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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106859/burkholderia-cepacia-complex-regulation-of-virulence-gene-expression-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Sílvia A Sousa, Joana R Feliciano, Tiago Pita, Soraia I Guerreiro, Jorge H Leitão
Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) bacteria emerged as opportunistic pathogens in cystic fibrosis and immunocompromised patients. Their eradication is very difficult due to the high level of intrinsic resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics. Bcc bacteria have large and complex genomes, composed of two to four replicons, with variable numbers of insertion sequences. The complexity of Bcc genomes confers a high genomic plasticity to these bacteria, allowing their adaptation and survival to diverse habitats, including the human host...
January 19, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105096/nocardiosis-in-ectopic-acth-syndrome-a-case-report-and-review-of-11-cases-from-the-literature
#2
Lichen Xu, Qiaomai Xu, Meifang Yang, Hainv Gao, Mingzhi Xu, Weihang Ma
Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome (EAS) associated with nocardiosis is rare, and little information is available regarding its clinical characteristics. In this study, the case of a 35-year-old male patient who showed significant cushingoid features and had a cough with yellow phlegm for 1 month is described. Pulmonary computed tomography (CT) scanning and (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with CT identified two different lesions in the mediastinum and pulmonary region, respectively...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104655/first-complete-providencia-rettgeri-genome-sequence-the-ndm-1-producing-clinical-strain-rb151
#3
R Alejandro Marquez-Ortiz, Leanne Haggerty, Eby M Sim, Carolina Duarte, Betsy E Castro-Cardozo, Mauricio Beltran, Sandra Saavedra, Natasha Vanegas, Javier Escobar-Perez, Nicola K Petty
Providencia rettgeri is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen of clinical significance due to its association with urinary tract infections and multidrug resistance. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of P. rettgeri The genome of strain RB151 consists of a 4.8-Mbp chromosome and a 108-kbp blaNDM-1-positive plasmid.
January 19, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104384/retrospective-analysis-of-15-cases-of-penicillium-marneffei-infection-in-hiv-positive-and-hiv-negative-patients
#4
REVIEW
Yinyin Li, Zhongyuan Lin, Xiang Shi, Lijun Mo, Wenchao Li, Wuning Mo, Zheng Yang
Penicillium marneffei (P. marneffei) causes systemic opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals, particularly in those infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and more rarely in HIV-negative patients. We retrospectively analyzed the cases of 15 patients infected with P. marneffei. The patients were divided into two groups: HIV-negative (n = 4) and HIV-positive (n = 11). Of the cases studied, three (75%) of the HIV-negative and six (55%) of the HIV-positive group had an accompanying lung infection...
January 16, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103460/-pneumocystis-pneumonia-in-107-hiv-infected-patients-admitted-to-the-department-of-infectious-diseases-at-santa-maria-hospital-lisbon-2002-2013
#5
Vilma Grilo, Aida Pereira
INTRODUCTION: Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia remains one of the most common opportunistic illnesses in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. It is currently the most reported AIDS-defining infection in Portugal. The aims of this study were to analyze the features of a human immunodeficiency virus /Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia coinfected population, to compare it with the current literature, and to evaluate comparatively subpopulations of patients based on the previous knowledge of the human immunodeficiency virus infection, Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia diagnostic method and discharge results...
October 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103180/fluoroquinolone-macrolide-and-ketolide-resistance-in-haemophilus-parainfluenzae-from-south-africa
#6
Regina Esinam Abotsi, Usha Govinden, Krishnee Moodley, Sabiha Essack
Fluoroquinolones and ketolides are among the drugs of choice for the treatment of Haemophilus parainfluenzae infections. There has been a report of an emerging fluoroquinolone and telithromycin resistance in H. parainfluenzae isolates from the private sector of KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa that necessitates molecular investigation. The aim of this study is to characterize these resistance delineating mutations in genes commonly associated with reduced susceptibility. Ten H. parainfluenzae isolates retrieved from the sputum of 10 patients with H...
January 19, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102784/model-systems-for-the-study-of-enterococcal-colonization-and-infection
#7
H M Sharon Goh, M H Adeline Yong, Kelvin Kian Long Chong, Kimberly A Kline
Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium are common inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract, as well as frequent opportunistic pathogens. Enterococci cause a range of infections including, most frequently, infections of the urinary tract, catheterized urinary tract, bloodstream, wounds and surgical sites, and heart valves in endocarditis. Enterococcal infections are often biofilm-associated, polymicrobial in nature, and resistant to antibiotics of last resort. Understanding Enterococcal mechanisms of colonization and pathogenesis are important for identifying new ways to manage and intervene with these infections...
