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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054940/rare-presentation-of-an-old-bug
#1
Hasan Ahmad Hasan Albitar, Alice Gallo de Moraes, Kaiser G Lim
We highlight a rare presentation of Legionella infection in a 77-year-old woman with a clinical diagnosis of giant cell arteritis 2 months prior to presentation. She was started on 60 mg prednisone that was tapered to 10 mg after 4 weeks following her diagnosis. She presented with a 1-month progressive dyspnoea in the absence of any other symptoms. Her exposure history was significant only for a recent trip to Florida where she stayed at a hotel. Initial laboratory workup was significant for hyponatraemia (127 mmol/L)...
October 19, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052773/a-systemic-review-of-tuberculosis-with-hiv-coinfection-in-children
#2
REVIEW
Jaishree Naidoo, Nasreen Mahomed, Halvani Moodley
The epidemiology of tuberculosis is adversely impacted by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. HIV-infected patients are more prone to opportunistic infections, most commonly tuberculosis, and the risk of death in coinfected patients is higher than in those without HIV. Due to the impaired cellular immunity and reduced immunological response in HIV-infected patients, the classic imaging features of tuberculosis usually seen in patients without HIV may present differently. The aim of this review article is to highlight the imaging features that may assist in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in patients with HIV coinfection...
September 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051178/tlr4-mediated-inflammation-promotes-kshv-induced-cellular-transformation-and-tumorigenesis-by-activating-the-stat3-pathway
#3
Marion Gruffaz, Karthik Vasan, Brandon Tan, Suzane Ramos da Silva, Shou-Jiang Gao
Toll-like receptors (TLR) are conserved immune sensors mediating antimicrobial and antitumoral responses, but recent evidence implicates them in promoting carcinogenesis in certain cancers. Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is caused by infection of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and is characterized by uncontrolled neoangiogenesis and inflammation. Here we show that TLR4 is upregulated in KSHV-infected spindle tumor cells in human KS lesions. In a model of KSHV-induced cellular transformation, KSHV upregulated expression of TLR4, its adaptor MyD88, and coreceptors CD14 and MD2...
October 19, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047237/proteus-vulgaris-and-proteus-mirabilis-decrease-candida-albicans-biofilm-formation-by-suppressing-morphological-transition-to-its-hyphal-form
#4
Kyoung Ho Lee, Su Jung Park, Sun Ju Choi, Joo Young Park
PURPOSE: Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Proteus species are causative agents in a variety of opportunistic nosocomial infections, and their ability to form biofilms is known to be a virulence factor. In this study, the influence of co-cultivation with Proteus vulgaris (P. vulgaris) and Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) on C. albicans biofilm formation and its underlying mechanisms were examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: XTT reduction assays were adopted to measure biofilm formation, and viable colony counts were performed to quantify yeast growth...
November 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046746/perspectives-on-non-neoformans-cryptococcal-opportunistic-infections
#5
REVIEW
Nichole Smith, Matthew Sehring, Jefferson Chambers, Preeti Patel
Non-neoformans Cryptococcus species, including C. laurentii and C. albidus, have historically been classified as exclusively saprophytic. However, recent studies have increasingly implicated these organisms as the causative agent of opportunistic infections in humans. Herein, the case is presented of C. laurentii meningitis in a critically ill patient receiving corticosteroids. C. laurentii has been implicated in an additional 18 cases of opportunistic infection, predominantly of the skin, bloodstream, and central nervous system...
October 2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046693/antibacterial-activity-of-essential-oil-from-lavender-lavandula-angustifolia-against-pet-turtle-borne-pathogenic-bacteria
#6
Sabrina Hossain, Honghoi Heo, B C J De Silva, S H M P Wimalasena, H N K S Pathirana, Gang-Joon Heo
Pet turtles are well-known to harbor an array of bacterial pathogens which can cause zoonotic infections in humans as well as opportunistic infections in the turtles itself. Essential oils are the natural plant extracts which have been traditionally used for disease treatment. In the present study, the essential oil of lavender (EOL) was examined for its antibacterial activity against thirty-eight strains of turtle-borne pathogenic bacteria belonging to seven species; Aeromonas hydrophila, A. caviae, A. dhakensis, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella enterica and Pseudomonas aeruginosa...
