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Opportunistic infection

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230423/immune-dysfunction-in-hiv-a-possible-role-for-pro-and-anti-inflammatory-cytokines-in-hiv-staging
#1
Iorhen Ephraim Akase, Bolanle O P Musa, Reginald Onyedumarakwe Obiako, Abdurrahman Ahmad Elfulatiy, Abdullahi Asara Mohammed
HIV infection is a chronic infection that almost inevitably progresses to AIDS. The infection is characterized by the deterioration in the immune function leading to opportunistic infections and malignancies. Additionally, there is an associated immune dysfunction characterized by a persistent inflammatory state and unhealthy elaboration of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. The CD4+ T cell count has been used as a surrogate for the level of immune dysfunction that exists in patients with HIV infection...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229019/clostridium-difficile-epidemiology-pathogenicity-and-an-update-on-the-limitations-of-and-challenges-in-its-diagnosis
#2
Abdullah A Alyousef
The bacterium originally named Bacillus difficilis was later renamed Clostridium difficile because of the difficulty associated with its isolation in the laboratory. C. difficile causes human-associated diarrhea, which is now known as C. difficile infection (CDI), a major cause of nosocomial infection mainly occurring in developed countries. Changes in antibiotic patterns in its strains produce toxins that are responsible for the high mortality rates associated with CDI; therefore, the epidemiology and severity of CDI have recently changed...
December 12, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228377/genotyping-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-in-colonized-patients-with-various-pulmonary-diseases
#3
Magdalena Sokulska, Marta Kicia, Maria Wesolowska, Pawel Piesiak, Aneta Kowal, Maria Luísa Lobo, Zaneta Kopacz, Andrzej B Hendrich, Olga Matos
Pneumocystis jirovecii is an opportunistic fungus causing Pneumocystis pneumonia primarily in immunosuppressed patients. However, immunocompetent individuals may become colonized and, as asymptomatic carriers, serve as reservoirs of the pathogen. Moreover, these asymptomatic carriers are at higher risk of developing pneumonia if favorable conditions occur. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of P. jirovecii in patients with various pulmonary diseases and to characterize the genetic diversity of organisms circulating in the studied population...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227741/new-subclass-b1-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-gene-from-a-clinical-pathogenic-myroides-odoratus-strain
#4
Su Xu, Yijian Chen, Zhuyingjie Fu, Ying Li, Guixiu Shi, Xiaogang Xu, Yang Liu, Minggui Wang
Myroides odoratus is a low-virulence opportunistic human pathogen. Infections caused by M. odoratus are not common, but reports are increasing in recent years. The biggest challenge for treatment is its resistance to most antibiotics. In 2015, we isolated a pathogenic multidrug-resistant strain of M. odoratus from a urinary tract infection (UTI) patient's urine sample. To report the experience in managing M. odoratus-related UTI and investigate the genetic mechanism of this carbapenem-resistant strain, we conducted a series of microbiological and molecular studies...
December 11, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226632/novel-bovine-associated-pvapn-plasmid-type-in-rhodococcus-equi-identified-from-lymph-nodes-of-slaughtered-cattle-and-lungs-of-people-living-with-hiv-aids
#5
M G Ribeiro, G H B Lara, P da Silva, M M J Franco, A L de Mattos-Guaraldi, A P C de Vargas, R I Sakate, F R Pavan, B S Colhado, F V R Portilho, R G Motta, T Kakuda, S Takai
Rhodococcus equi is a well-recognized Gram-positive intracellular facultative bacterium that is opportunistic in nature, which causes pyogranulomatous infections in humans and multiple host animals. The pathogenicity of the microorganism has been attributed to the presence of plasmid-encoded virulence-associated proteins (Vap). To date, three host-associated virulence plasmid types of R. equi have been identified as follows: the circular pVAPA and pVAPB, related, respectively, to equine and porcine isolates, and a recently described linear pVAPN plasmid associated with bovine strains, although these three types are found in human isolates...
