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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906037/integrated-therapy-for-hiv-and-cryptococcosis
#1
REVIEW
Sirawat Srichatrapimuk, Somnuek Sungkanuparph
Cryptococcosis has been one of the most common opportunistic infections and causes of mortality among HIV-infected patients, especially in resource-limited countries. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common form of cryptococcosis. Laboratory diagnosis of cryptococcosis includes direct microscopic examination, isolation of Cryptococcus from a clinical specimen, and detection of cryptococcal antigen. Without appropriate treatment, cryptococcosis is fatal. Early diagnosis and treatment is the key to treatment success...
November 29, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906006/integrated-therapy-for-hiv-and-tuberculosis
#2
REVIEW
Weerawat Manosuthi, Surasak Wiboonchutikul, Somnuek Sungkanuparph
Tuberculosis (TB) has been the most common opportunistic infection and cause of mortality among HIV-infected patients, especially in resource-limited countries. Clinical manifestations of TB vary and depend on the degree of immunodeficiency. Sputum microscopy and culture with drug-susceptibility testing are recommended as a standard method for diagnosing active TB. TB-related mortality in HIV-infected patients is high especially during the first few months of treatment. Integrated therapy of both HIV and TB is feasible and efficient to control the diseases and yield better survival...
May 12, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905620/-the-water-supply-of-a-pediatric-hospital-as-a-possible-source-of-an-outbreak-of-diarrhea-due-to-microsporidium-spp-in-immunocompromised-patients
#3
Paulina Coria, Claudia Urízar, Andrea Alba, Isabel Noemí, Anita Pino, José Luis Cerva
INTRODUCTION: The hospital water supply is a reservoir of a variety of potentially pathogenic microorganisms that can particularly affect children and immunocompromised patients. Potentially pathogenic Microsporidium spp. have been identified in water. Microsporidiosis is an emerging parasitic and opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients. OBJECTIVE AND METHOD: to describe an outbreak of nosocomial diarrhea due to Microsporidium, species Encephalitozoon intestinalis...
August 2016: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905288/cyclospora-cayetanensis-opportunistic-protozoan-parasite-in-van-province-turkey-a-report-of-seven-cases
#4
Zeynep Taş Cengiz, Yunus Emre Beyhan, Hasan Yılmaz
The aim of this study is to report seven Cyclospora cayetanensis (C.cayetanensis) cases determined in Yuzuncu Yil University Medical Faculty Parasitology Laboratory, Van province, Turkey. In the study native-Lugol, formalin-ethyl acetate and modified acid-fast staining methods were performed to stool samples of the patients sent from outpatient clinics of the hospital. All of the patients infected with C. cayetanensis were older than 15 years. In our cases there were not a history of international travel. Only one of our seven cases was immunosuppressed...
September 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904816/an-unusual-presentation-of-nocardiosis-in-an-allogeneic-transplant-recipient
#5
Uroosa Ibrahim, Amina Saqib, Farhan Mohammad, Terenig Terjanian
Nocardiosis is a rare cause of opportunistic infection post hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) occurring in about 0.3% of patients. The risk factors include delayed immune reconstitution, prolonged neutropenia, and graft-versus-host disease. The most common site of infection is the lung, followed by the brain and the skin. Concomitant pulmonary and central nervous system (CNS) nocardiosis is an extremely rare entity as presented in our case. We present the case of a 72-year-old male at 137 days post transplant presenting with complaints of headache and slurred speech...
October 17, 2016: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904603/prevalence-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-isolated-from-environmental-samples-in-iran-a-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Azad Khaledi, Abbas Bahador, Davood Esmaeili, Alireza Tafazoli, Kiarash Ghazvini, Davood Mansury
BACKGROUND: While the most nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTMs) species are considered as opportunistic pathogens, some of them are related to several human infections. It is believed that environment is the main source for these infections. Distribution and scattering pattern of NTMs has not been well studied in Iran and a few studies about this subject have been done, so the aim of this study was to determine prevalence of NTMs in environmental samples from Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data about prevalence of NTMs in environmental samples from Iran were obtained by searching databases...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904204/a-rare-case-of-juvenile-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-with-disseminated-histoplasmosis
#7
Piyabi Sarkar, Keya Basu, Mamata Guha Mallick Sinha
Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal infection caused by dimorphic fungus, Histoplasma capsulatum. Immunocompetent individuals usually have self-limiting or localized disease whereas immunocompromised individuals develop disseminated disease. The occurrence of progressive disseminated histoplasmosis in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus is extremely rare with only one reported case in literature showing such association. Therefore, we report a case of severe opportunistic fungal infection caused by Histoplasma in a 13-year-old girl who was diagnosed with juvenile lupus erythematosus, subsequently developed septic shock and died of the disease despite of aggressive antifungal therapy...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904052/recent-advances-in-the-diagnosis-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia
#8
Yinggai Song, Yi Ren, Xiaowen Wang, Ruoyu Li
Pneumocystis jirovecii is a prototypical opportunistic pathogen, causing an asymptomatic or mild infection in normal hosts and fulminating pneumonia (Pneumocystis pneumonia, PCP) in immunocompromised hosts. PCP is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients such as AIDS patients. Microscopic detection of cysts and trophic forms of P. jirovecii in respiratory secretions is simple and useful but may underestimate the P. jirovecii infection. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nested PCR increase the sensitivity and specificity to identify PCP and provide an approach to discriminate PCP from pulmonary P...
