-lizard-are-mediated-by-their-activity-phase-and-burrow-system
#18
Danae Moore, Adam Stow, Michael Ray Kearney
1.For ectotherms such as lizards, the importance of behavioral thermoregulation in avoiding thermal extremes is well established and is increasingly acknowledged in modern studies of climate warming and its impacts. Less appreciated and understood are the buffering roles of retreat sites and activity phase, in part because of logistical challenges of studying below-ground activity. Burrowing and nocturnal activity are key behavioral adaptations that have enabled a diverse range of reptiles to survive extreme environmental temperatures within hot desert regions...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445383/study-on-reproductive-biology-of-rhododendron-longipedicellatum-a-newly-discovered-and-special-threatened-plant-surviving-in-limestone-habitat-in-southeast-yunnan-china
#19
Taiqiang Li, Xiongfang Liu, Zhenghong Li, Hong Ma, Youming Wan, Xiuxian Liu, Liyong Fu
Rhododendron longipedicellatum is a narrow endemic species and a subject of urgent demand in the domestic market and overseas. Its fascinating shapes, brilliantly gilvous flowers, and unusual flowering time endow this species with extremely high ornamental value. However, only five wild populations of R. longipedicellatum surviving in limestone habitat have been found through elaborate field investigation, and the number of the populations decreases further or is even confronted with risk of extinction due to the damage of human activities...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444940/dynamics-of-evolution-of-poliovirus-neutralizing-antigenic-sites-and-other-capsid-functional-domains-during-a-large-and-prolonged-outbreak
#20
Jing Shaw, Jaume Jorba, Kun Zhao, Jane Iber, Qi Chen, Festus Adu, Adekunle Adeniji, David Bukbuk, Marycelin Baba, Elizabeth Henderson, Naomi Dybdahl-Sissoko, Sharla Macdonald, William C Weldon, Nicksy Gumede, M Steven Oberste, Olen M Kew, Cara C Burns
We followed the dynamics of capsid amino acid replacement among 403 Nigerian outbreak isolates of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) from 2005 through 2011. Four different functional domains were analyzed: 1) neutralizing antigenic (NAg) sites, 2) residues binding the poliovirus receptor (PVR), 3) VP1 residues 1-32, and 4) the capsid structural core. Amino acid replacements mapped to 37 of 43 positions across all 4 NAg sites; the most variable and polymorphic residues were in NAg sites 2 and 3b...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
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