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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772394/antimicrobial-resistance-and-genetic-lineages-of-faecal-enterococci-of-wild-birds-emergence-of-vana-and-vanb2-harboring-enterococcus-faecalis
#1
Houssem Ben Yahia, Sarra Chairat, Nabil Hamdi, Haythem Gharsa, Rym Ben Sallem, Sara Ceballos, Carmen Torres, Karim Ben Slama
Migrating birds have been implicated in pathogen dissemination over long-distances. The lack of data on birds' intestinal microbiota makes these animals a promising path to understand their potential role in the transmission of antibiotic resistant bacteria. This work aims to study the diversity of enterococci species and to analyze the antimicrobial resistant phenotypes/genotypes, as well as the genetic lineages of isolates obtained from faecal and pellet samples of colonial wild birds in Tunisia. Seventy-nine enterococci were recovered of 150 wild bird, after inoculation of samples in Slanetz-Bartley agar, and were identified as E...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765201/deposition-and-transport-of-linezolid-mediated-by-a-synthetic-surfactant-synsurf-%C3%A2-within-a-pressurized-metered-dose-inhaler-a-calu-3-model
#2
Lyné van Rensburg, Johann M van Zyl, Johan Smith
Background: Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated that a synthetic peptide containing lung surfactant enhances the permeability of chemical compounds through bronchial epithelium. The purpose of this study was to test two formulations of Synsurf® combined with linezolid as respirable compounds using a pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI). Methods: Aerosolization efficiency of the surfactant-drug microparticles onto Calu-3 monolayers as an air interface culture was analyzed using a Next Generation Impactor™...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753839/platelet-transfusion-refractoriness-in-single-unit-cord-blood-transplantation-for-adults-risk-factors-and-clinical-outcomes
#3
Susumu Tanoue, Takaaki Konuma, Seiko Kato, Maki Oiwa-Monna, Masamichi Isobe, Koji Jimbo, Satoshi Takahashi, Arinobu Tojo
Platelet transfusion refractoriness (PTR) is frequently observed after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). However, the incidence of and risk factors for PTR, and impact of PTR on transplant outcomes after cord blood transplantation (CBT) have not been fully investigated. We retrospectively analyzed 185 adult patients who received single-unit CBT in our institute. The mean 16-hour corrected count increment (CCI) for the 5,840 platelet transfusions was 3.68×109 /l. Among them, 3,196 transfusions (54...
May 10, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753135/daptomycin-and-vancomycin-heteroresistance-revealed-among-cc5-sccmecii-mrsa-clone-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-treatment-alternatives
#4
Jessica Baleiro Okado, Juliana Sposto Avaca-Crusca, Alexandre Lima Oliveira, Andrei Nicoli Gebieluca Dabul, Ilana Lopes Baratella da Cunha Camargo
INTRODUCTION: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a threat to clinical treatment. Besides high resistance, presence of heterogeneous vancomycin intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) and heterogeneous daptomycin non-susceptible S. aureus (hDNSSA) in the hospital environment are underestimated and associated with treatment failure. OBJECTIVES: To investigate a MRSA dissemination in a Brazilian hospital and to evaluate the efficacy of some treatment options in vitro...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751119/bacteriological-relevance-of-linezolid-versus-vancomycin-in-postoperative-empirical-treatment-of-osteoarticular-infections-a-retrospective-single-center-study
#5
E Takoudju, P Bemer, S Touchais, N Asseray, S Corvec, L Khatchatourian, N Serandour, D Boutoille
BACKGROUND: Our center replaced vancomycin by linezolid in 2015 for the postoperative empirical treatment of osteoarticular infections (OAI). OBJECTIVES: This work aims to assess the bacteriological relevance of linezolid for orthopaedic postoperative probabilistic antibiotic therapy. METHODS: Analysis of an observational cohort of patients empirically treated by a combination of linezolid with piperacillin/tazobactam during the immediate postoperative stage for an OAI between July 1st 2015 and July 1st 2016, in a French reference center...