December 10, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226570/campath-calcineurin-inhibitor-reduction-and-chronic-allograft-nephropathy-the-3c-study-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#6
Richard Haynes, Lisa Blackwell, Natalie Staplin, William G Herrington, Jonathan Emberson, Parminder K Judge, Benjamin C Storey, Martin J Landray, Paul N Harden, Colin Baigent, Peter Friend
Calcineurin inhibitors (CNI e.g. tacrolimus) reduce short-term kidney transplant failure, but chronic nephrotoxicity may contribute to late transplant loss. Elective conversion to inhibitors of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway (mTOR e.g. sirolimus) might avoid long-term CNI renal damage and improve outcomes. The 3C Study was a pragmatic randomized controlled trial comprising sequential randomizations between alemtuzumab and basiliximab induction therapy (at the time of surgery) and between tacrolimus and sirolimus maintenance therapy at 6-months post-transplant...
December 11, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223098/trisubstituted-barbiturates-and-thiobarbiturates-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-as-xanthine-oxidase-inhibitors-antioxidants-antibacterial-and-anti-proliferative-agents
#7
Joana Figueiredo, João L Serrano, Eunice Cavalheiro, Leena Keurulainen, Jari Yli-Kauhaluoma, Vânia M Moreira, Susana Ferreira, Fernanda C Domingues, Samuel Silvestre, Paulo Almeida
Barbituric and thiobarbituric acid derivatives have become progressively attractive to medicinal chemists due to their wide range of biological activities. Herein, different series of 1,3,5-trisubstituted barbiturates and thiobarbiturates were prepared in moderate to excellent yields and their activity as xanthine oxidase inhibitors, antioxidants, antibacterial agents and as anti-proliferative compounds was evaluated in vitro. Interesting bioactive barbiturates were found namely, 1,3-dimethyl-5-[1-(2-phenylhydrazinyl)ethylidene]pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione (6c) and 1,3-dimethyl-5-[1-[2-(4-nitrophenyl)hydrazinyl]ethylidene]pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione (6e), which showed concomitant xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect (IC50 values of 24...
November 27, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221859/photodynamic-antimicrobial-chemotherapy-pact-using-toluidine-blue-o-inhibits-the-viability-of-biofilm-produced-by-candida-albicans-at-different-stages-of-development
#8
Ana Paula Pinto, Isabela Bueno Rosseti, Moisés Lopes Carvalho, Bruna Graziele Marques da Silva, Carlos Alberto-Silva, Maricilia Silva Costa
BACKGROUND: Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungus producing both superficial and systemic infections, especially in immunocompromised individuals. It has been demonstrated that C. albicans ability to form biofilms is a crucial process for colonization and virulence. Furthermore, a correlation between the development of drug resistance and biofilm maturation at Candida biofilms has been shown. Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (PACT) is a potential antimicrobial therapy that combines visible light and a non-toxic dye, known as a photosensitizer, producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) that can kill the treated cells...
December 5, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220387/psra-controls-the-synthesis-of-the-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-quinolone-signal-via-repression-of-the-fade-homolog-pa0506
#9
Greg Wells, Samantha Palethorpe, Everett C Pesci
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous, Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that can cause disease in various sites within the human body. This bacterium is a major source of nosocomial infections that are often difficult to treat due to high intrinsic antibiotic resistance and coordinated virulence factor production. P. aeruginosa utilizes three cell-to-cell signaling systems to regulate numerous genes in response to cell density. One of these systems utilizes the small molecule 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone (Pseudomonas quinolone signal [PQS]) as a signal that acts as a co-inducer for the transcriptional regulator PqsR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218257/pulmonary-tuberculosis-versus-recurrent-chemotherapy-induced-pneumonitis-a-clinical-dilemma
#10
Gulrayz Ahmed, Muhammad W Saif
Chemotherapy-induced lung toxicity can affect pulmonary parenchyma, pleura, airways, pulmonary vascular system, mediastinum or the neuromuscular system that is responsible for respiration. Chemotherapy-induced pulmonary toxicity is a diagnosis of exclusion. When the patients with malignancies develop pulmonary toxicity such as pneumonitis and distinguishing it from alternative diseases such as infectious, thrombotic, cardiac, malignant or exacerbation of chronic lung conditions can be difficult. Moreover, such patients are often immunosuppressed, physically stressed from the underlying disease and the cancer treatment and hence, more susceptible to usual and unusual or opportunistic infections...