January 19, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102738/optimization-and-partial-characterization-of-intracellular-anticandidal-protein-from-aspergillus-giganteus-mtcc-8408-using-taguchi-doe
#8
Debashis Dutta, Mira Debnath Das
A new intracellular antifungal protein (afp) production with average molecular weight 24.3 kDa and yield of 0.65 ± 0.1 mg/gram dry cell weight (gdcw) of mycelia in submerged fermentation of Aspergillus giganteus MTCC 8408 was optimized. Taguchi's DOE (design of experiment) L27 orthogonal array (OA) was constructed using Qualitek-4 software with 8 most influensive factors namely, culture pH, temperature, slant age, inoculum volume, agitation and KH2PO4. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to correlate the effect of selected factors on fungal cell morphology and afp production...
January 19, 2017: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102479/peripherally-inserted-central-catheter-related-bloodstream-infection-caused-by-kocuria-marina-in-an-elderly-man
#9
Nobuaki Mori, Yuichi Nishihara, Hideki Tayama, Akiko Higuchi, Yasuko Aoki
BACKGROUND: Kocuria species are Gram-positive, aerobic cocci, and members of the Micrcoccaceae family that are known to be opportunistic pathogens. Although there have been sporadic reports of infections caused by Kocuria species, little is known regarding their human pathogenicity and clinical characteristics. CASE REPORT: We herein report a case of a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC)-related bloodstream infection caused by Kocuria marina in a 90-year-old Japanese with multiple cancer...
January 19, 2017: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100903/rhodoccocus-equi-pneumonia-and-paradoxical-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome-aids
#10
Ritika Zijoo, Ahmed Dirweesh, Nigahus Karabulut
BACKGROUND Pulmonary infections are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and can progress rapidly to respiratory failure and death without appropriate therapy. Herein, we present a rare case of an advanced HIV infection and Rhodoccocus equi (R. equi) pneumonia in a young male who had severe paradoxical immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). CASE REPORT A 47-year-old nonsmoking Hispanic man with advanced HIV infection presented with severe acute necrotizing pneumonia secondary to R...
January 19, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100432/effectiveness-and-impact-of-a-reduced-infant-schedule-of-4cmenb-vaccine-against-group-b-meningococcal-disease-in-england-a-national-observational-cohort-study
#11
Sydel R Parikh, Nick J Andrews, Kazim Beebeejaun, Helen Campbell, Sonia Ribeiro, Charlotte Ward, Joanne M White, Ray Borrow, Mary E Ramsay, Shamez N Ladhani
BACKGROUND: In September, 2015, the UK became the first country to introduce the multicomponent group B meningococcal (MenB) vaccine (4CMenB, Bexsero) into a publicly funded national immunisation programme. A reduced two-dose priming schedule was offered to infants at 2 months and 4 months, alongside an opportunistic catch-up for 3 month and 4 month olds. 4CMenB was predicted to protect against 73-88% of MenB strains. We aimed to assess the effectiveness and impact of 4CMenB in vaccine-eligible infants in England...
December 3, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099884/characterization-of-human-and-staphylococcus-aureus-proteins-in-respiratory-mucosa-by-in-vivo-and-immunoproteomics
#12
Frank Schmidt, Tanja Meyer, Nandakumar Sundaramoorthy, Stephan Michalik, Kristin Surmann, Maren Depke, Vishnu Dhople, Manuela Gesell Salazar, Gabriele Holtappels, Nan Zhang, Barbara M Bröker, Claus Bachert, Uwe Völker
: Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive opportunistic bacterium which can be found as a commensal in the nares of about 50% of the human population. Besides asymptomatic carriage, S. aureus has also been found to colonize nasal polyps, a subform of chronic rhinosinusitis, in 60 to 100% of cases, and even reside intracellularly in nasal polyp tissue. The aim of this study was to shed light on the behavior of S. aureus in the human airways by analyzing S. aureus-specific proteins in nasal polyp tissue from patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and to characterize the immunogenic potential of the identified (mainly secreted) proteins...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099778/pseudozyma-and-other-non-candida-opportunistic-yeast-bloodstream-infections-in-a-large-stem-cell-transplant-center
#13
Anupam Pande, Lemuel R Non, Rizwan Romee, Carlos A Q Santos
INTRODUCTION: Non-Candida opportunistic yeasts are emerging causes of bloodstream infection (BSI) in immunocompromised hosts. However, their clinical presentation, management, and outcomes in stem cell transplant (SCT) recipients are not well described. CASE REPORT AND REVIEW: We report the first case to our knowledge of Pseudozyma BSI in a SCT recipient. He had evidence of cutaneous involvement, which has not been previously described in the literature. He became infected while neutropenic and receiving empiric micafungin, which is notable because Pseudozyma is reported to be resistant to echinocandins...