May 8, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750764/linezolid-containing-treatment-regimens-for-tuberculosis-in-children
#6
Luis M Prieto, Begoña Santiago, Teresa Del Rosal, Begoña Carazo, Ana B Jiménez, Beatriz Pérez-Gorricho, Felipe Rubio, Alfredo Tagarro, Daniel Blázquez, David Moreno-Pérez, María J Mellado, Fernando Baquero-Artigao
BACKGROUND: In recent years there is an increasing interest in the use of linezolid for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB). METHODS: Patients under 18 years of age who received linezolid within the Spanish Pediatric TB Network (pTBred) from 2001 to 2016 were retrospectively included. Treatment characteristics, adverse events (AEs) and outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: Fifteen children were included (53% male) with a median age of 3.6 years (IQR: 1...
May 10, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744776/determination-of-nine-pharmaceutical-active-compounds-in-surface-waters-from-paraopeba-river-basin-in-brazil-by-ltpe-hplc-esi-ms-ms
#7
André Luis Correa de Barros, Felix Florian Schmidt, Sérgio Francisco de Aquino, Robson José de Cássia Franco Afonso
A simple, inexpensive, versatile, and environment-friendly extraction method, using low-temperature partitioning extraction (LTPE), was validated to quantify pharmaceutical-active compounds (PhACs) in surface water samples by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). The PhACs analyzed were acetaminophen, bezafibrate, diclofenac, diltiazem, fluconazole, linezolid, miconazole, ondansetron hydrochloride, and trimethoprim. The detection and quantification limits ranged from 0...
May 9, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735840/-in-vitro-analysis-of-the-minimal-inhibitory-concentration-values-of-different-generations-of-anti-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-antibiotics
#8
Aneta Guzek, Zbigniew Rybicki, Dariusz Tomaszewski
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) resistance to antimicrobials may result in the increased risk of treatment failure. The objective of the study was to analyse in vitro MRSA susceptibility to vancomycin, linezolid, daptomycin, tigecycline, ceftaroline, dalbavancin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. All MRSA strains isolated from hospitalised patients were analysed according to the current microbiological recommendations. Finally, a total of 124 MRSA strains were analysed; all were susceptible to tested antibiotics...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735835/methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-intracranial-abscess-an-analytical-series-and-review-on-molecular-surgical-and-medical-aspects
#9
Veena Kumari Haradara Bahubali, Priya Vijayan, Vasundhra Bhandari, Nagarathna Siddaiah, Dwarakanath Srinivas
Purpose: Intracranial abscess caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is rare and unexplored. The aim of the present study is to examine the prevalence, clinical and molecular characteristics, treatment options and outcome of MRSA intracranial abscess over a period of 6 years. Patientsand Methods: A total of 21 patients were included in this retrospective study. The demographic and clinical details of all the patients were collected. Molecular typing including staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing, spa typing and polymerase chain reaction of Panton-Valentine leucocidin toxin (PVL) gene for the latter 6 isolates was performed...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731649/comparative-evaluation-of-methods-for-the-detection-of-biofilm-formation-in-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-and-correlation-with-antibiogram
#10
Lok Bahadur Shrestha, Narayan Raj Bhattarai, Basudha Khanal
Introduction: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are normal commensals of human skin and mucous membranes. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of CNS among clinical isolates, characterize them up to species level, compare the three conventional methods for detection of biofilm formation, and study their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. Materials and methods: CNS were obtained from various clinical samples including blood, urine, central venous catheter tips, endotracheal tube aspirate, and pus during a 1-year period (July 1, 2014, to June 30, 2015)...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712654/pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-and-tolerability-of-single-dose-oral-lcb01-0371-a-novel-oxazolidinone-with-broad-spectrum-activity-in-healthy-volunteers
#11
Yong-Soon Cho, Hyeong-Seok Lim, Shi-Hyang Lee, Young Lag Cho, Hee-Sook Nam, Kyun-Seop Bae
LCB01-0371 is a novel oxazolidinone with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive pathogens in both in vitro studies and animal infection models. The objectives of this study were to evaluate its safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics following single ascending doses (NCT01554995). Single oral doses of 600 mg Linezolid, a placebo, or LCB01-0371 between 50 mg and 3200 mg were tested in 69 healthy male subjects. Blood and urine were sampled, and LCB01-0371 concentrations were measured, and the serum inhibitory and bactericidal titers of LCB01-0371 and Linezolid were determined...