2016: Medical Mycology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902411/non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae-biofilm-production-and-severity-in-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-in-a-tertiary-hospital-in-mexico
#9
Michel Fernando Martínez-Reséndez, Juan Manuel González-Chávez, Elvira Garza-González, Lorena Nefertiti Castro-Fuentes, Jessica Lizzeth Gutiérrez-Ferman, Gabriela Echániz-Aviles, Adrián Camacho-Ortíz, María Noemí Carnalla-Barajas, Araceli Soto-Noguerón, Héctor Jesús Maldonado-Garza, Cristina Liliana Hernández-Balboa, Jorge M Llaca-Díaz, Samantha Flores-Treviño
Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is a common opportunistic bacterial pathogen that primarily infects the respiratory mucosa. This study was conducted to assess clinical and microbiological data related to disease severity in patients with lower respiratory tract infections caused by NTHi in a tertiary care hospital in Mexico. NTHi isolates were subjected to serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility evaluation, and analyses of β-lactamase production, genetic relatedness, and biofilm formation. Clinical and demographic data were retrieved from patients' records...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902410/inhibition-of-quorum-sensing-controlled-virulence-factors-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-by-murraya-koenigii-essential-oil-a-study-in-a-caenorhabditis-elegans-infectious-model
#10
P Sankar Ganesh, Ravishankar Vittal Rai
The global emergence of antibiotic resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa poses a major threat in hospital environments as well as in the community. P. aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen and it also infects a wide range of model organisms including the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Quorum sensing (QS) mediates cell-to-cell communication in bacteria and has an important role in regulating virulence genes, antibiotic resistance and biofilm formation which are crucial for establishment of the infection...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902384/emergence-of-carp-edema-virus-cev-in-cultured-ornamental-koi-carp-cyprinus-carpio-koi-in-india
#11
T Raja Swaminathan, Raj Kumar, Arathi Dharmaratnam, Valaparambil S Basheer, Neeraj Sood, Parvatha Kumar Pradhan, N K Sanil, P Vijayagopal, Joykrushna Jena
A disease outbreak was reported in adult koi, Cyprinus carpio koi from a fish farm in Kerala, India during June 2015. The clinical signs were observed only in recently introduced adult koi, and existing population of fish did not show any clinical signs or mortality. Microscopic examination of wet mounts from the gills of affected koi revealed minor infestation of Dactylogyrus sp. in a few koi. In bacteriological studies, only opportunistic bacteria were isolated from the gills of affected fish. The histopathological examination of the affected fish revealed necrotic changes in gills and importantly, virus particles were demonstrated in cytoplasm of gill epithelial cells in transmission electron microscopy...
October 31, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902368/coagulase-negative-staphylococci-pathogenesis-occurrence-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-and-in-vitro-effects-of-antimicrobial-agents-on-biofilm-growing-bacteria
#12
Ewa Szczuka, Lucyna Jabłońska, Adam Kaznowski
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are opportunistic pathogens that particularly cause infections in patients with implanted medical devices. The present research was performed to study the virulence potential of 53 clinical isolates of Staphylococcus capitis, Staphylococcus auricularis, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus cohnii, and Staphylococcus caprae. All clinical strains were clonally unrelated. Isolates carried genes encoding resistance to β-lactam (mecA) (15%), aminoglycosides aac(6')/aph(2'') (11%), aph (3')-IIIa (15%), ant(4')-Ia (19%) and MLSB erm(A) (4%), erm(B) (13%), erm(C) (41%), msr(A) (11%) antibiotics...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900242/management-of-rhinomaxillary-mucormycosis-with-posaconazole-in-immunocompetent-patients
#13
Sachin Rai, Shikha Yadav, Dinesh Kumar, Vijay Kumar, Vidya Rattan
Mucormycosis is an opportunistic, uncommon and serious systemic fungal infection mostly presenting in immunocompromised patients. The combination of surgical debridement, parenteral therapy with Amphotericin B and management of the underlying systemic disease is the standard treatment modality for mucormycosis. The drawback of this regime is the need for long hospitalization due to the serious side effects of Amphotericin B requiring regular monitoring. Oral Posaconazole is one of the newer antifungals that have shown promising results...