October 4, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218051/sphingosine-1-phosphate-and-c-c-chemokine-receptor-2-dependent-activation-of-cd4-plasmacytoid-dendritic-cells-in-the-bone-marrow-contributes-to-signs-of-sepsis-induced-immunosuppression
#11
Anna Smirnov, Stephanie Pohlmann, Melanie Nehring, Shafaqat Ali, Ritu Mann-Nüttel, Stefanie Scheu, Anne-Charlotte Antoni, Wiebke Hansen, Manuela Büettner, Miriam J Gardiasch, Astrid M Westendorf, Florian Wirsdörfer, Eva Pastille, Marcel Dudda, Stefanie B Flohé
Sepsis is the dysregulated response of the host to systemic, mostly bacterial infection, and is associated with an enhanced susceptibility to life-threatening opportunistic infections. During polymicrobial sepsis, dendritic cells (DCs) secrete enhanced levels of interleukin (IL) 10 due to an altered differentiation in the bone marrow and contribute to the development of immunosuppression. We investigated the origin of the altered DC differentiation using murine cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a model for human polymicrobial sepsis...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217333/inside-job-staphylococcus-aureus-host-pathogen-interactions
#12
REVIEW
Jessica Horn, Kathrin Stelzner, Thomas Rudel, Martin Fraunholz
Staphylococcus aureus is a notorious opportunistic pathogen causing a plethora of diseases. Recent research established that once phagocytosed by neutrophils and macrophages, a certain percentage of S. aureus is able to survive within these phagocytes which thereby even may contribute to dissemination of the pathogen. S. aureus further induces its uptake by otherwise non-phagocytic cells and the ensuing intracellular cytotoxicity is suggested to lead to tissue destruction, whereas bacterial persistence within cells is thought to lead to immune evasion and chronicity of infections...
November 26, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217154/production-of-a-chimeric-protein-and-its-potential-application-in-sero-diagnosis-of-mycoplasma-hominis-infection
#13
Saman Saadat, Mohammad M Sajadi, Mohammad Yousef Alikhani, Zahra Rikhtegaran Tehrani, Rasoul Yousefi Mashouf
INTRODUCTION: Mycoplasma hominis is an opportunistic pathogen of the human genital tract. Detection of antibodies against this organism in human serum or plasma is theoretically unreliable because of high variation in bacterial surface antigens. In this study, we applied the bioinformatics tools to design a chimeric protein constructed of specific, conserved and predicted immuno-dominant epitopes from two different membrane proteins, P120 and P80. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Linear B-cell epitopes of P120 and P80 were predicted and evaluated by bioinformatics tools and the designed chimeric protein was expressed in Escherichia coli...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217144/histatin-5-induces-the-reversal-of-pdr5p-mediated-fluconazole-resistance-in-saccharomyces%C3%A2-cerevisae
#14
J A da Rocha Curvelo, L F Reis de Sá, D C Clemente de Moraes, R M Soares, A Ferreira-Pereira
BACKGROUND: Candidiasis is a major opportunistic fungal infection in humans. The low number of antifungal drugs available to treat Candida infections and the increasing incidence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains point to an urgent need of identifying new therapeutic options. The role of salivary components can provide insights for the development of new methodologies of control. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of histatin-5, a constitutive immunological peptide present in saliva, in reversing fungal MDR phenotype, using a resistant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain as model of study...
December 4, 2017: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216562/substituted-carbamothioic-amine-1-carbothioic-thioanhydrides-as-novel-trichomonicidal-fungicides-design-synthesis-and-biology
#15
Dhanaraju Mandalapu, Bhavana Kushwaha, Sonal Gupta, Shagun Krishna, Nidhi Srivastava, Mahendra Shukla, Pratiksha Singh, Bhavana S Chauhan, Ravi Goyani, Jagdamba P Maikhuri, Koneni V Sashidhara, Brijesh Kumar, Renu Tripathi, Praveen K Shukla, Mohammad I Siddiqi, Jawahar Lal, Gopal Gupta, Vishnu L Sharma
Sexually transmitted diseases like trichomoniasis along with opportunistic fungal infections like candidiasis are major global health burden in female reproductive health. In this context a novel non-nitroimidazole class of substituted carbamothioic amine-1-carbothioic thioanhydride series was designed, synthesized, evaluated for trichomonacidal and fungicidal activities, and was found to be more active than the standard drug Metronidazole (MTZ). Compounds were trichomonicidal in the MIC ranges of 4.77-294...