September 2017: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046460/myeloid-dendritic-cells-repress-human-cytomegalovirus-gene-expression-and-spread-by-releasing-interferon-unrelated-soluble-antiviral-factors
#7
Bahram Kasmapour, Tobias Kubsch, Ulfert Rand, Britta Eiz-Vesper, Martin Messerle, Florian W R Vondran, Bettina Wiegmann, Axel Haverich, Luka Cicin-Sain
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a beta-herpesvirus that latently infects most adult humans worldwide and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. Latent human CMV (HCMV) is believed to reside in precursors of myeloid-lineage, leukocytes and monocytes, which give raise to macrophages and dendritic cells. We report here that human monocyte derived DCs (mo-DC) suppress HCMV infection in coculture with infected fibroblasts target cells in an effector-to-target-ratio dependent manner. Intriguingly, optimal activation of mo-DC was achieved in coculture conditions, not by their direct infection with HCMV, implying that mo-DC may recognize unique molecular patterns on, or within, infected fibroblasts...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045498/novel-drug-targets-in-cell-wall-biosynthesis-exploited-by-gene-disruption-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#8
Ayssar A Elamin, Susanne Steinicke, Wulf Oehlmann, Yvonne Braun, Hanaa Wanas, Eduard A Shuralev, Carmen Huck, Marko Maringer, Manfred Rohde, Mahavir Singh
For clinicians, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a nightmare pathogen that is one of the top three causes of opportunistic human infections. Therapy of P. aeruginosa infections is complicated due to its natural high intrinsic resistance to antibiotics. Active efflux and decreased uptake of drugs due to cell wall/membrane permeability appear to be important issues in the acquired antibiotic tolerance mechanisms. Bacterial cell wall biosynthesis enzymes have been shown to be essential for pathogenicity of Gram-negative bacteria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040079/identification-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-isolated-from-hospital-water-by-sequence-analysis-of-the-hsp65-and-16s-rrna-genes
#9
Mehdi Roshdi Maleki, Hossein Samadi Kafil, Naser Harzandi, Seyyed Reza Moaddab
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have emerged as an important cause of opportunistic nosocomial infections. NTM has frequently been isolated from hospital water distribution systems. The aim of this study was to survey the risk of NTM infections and determine the prevalence of NTM species in the hospital water distribution systems in Tabriz, Iran. One hundred and twenty samples of water from different sources of Tabriz hospitals were collected. The samples were filtered through 0.45-µm pore size membranes and decontaminated with 0...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037296/tuberculosis-in-recipients-of-solid-organ-transplants-during-1995-2015-in-cali-colombia
#10
J F García-Goez, G A Munera, V Rojas, R Pacheco, J A Caylá, J M Miro
SETTING: Tuberculosis (TB) in solid-organ transplants (SOTs) is an important opportunistic infection associated with mortality and graft loss. SOT recipients carry a higher risk of contracting active TB than the general population. Clinical and radiographic presentations are non-specific, and sputum smear and culture have low yields. TB patients with SOTs require standard anti-tuberculosis treatment. However, rifampicin (RMP) use is associated with a 30% rate of acute graft rejection (AGR) and a 20% rate of transplant loss...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037294/diagnostic-yield-of-active-case-finding-for-tuberculosis-and-hiv-at-the-household-level-in-slums-in-haiti
#11
V R Rivera, M-A Jean-Juste, S C Gluck, H T Reeder, J Sainristil, P Julma, M Peck, P Joseph, O Ocheretina, C Perodin, R Secours, M Duran-Mendicuti, L Hashiguchi, P Y Cremieux, S P Koenig, J W Pape
SETTING: Haiti has the highest burden of tuberculosis (TB) in the Americas, with an estimated prevalence of 254 per 100 000 population. The Haitian Group for the Study of Kaposi's Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections (Groupe Haïtien d'Etude du Sarcome de Kaposi et des Infections Opportunistes, GHESKIO) conducted active case finding (ACF) for TB at the household level in nine slums in Port-au-Prince. OBJECTIVE: We report on the prevalence of undiagnosed TB detected through GHESKIO's ACF campaign...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037257/ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-insertion-for-hydrocephalus-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-protocol
#12
James J M Loan, Ncedile Mankahla, Graeme Meintjes, A Graham Fieggen
BACKGROUND: Hydrocephalus is a recognised complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related opportunistic infections. Symptomatic raised cerebrospinal fluid pressure can be treated with ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion (VPS). In HIV-infected patients however, there is a concern that VPS might be associated with unacceptably high rates of mortality. We aim to systematically review and appraise published literature to determine reported outcomes and identify predictors of outcome following VPS in relevant subgroups of HIV-infected adults...
October 16, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036669/comparative-genome-and-transcriptome-analyses-reveal-adaptations-to-opportunistic-infections-in-woody-plant-degrading-pathogens-of-botryosphaeriaceae
#13
Ji Ye Yan, Wen Sheng Zhao, Zhen Chen, Qi Kai Xing, Wei Zhang, K W Thilini Chethana, Min Feng Xue, Jian Ping Xu, Alan J L Phillips, Yong Wang, Jian Hua Liu, Mei Liu, Ying Zhou, Ruvishika S Jayawardena, Ishara S Manawasinghe, Jin Bao Huang, Guang Hang Qiao, Chun Yuan Fu, Fei Fei Guo, Asha J Dissanayake, You Liang Peng, Kevin D Hyde, Xing Hong Li
Botryosphaeriaceae are an important fungal family that cause woody plant diseases worldwide. Recent studies have established a correlation between environmental factors and disease expression; however, less is known about factors that trigger these diseases. The current study reports on the 43.3 Mb de novo genome of Lasiodiplodia theobromae and five other genomes of Botryosphaeriaceae pathogens. Botryosphaeriaceous genomes showed an expansion of gene families associated with cell wall degradation, nutrient uptake, secondary metabolism and membrane transport, which contribute to adaptations for wood degradation...