January 18, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099613/disseminated-cryptococcosis-with-cutaneous-involvement-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#14
Gabriely Lessa Sacht, Alexandre Moretti de Lima, Yuri Chiarelli Perdomo, Rafaela Suguimoto Boigues, Luiz Carlos Takita, Günter Hans
Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection of opportunistic behavior that is unusual in immunocompetent patients. We report a rare case of disseminated cryptococcosis with cutaneous involvement in an immunocompetent individual. During hospitalization, Cryptococcus gattii was isolated from skin lesions, lung and spinal fluid. The diagnosis of disseminated cryptococcosis was confirmed and treatment was established. The patient showed improvement. Due to the probable clinical severity of the disease and the possibility that skin lesions may be the first manifestation of this illness, prompt diagnosis must be established and treatment provided...
November 2016: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099040/effect-of-bacoside-a-on-growth-and-biofilm-formation-by-staphylococcus-aureus-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#15
Debaprasad Parai, Ekramul Islam, Jayati Mitra, Samir Kumar Mukherjee
The goal of this study was to evaluate the antibiofilm and antimicrobial activities of Bacoside A, a formulation of phytochemicals from Bacopa monnieri, against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which are known to form biofilms as one of their virulence traits. The antimicrobial effects of Bacoside A were tested using the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration assays. A cell membrane disruption assay was performed to find its possible target site. MTT assay, crystal violet assay, and microscopic studies were performed to assess the antibiofilm activity...
October 24, 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095511/epidemiology-and-molecular-typing-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-in-naturally-infected-hound-dogs-and-associated-triatomine-vectors-in-texas-usa
#16
Rachel Curtis-Robles, Karen F Snowden, Brandon Dominguez, Lewis Dinges, Sandy Rodgers, Glennon Mays, Sarah A Hamer
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of Chagas disease throughout the Americas. Few population-level studies have examined the epidemiology of canine infection and strain types of T. cruzi that infect canines in the USA. We conducted a cross-sectional study of T. cruzi infection in working hound dogs in south central Texas, including analysis of triatomine vectors collected within kennel environments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: Paired IFA and Chagas Stat-Pak serological testing showed an overall seroprevalence of 57...
January 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095350/progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-in-a-patient-with-systemic-mastocytosis-treated-with-cladribine
#17
Karl B Alstadhaug, Randi Fykse Halstensen, Francis Odeh
BACKGROUND: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare opportunistic brain infection caused by the human polyomavirus JC (JCPyV). A particular problem with the drug cladribine seems to be prolonged suppression of the CD4+ T-cells, a well-known risk factor for PML. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 67-year-old male presented with a 3-weeks history of unsteady gait, dysarthria and a dysfunctional right arm. Seven years earlier, he had been diagnosed with urticaria pigmentosa, and 2 years later aggressive systemic mastocytosis...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094180/antifungal-activity-of-substituted-aurones
#18
Caleb L Sutton, Zachary E Taylor, Mary B Farone, Scott T Handy
Novel antifungals are in high demand as there is a growing resistance to antifungals currently in use. In particular, opportunistic fungal infections caused by Candida spp. are on the rise with infections by this genus accounting for the most severe fungal infections following chemotherapy, implantation procedures, and in patients with HIV/AIDS. A series of simple aurone analogs were synthesized and screened for antifungal activity versus Candida spp. Several compounds displayed activity at 100μM, with two having IC50 values below 20μM for three species of Candida...
January 6, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093838/fusaric-acid-contributes-to-virulence-of-fusarium-oxysporum-on-plant-and-mammalian-hosts
#19
Cristina López-Díaz, Vahid Rahjoo, Michael Sulyok, Veronica Ghionna, Adela Martín-Vicente, Javier Capilla, Antonio Di Pietro, Manuel S López-Berges
Fusaric acid (FA) is among the oldest identified secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium species, known for a long time to display strong phytotoxicity and moderate toxicity to animal cells; however, the cellular targets of FA as well as its function in fungal pathogenicity remain unknown. Here, we investigated the role of FA in Fusarium oxysporum, a soil-borne cross-kingdom pathogen that causes vascular wilt on more than a hundred plant species and opportunistic infections in humans. Targeted deletion of fub1, encoding a predicted orthologue of the polyketide synthase involved in FA biosynthesis in F...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093536/noma-overview-of-a-neglected-disease-and-human-rights-violation
#20
REVIEW
M Leila Srour, Klaas Marck, Denise Baratti-Mayer
Noma is an orofacial gangrene affecting malnourished children and mainly observed in tropical countries, particularly sub-Saharan Africa. Epidemiological data on noma are scarce, but a current estimate of the global incidence is 30,000-40,000 cases per year, with a mortality rate of approximately 85% and a burden of disease calculated to be a loss of 1-10 million disability-adjusted life years. The etiology of noma is multifactorial with malnutrition as an ever present factor, often in combination with concomitant diseases, such as measles, malaria, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and poor oral hygiene...
January 16, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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