November 23, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215356/the-presence-of-biofilm-forming-microorganisms-on-hydrotherapy-equipment-and-facilities
#16
Natalia Jarząb, Maciej Walczak
Hydrotherapy equipment provides a perfect environment for the formation and growth of microbial biofilms. Biofilms may reduce the microbiological cleanliness of hydrotherapy equipment and harbour opportunistic pathogens and pathogenic bacteria. The aims of this study were to investigate the ability of microorganisms that colonize hydrotherapy equipment to form biofilms, and to assess the influence of temperature and nutrients on the rate of biofilm formation. Surface swab samples were collected from the whirlpool baths, inhalation equipment and submerged surfaces of a brine pool at the spa center in Ciechocinek, Poland...
October 2017: Journal of Water and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214004/prevalence-of-cryptococcal-antigen-positivity-among-hiv-infected-patient-with-cd4-cell-count-less-than-100-of-imam-khomeini-hospital-tehran-iran
#17
Mahboobeh Hajiabdolbaghi, Saeed Kalantari, Mahin Jamshidi-Makiani, Esfandiar Shojaei, Ladan Abbasian, Mehrnaz Rasoulinezhad, Katayoun Tayeri
Background and Objectives: Cryptococcal meningitis is one of the main opportunistic infections associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Despite the present and increasingly availability of specific treatment for cryptococcosis, the mortality rate of this infection is still high, particularly in patients with advanced immunsupression and advanced cryptococcal diseases. Materials and Methods: This Prospective Cohort study was conducted at Imam Khomeini hospital in Tehran, Iran...
April 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213074/galectin-3-impacts-cryptococcus-neoformans-infection-through-direct-antifungal-effects
#18
Fausto Almeida, Julie M Wolf, Thiago Aparecido da Silva, Carlos M DeLeon-Rodriguez, Caroline Patini Rezende, André Moreira Pessoni, Fabrício Freitas Fernandes, Rafael Silva-Rocha, Roberto Martinez, Marcio L Rodrigues, Maria Cristina Roque-Barreira, Arturo Casadevall
Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated fungal pathogen that causes cryptococcosis, which is a major opportunistic infection in immunosuppressed individuals. Mammalian β-galactoside-binding protein Galectin-3 (Gal-3) modulates the host innate and adaptive immunity, and plays significant roles during microbial infections including some fungal diseases. Here we show that this protein plays a role also in C. neoformans infection. We find augmented Gal-3 serum levels in human and experimental infections, as well as in spleen, lung, and brain tissues of infected mice...
December 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211921/infections-and-the-relationship-to-treatment-in-neuromuscular-autoimmunity
#19
Devin E Prior, Emily Nurre, Stephanie L Roller, David Kline, Ramit Panara, Amro M Stino, John A Davis, Miriam L Freimer, W David Arnold
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to identify infections in patients with myasthenia gravis, dermatomyositis and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy and investigate the relationship between infection and immunomodulation. METHODS: A retrospective chart review examined 631 patients with myasthenia gravis (n=358), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (n=124), and dermatomyositis (n=149) patients over a 10 year time period. RESULTS: Infection rates were similar at approximately 19% in all three diseases...
December 6, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211183/survival-of-patients-with-aids-and-co-infection-with-the-tuberculosis-bacillus-in-the-south-and-southeast-regions-of-brazil
#20
Márcio Cristiano de Melo, Maria Rita Donalisio, Ricardo Carlos Cordeiro
The study investigates the survival of patients with co-infection AIDS-TB through a retrospective study of a cohort of individuals aged 13 or more and the diagnosis of AIDS reported in the years 1998-99 and following 10 years. Of the 2,091 AIDS cases, 517 (24.7%) had positive diagnosis for tuberculosis, and 379 (73.3%) were male. The risk among co-infected patients was 1,65 times the not co-infected. Have been compared the exposed and non-exposed through the Kaplan-Meier and Cox method. The variables associated with longer survival were: female gender (HR = 0...
November 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
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