October 3, 2017: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034110/toll-like-receptor-4-dependent-inflammatory-responses-following-intestinal-colonization-of-secondary-abiotic-il10-deficient-mice-with-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#14
Anne Grunau, Ulrike Escher, Stefan Bereswill, Markus M Heimesaat
The rising incidences of infections with multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) have gained increasing attention in medicine, but also in the general public and global health politics. The mechanisms underlying opportunistic pathogen-host interactions are unclear, however. To address this, we challenged secondary abiotic IL10(-/-) mice deficient for Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4(-/-) × IL10(-/-)), the main receptor of the Gram-negative cell wall constituent lipopolysaccharide, with a clinical MDR PA isolate...
September 2017: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033110/investigating-of-four-main-carbapenem-resistance-mechanisms-in-high-level-carbapenem-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-from-burn-patients
#15
Soodabeh Rostami, Ahmad Farajzadeh Sheikh, Saeed Shoja, Abbas Farahani, Mohammad Amin Tabatabaiefar, Abbas Jolodar, Raheleh Sheikhi
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen involved in many infections. Carbapenem-resistant P.aeruginosa has emerged as an important cause of infection in different hospitals worldwide. We aimed to determine frequencies of the four main resistance mechanisms [metallo-beta lactamase (MBL) production (blaIMP, blaVIM, blaSPM and blaNDM), overproduction of the MexAB-OprM and MexXY efflux pumps, overproduction of chromosome-encoded AmpC β-lactamase, and reduced OprD expression] in high-level carbapenem-resistant P...
October 9, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032119/a-systematic-review-of-safety-and-efficacy-of-systemic-corticosteroids-in-atopic-dermatitis
#16
Sherry Yu, Aaron M Drucker, Mark Lebwohl, Jonathan I Silverberg
BACKGROUND: Systemic corticosteroids are often used to treat atopic dermatitis (AD). However, few studies assessed the safety and efficacy of systemic corticosteroids in AD. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the literature on efficacy and safety of systemic corticosteroid use (oral, intramuscular, intravenous) in AD. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were searched. We included systematic reviews, guidelines and treatment reviews of systemic corticosteroid use among patients of all ages with a diagnosis of AD (52 reviews and 12 studies)...
October 12, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031876/short-communication-association-between-udder-health-status-and-blood-serum-proteins-in-dairy-cows
#17
T Bobbo, P L Ruegg, E Fiore, M Gianesella, M Morgante, D Pasotto, L Gallo, G Bittante, A Cecchinato
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between udder health (UH) status and blood serum proteins (i.e., total protein, albumin, globulin, and albumin-to-globulin ratio) in dairy cows. Blood and milk samples were collected from 1,508 cows of 6 different breeds (Holstein Friesian, Brown Swiss, Jersey, Simmental, Rendena, and Alpine Grey) that were housed in 41 multibreed herds. Bacteriological analysis was performed on milk samples with somatic cell count (SCC) >100,000 cells/mL and bacteria identification was confirmed by multiplex-PCR assays...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029270/does-active-oral-sex-contribute-to-female-infertility
#18
Patrik M Bavoil, Patricia X Marques, Rebecca Brotman, Jacques Ravel
Based on recent, historical, and circumstantial evidence, we present a multifactorial hypothesis that has potential direct implications on the epidemiology and management of chlamydial infection and disease in humans. We propose that (1) like its veterinary relatives, the oculogenital pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis evolved as a commensal organism of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract primarily transmissible via the fecal-oral route; (2) in the modern era, C. trachomatis causes "opportunistic" infection at non-GI sites under conditions driven by improved sanitation/hygiene and reduced fecal-oral transmission; and (3) the rise in the practice of oral sex is contributing to the increased prevalence of C...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029010/call-for-action-invasive-fungal-infections-associated-with-ibrutinib-and-other-small-molecule-kinase-inhibitors-targeting-immune-signaling-pathways
#19
Georgios Chamilos, Michail S Lionakis, Dimitrios P Kontoyiannis
Opportunistic infections caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii, Cryptococcus neoformans, and ubiquitous airborne filamentous fungi have been recently reported in patients with hematological cancers historically considered at low risk for invasive fungal infections (IFIs), after receipt of the Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor ibrutinib. The spectrum and severity of IFIs often observed in these patients implies the presence of a complex immunodeficiency that may not be solely attributed to mere inhibition of Bruton tyrosine kinase...
September 27, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027384/survey-for-correlation-between-biofilm-formation-and-virulence-determinants-in-a-collection-of-pathogenic-and-fecal-enterococcus-faecalis-isolates
#20
Fereshteh Saffari, Mohammad Sadegh Dalfardi, Shahla Mansouri, Roya Ahmadrajabi
BACKGROUND: Enterococcus faecalis is an opportunistic pathogen that causes most of the enterococcal infections. Among the different factors implicated in the pathogenesis of these organisms, biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance are the most important. The ability for biofilm formation has been attributed to the presence of some virulence genes. However, no definite correlation has been found. This study aimed to detect biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance patterns in E. faecalis isolates collected from clinical and fecal samples, and to investigate possible correlation between some virulence genes (esp, cyl, gelE) and biofilm formation...
September 2017: Infection & Chemotherapy
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