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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684343/crystal-structure-of-a-glutamate-1-semialdehyde-aminomutase-from-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1
#1
Shanshan Li, Xiaorui Lou, Yueyang Xu, Xiaozhen Teng, Shiyou Che, Ruihua Liu, Mark Bartlam
The C5 pathway in bacteria is responsible for the synthesis of 5-aminolevulinic acid, which forms the core skeleton of cofactors required for metabolism. One of the key actors in this pathway is a pyridoxamine-5'-phosphate (PMP)/pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzyme called glutamate-1-semialdehyde aminomutase (GSAM). In this study, we crystallized the expression product of the uncharacterized pa4088 gene from the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The resulting high-resolution structure confirms it to be a member of the GSAM family...
April 20, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682300/latent-hiv-dynamics-and-implications-for-sustained-viral-suppression-in-the-absence-of-antiretroviral-therapy
#2
EDITORIAL
John M Murray
Objectives: The interaction between HIV and the immune system gives rise to a complex dynamical system. We therefore investigate whether delayed viral rebound after antiretroviral therapy (ART) interruption (ATI) may be due to an individual's viral-immune state being in a region of relative stability, and if so, how this can be extended. Methods: Using a mathematical model duplicating plasma viral levels, HIV DNA and immune homeostatic dynamics for individuals on ART commenced at either primary (PHI) or chronic (CHI) HIV infection, we investigate whether latent reservoir reductions and perturbations in other infected and uninfected memory CD4+ T cell subsets can delay viral rebound...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679651/use-of-pcr-denaturing-gradient-gel-electrophoresis-for-the-discrimination-of-candida-species-isolated-from-natural-habitats
#3
Abd El-Latif Hesham, Vijai Kumar Gupta, Bhim Pratap Singh
Candida species are opportunistic microbes that cause chronic infections for a human being. Therefore, the exact identification of Candida species is extremely important for improved therapeutic strategy against these species. Identification based on conventional methods cannot differentiate between some of yeasts species, hence PCR based molecular techniques and sequencing could be an alternative tool for the yeasts identification. A quick molecular method based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) was applied for distinguishing strains belonging to the Candida species...
April 18, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678920/imidacloprid-decreases-honey-bee-survival-but-does-not-affect-the-gut-microbiome
#4
Kasie Raymann, Erick V S Motta, Catherine Girard, Ian M Riddington, Jordan A Dinser, Nancy A Moran
Accumulating evidence suggests that pesticides have played a role in the increased rate of honeybee colony loss. One of the most commonly used pesticides in the US is the neonicotinoid imidacloprid. Although the primary mode of action of imidacloprid is the insect nervous system, it has also been shown to cause changes insects' digestive physiology, and alter the microbiota of Drosophila melanogaster larvae. The honey bee gut microbiome plays a major role in bee health. Although many studies have shown that imidacloprid affects honey bee behavior, its impact on the microbiome has not been fully elucidated...
April 20, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678916/identification-of-laoabcr-as-a-novel-system-for-the-oxidation-of-long-chain-alcohols-derived-from-sds-and-alkane-degradation-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#5
Gianna Panasia, Bodo Philipp
The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 is able to use a variety of organic pollutants as growth substrates including the anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and long-chain alkanes. While the enzymes initiating SDS and alkane degradation are well known, the following enzymatic steps for degradation of the derived primary long-chain alcohols have not been identified yet. By evaluating genes specifically induced during growth with SDS, a gene cluster encoding a putative alcohol dehydrogenase (PA0364/LaoA), a probable inner membrane protein (PA0365/LaoB) and a presumable aldehyde dehydrogenase (PA0366/LaoC) were identified and designated as Lao (<u>l</u>ong-chain-<u>a</u>lcohol/<u>a</u>ldehyde-<u>o</u>xidation) system...
April 20, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678690/a-strain-cow-and-herd-specific-bio-economic-simulation-model-of-intramammary-infections-in-dairy-cattle-herds
#6
Maya Gussmann, Carsten Kirkeby, Kaare Græsbøll, Michael Farre, Tariq Halasa
Intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy cattle lead to economic losses for farmers, both through reduced milk production and disease control measures. We present the first strain-, cow- and herd-specific bio-economic simulation model of intramammary infections in a dairy cattle herd. The model can be used to investigate the cost-effectiveness of different prevention and control strategies against IMI. The objective of this study was to describe a transmission framework, which simulates spread of IMI causing pathogens through different transmission modes...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677122/applications-of-the-fiv-model-to-study-hiv-pathogenesis
#7
REVIEW
Craig Miller, Zaid Abdo, Aaron Ericsson, John Elder, Sue VandeWoude
Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a naturally-occurring retrovirus that infects domestic and non-domestic feline species, producing progressive immune depletion that results in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Much has been learned about FIV since it was first described in 1987, particularly in regard to its application as a model to study the closely related lentivirus, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In particular, FIV and HIV share remarkable structure and sequence organization, utilize parallel modes of receptor-mediated entry, and result in a similar spectrum of immunodeficiency-related diseases due to analogous modes of immune dysfunction...