November 2016: Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900022/conversion-of-aspergilloma-to-chronic-necrotizing-pulmonary-aspergillosis-following-treatment-with-sunitinib-a-case-report
#14
Yeon Wook Kim, Hyun Woo Lee, Jaeyoung Cho, Han-Sol Choi, Jungsil Lee, Sung Soo Park, Eun Young Heo, Kwang Nam Jin, Deog Kyeom Kim
Semi-invasive or invasive aspergillosis occurring following chemotherapy with sunitinib is a rare condition with unknown incidence and prognosis. Here, we report a case involving a 59-year-old male who had a history of underlying stable aspergilloma and was newly diagnosed with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Following surgical resection for renal cell carcinoma and adjuvant chemotherapy with sunitinib for 8 months, the patient presented with hemoptysis. Chest computed tomography revealed an increased soft tissue mass and air crescent sign of the underlying aspergilloma, combined with consolidation and bronchial artery hypertrophy around the lesion...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898727/biological-markers-for-pulpal-inflammation-a-systematic-review
#15
Dan-Krister Rechenberg, Johnah C Galicia, Ove A Peters
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pulpitis is mainly caused by an opportunistic infection of the pulp space with commensal oral microorganisms. Depending on the state of inflammation, different treatment regimes are currently advocated. Predictable vital pulp therapy depends on accurate determination of the pulpal status that will allow repair to occur. The role of several players of the host response in pulpitis is well documented: cytokines, proteases, inflammatory mediators, growth factors, antimicrobial peptides and others contribute to pulpal defense mechanisms; these factors may serve as biomarkers that indicate the status of the pulp...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895446/a-case-of-fatal-sepsis-due-to-multidrug-resistant-corynebacterium-striatum
#16
M Chatzopoulou, T Koufakis, I Voulgaridi, I Gabranis, M Tsiakalou
BACKGROUND: Although non-diphtheria corynebacteria have traditionally been regarded as avirulent members of human bacterial flora, their pathogenic potential is increasingly recognized in our time. Reasons for this include the prolonged survival of severely ill and immunocompromised patients, the development of more invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and the sub-optimal use of antibiotics that disrupts normal microbial balance and favors superinfections. CASE REPORT: We present a rare case of sepsis due to multidrug-resistant Corynebacterium striatum in a 76-year-old host...
January 2016: Hippokratia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894982/multiple-opportunistic-infections-in-a-woman-with-gata2-mutation
#17
Andrea Vila, Juan I Dapás, Cynthia V Rivero, Florencia Bocanegra, Roberto F Furnari, Amy P Hsu, Steven M Holland
GATA2 deficiency is a genetic disorder caused by inherited or sporadic haploinsufficient mutations in the GATA2 gene. Patients have abnormalities in hematopoiesis, lymphangiogenesis and immunity; encompassing a broad range of clinical syndromes, mainly characterized by monocytopenia, B and NK cell cytopenia, severe or recurrent infections, and a high risk of developing myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML).We report a case of an Argentinean woman, who presented with multiple opportunistic infections as her first manifestation of GATA2 deficiency...
November 25, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892873/evidence-of-disseminated-infection-by-mycobacterium-avium-subspecies-hominissuis-in-a-pet-ferret-mustela-putorius-furo
#18
Javier Bezos, Beatriz Álvarez-Carrión, Antonio Rodríguez-Bertos, Álvaro Fernández-Manzano, Lucía de Juan, Cristina Huguet, Víctor Briones, Beatriz Romero
The infection caused by the zoonotic opportunistic pathogen Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (Mah) was reported for the first time in a pet ferret. Both owners were HIV-positive. Euthanasia of the pet was recommended due to medical reasons and as a preventive action. Disseminated and open tuberculosis lesions were observed in the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems of the ferret. Ecographic and radiographic surveys showed a severe generalized lymphadenopathy, strong thickening of the gastric wall and peritoneum layer...
September 17, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892442/retrospective-study-of-hiv-infection-in-anti-retroviral-treatment-center-of-mahendranagar-nepal
#19
R H Chapagain, K Adhikari, S B Kamar, D R Singh
Background Being the most backward region, The Far Western Development Region has high illiteracy rate, low socioeconomic status and high migration rate contributing the progression of epidemiological status of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) towards generalized form. Objective To study the demographic profile of the HIV positive patients, along with their CD4 status and tuberculosis during diagnosis. Method A retrospective descriptive study carried out from May 2006 to July 2012 in 271 HIV patients registered in HIV clinic of Mahakali Zonal Hospital, Mahendranagar...
January 2016: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891482/treatment-emergent-agranulocytosis-with-skin-and-gingival-lesions-in-a-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-patient-a-case-report
#20
Ramesh Amirisetty, Varun Zade, Meenakshi Boddun, Rolly Gupta, Micky Kumari, Hema Suryawanshi
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukaemia (CLL) is a monoclonal lymphoid malignancy characterized by progressive accumulation of small, mature but functionally incompetent neoplastic lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, bone marrow and lymphoid organs. Patients present a variable course and may not require early intervention unlike other malignancies. Patients with rapidly deteriorating blood counts, and organomegaly need treatment. Alkylating agent live Bendamustine combined with Rituximab, anti-CD 20 monoclonal antibody have shown promising results in such patients...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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