April 20, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675012/histidine-metabolism-and-igpd-play-a-key-role-in-cefquinome-inhibiting-biofilm-formation-of-staphylococcus-xylosus
#8
Yong-Hui Zhou, Chang-Geng Xu, Yan-Bei Yang, Xiao-Xu Xing, Xin Liu, Qian-Wei Qu, Wen-Ya Ding, God'spower Bello-Onaghise, Yan-Hua Li
Staphylococcus xylosus ( S. xylosus ) is an AT-rich and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS). It is normally regarded as non-pathogenic, however, recent studies have demonstrated that it is related to human opportunistic infections and bovine mastitis. In addition, S. xylosus strains have the ability to form biofilm. Biofilms are also involved in chronic infections and antibiotic resistance, there are only a few reports about cefquinome inhibiting S. xylosus biofilm formation and the protein targets of cefquinome...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674548/draft-genome-sequence-of-mycobacterium-porcinum-csurp1564
#9
A Bouam, A Levasseur, M Drancourt
Mycobacterium porcinum is a rapidly growing environmental mycobacterium responsible for opportunistic infections. The 7,025,616-bp draft genome of M. porcinum strain CSURP1564 exhibits a 66.71% G+C content, 6,687 protein-coding genes, and 65 predicted RNA genes. In silico DNA-DNA hybridization confirms its assignment to the Mycobacterium fortuitum complex.
April 19, 2018: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673170/cysteine-proteinase-c1a-paralog-profiles-correspond-with-phylogenetic-lineages-of-pathogenic-piroplasmids
#10
Mariano E Ascencio, Monica Florin-Christensen, Choukri B Mamoun, William Weir, Brian Shiels, Leonhard Schnittger
Piroplasmid parasites comprising of Babesia , Theileria , and Cytauxzoon are transmitted by ticks to farm and pet animals and have a significant impact on livestock industries and animal health in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. In addition, diverse Babesia spp. infect humans as opportunistic hosts. Molecular phylogeny has demonstrated at least six piroplasmid lineages exemplified by B. microti , B. duncani , C. felis , T. equi , Theileria sensu stricto ( T. annulata , T. parva , and T. orientalis ) and Babesia sensu stricto ( B...
April 17, 2018: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670632/quantitative-simulations-predict-treatment-strategies-against-fungal-infections-in-virtual-neutropenic-patients
#11
Sandra Timme, Teresa Lehnert, Maria T E Prauße, Kerstin Hünniger, Ines Leonhardt, Oliver Kurzai, Marc Thilo Figge
The condition of neutropenia, i.e., a reduced absolute neutrophil count in blood, constitutes a major risk factor for severe infections in the affected patients. Candida albicans and Candida glabrata are opportunistic pathogens and the most prevalent fungal species in the human microbiota. In immunocompromised patients, they can become pathogenic and cause infections with high mortality rates. In this study, we use a previously established approach that combines experiments and computational models to investigate the innate immune response during blood stream infections with the two fungal pathogens C...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669887/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-gsha-mutant-is-defective-in-biofilm-formation-swarming-and-pyocyanin-production
#12
Tricia A Van Laar, Saika Esani, Tyler J Birges, Bethany Hazen, Jason M Thomas, Mamta Rawat
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium that can cause severe opportunistic infections. The principal redox buffer employed by this organism is glutathione (GSH). To assess the role of GSH in the virulence of P. aeruginosa , a number of analyses were performed using a mutant strain deficient in gshA , which does not produce GSH. The mutant strain exhibited a growth delay in minimal medium compared to the wild-type strain. Furthermore, the gshA mutant was defective in biofilm and persister cell formation and in swimming and swarming motility and produced reduced levels of pyocyanin, a key virulence factor...
April 25, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669423/using-a-retention-in-care-protocol-to-promote-positive-health-and-systems-related-outcomes
#13
Alfred A Larbi, Freya Spielberg, Nnemdi Kamanu Elias, Erin Athey, Ngozi Ogbuawa, Nancy Murphy
People living with HIV can experience the full benefits of retention when they are continuously engaged in care. Continuous engagement in care promotes improved adherence to ART and positive health outcomes. An infectious disease clinic has implemented a protocol to primarily improve patient retention. The retrospective, facility-based, costing study took place in an infectious disease clinic in Washington DC. Retention was defined in two ways and over a 12-month period. Micro-costing direct measurement methods were used to collect unit costs in time series...
April 18, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669313/role-of-fna-and-special-stains-in-rapid-cytopathological-diagnosis-of-pulmonary-nocardiosis
#14
Ridhi Sood, Ruchita Tyagi, Pavneet Kaur Selhi, Gursheen Kaur, Harpreet Kaur, Akashdeep Singh
BACKGROUND: Nocardia, a gram-positive aerobic bacillus of the Actinomycetales family, is a significant opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. Clinical and radiological features of pulmonary nocardiosis are nonspecific and can be misdiagnosed as tuberculosis, pneumocystis, staphylococcal or fungal infections, or as malignancy. Aspiration cytology with special stains is a quick and effective approach for accurate diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present 7 cases of pulmonary nocardiosis, admitted to the pathology department in a tertiary-care hospital in Punjab...
April 18, 2018: Acta Cytologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668945/the-activity-of-bacterial-peptidylarginine-deiminase-is-important-during-formation-of-dual-species-biofilm-by-periodontal-pathogen-porphyromonas-gingivalis-and-opportunistic-fungus-candida-albicans
#15
Karkowska-Kuleta Justyna, Dominika Bartnicka, Marcin Zawrotniak, Gabriela Zielinska, Anna Kieronska, Oliwia Bochenska, Izabela Ciaston, Joanna Koziel, Jan Potempa, Zbigniew Baster, Zenon Rajfur, Maria Rapala-Kozik
Porphyromonas gingivalis, an anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium critically involved in the development of human periodontitis, belongs to the late colonizers of the oral cavity. The success of this pathogen in the host colonization and infection results from the presence of several virulence factors, including extracellular peptidylarginine deiminase (PPAD), an enzyme that converts protein arginine residues to citrullines. A common opportunistic fungal pathogen of humans, Candida albicans, is also frequently identified among microorganisms that reside at subgingival sites...
April 12, 2018: Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668825/cryptococcal-pathogenic-mechanisms-a-dangerous-trip-from-the-environment-to-the-brain
#16
Shannon K Esher, Oscar Zaragoza, James Andrew Alspaugh
Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic pathogenic yeast that causes serious infections, most commonly of the central nervous system (CNS). C. neoformans is mainly found in the environment and acquired by inhalation. It could be metaphorically imagined that cryptococcal disease is a "journey" for the microorganism that starts in the environment, where this yeast loads its suitcase with virulence traits. C. neoformans first encounters the infected mammalian host in the lungs, a site in which it must choose the right elements from its "virulence suitcase" to survive the pulmonary immune response...
2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668628/predictors-of-mortality-in-adults-on-treatment-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-associated-tuberculosis-in-botswana-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#17
Ley Muyaya Muyaya, Taryn Young, Marian Loveday
Mortality in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated tuberculosis (TB) is high, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to compare mortality and predictors of mortality in those who were antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve to those with prior ART exposure.This retrospective cohort study was conducted in Serowe/Palapye District, Botswana, a predominantly urban district with a large burden of HIV-associated TB with a high case fatality. Between January 1, 2013 and December 31, 2013, patients confirmed with HIV-associated TB were enrolled and followed up...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668130/-rhino-orbito-cerebral-mucormycosis-from-dental-origin-case-report
#18
José Humberto Bravo, Andrés Mauricio Agudelo, Armando Cortés, Lorena Matta
Rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis from dental origin is an acute infection caused by opportunistic fungi belonging to the order of Mucorales, which affects mainly diabetic and immunocompromised patients.We report the case of a 63-year old diabetic man who performed a dental extraction on himself by his own means and subsequently developed a rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis with cutaneous and palatal affection. The species isolated in the mycological culture was Rhizopus sp.
March 15, 2018: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668074/a-20-year-experience-with-nocardiosis-in-solid-organ-transplant-sot-recipients-in-the-southwestern-united-states-a-single-center-study
#19
Aneela Majeed, Norman Beatty, Ahmad Iftikhar, Adeela Mushtaq, Julia Fisher, Pryce Gaynor, Jeeyong C Kim, Jose Luis Marquez, Francisco E Mora, Anca Georgescu, Tirdad Zangeneh
BACKGROUND: Nocardiosis is a life-threatening opportunistic infection. Solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are at higher risk (incidence 0.04% to 3.5%) of developing nocardiosis. Rate of nocardiosis in the Southwestern US may be high due to environmental factors. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review study on 54 SOT patients diagnosed with Nocardia between 1997 and 2016 at our center. To explore the association of various risk factors with both the development of disseminated disease and mortality, a series of Fisher's exact tests was used...
April 18, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668027/heart-transplant-in-children-what-a-primary-care-provider-needs-to-know
#20
Swati Sehgal, Emily Shea, Lauren Kelm, Deepak Kamat
Heart transplantation is offered to children with heart failure that is not amenable to medical or surgical therapy. Indications for heart transplant include unrepairable congenital heart disease, failed palliation of congenital heart disease, and cardiomyopathies. There has been tremendous progress in this field since the first heart transplant was performed in 1967. Each year, approximately 500 pediatric heart transplants take place worldwide. Pediatric heart transplant survivors are living longer with their initial transplant...
April 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
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