April 30, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712650/activity-of-combinations-of-antistaphylococcal-antibiotics-with-fusidic-acid-against-staphylococcal-biofilms-in-in-vitro-static-and-dynamic-models
#12
Wafi Siala, Hector Rodriguez-Villalobos, Prabhavathi Fernandes, Paul M Tulkens, Françoise Van Bambeke
Staphylococcal biofilms are a major cause of therapeutic failure, especially when caused by multiresistant strains. Oral fusidic acid is currently being re-developed in the US for skin and skin structure and orthopedic infections, in which biofilms play a major role. The aim of this study was to examine the activity of fusidic acid alone or combined with other anti-staphylococcal drugs against biofilms made by a reference strain and five clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis in in vitro static or dynamic models (microtiter plates and CDC reactor) exposed to clinically-relevant concentrations...
April 30, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708837/molecular-epidemiology-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-and-enterococcus-faecium-isolated-from-clinical-specimens-in-the-northwest-of-iran
#13
Ali Jahansepas, Mohammad Ahangarzadeh Rezaee, Alka Hasani, Yaeghob Sharifi, Marjan Rahnamaye Farzami, Alireza Dolatyar, Mohammad Aghazadeh
This study was conducted to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Antibiotic resistance and virulence genes in the aforementioned resistant isolates were studied using the epsilometer (E)-test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These isolates were subjected to typing by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Thirty vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE; 18.75%) were isolated from a total of 160 various clinical specimens cultured for any bacterial growth...
April 30, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707662/molecular-analysis-of-immune-evasion-cluster-iec-genes-and-intercellular-adhesion-gene-cluster-ica-among-methicillin-resistant-and-methicillin-sensitive-isolates-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#14
R Ahmadrajabi, S Layegh-Khavidaki, D Kalantar-Neyestanaki, Y Fasihi
Introduction: Resistance to antibiotics and presence of virulence factors play an important role in increased mortality associated with infection due to Staphylococcus aureus. In this study, we determine antibiotic resistance pattern, presence of the icaADBC locus as well as biofilm formation and distribution and diversity the immune evasion cluster (IEC) genes in clinical isolate of S. aureus from Kerman, Iran. Materials and methods: During 15 months, 100 clinical isolates S...
December 2017: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692578/vancomycin-linezolid-and-daptomycin-susceptibility-pattern-among-clinical-isolates-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-from-sub-himalyan-center
#15
Afzal Husain, Vinita Rawat, Umesh, Mukesh Kumar, Pankaj Kumar Verma
INTRODUCTION: The efficacy of vancomycin, drug of choice for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), has become questionable due to the emergence of MRSA isolates with reduced susceptibility. The present study was conducted to determine the vancomycin, linezolid, and daptomycin susceptibility pattern in clinical isolates of MRSA and to observe minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) creep over 2 years if any. MATERIALS AND METHODS: MIC of vancomycin, linezolid, and daptomycin were determined by E-test in 198 MRSA isolates and their MIC 50, MIC 90, and geometric mean MIC were calculated...
April 2018: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690991/-treatment-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcal-infections
#16
Lars Christian Lund, Barbara Juliane Holzknecht, Ulrik Stenz Justesen
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are a growing healthcare concern, and since 2012 the incidence has increased eightfold in Denmark. Treatment options for infections with ampicillin-resistant VRE are sparse, and there are no Danish guidelines concerning this topic. For treatment of uncomplicated VRE urinary tract infections, ciprofloxacin or nitrofurantoin can be used. The mainstay of treatment of bacteraemia and other severe infections caused by VRE is linezolid or high-dose daptomycin. Combination treatment is recommended for complicated infections and/or prolonged therapy...
April 16, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687315/incidental-intraoperative-diagnosis-of-mycobacterium-abscessus-meningeal-infection-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
REVIEW
Francesca Giovannenze, Vito Stifano, Giancarlo Scoppettuolo, Fernando Damiano, Federico Pallavicini, Giovanni Delogu, Ivana Palucci, Alessandro Rapisarda, Cosimo Sturdà, Angelo Pompucci
PURPOSE: Mycobacterium abscessus, and rapidly growing mycobacteria in general, are rare but increasing causes of central nervous system (CNS) infections. The aim of this study is to highlight the importance of considering these microorganism in the differential diagnosis of CNS infections, obtaining a prompt diagnosis, and improving clinical outcomes. METHODS: Case report and literature review. RESULTS: We report a case of meningeal infection in a patient who underwent decompressive craniectomy after a craniofacial trauma...
April 23, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683987/case-report-linezolid-optic-neuropathy-and-proposed-evidenced-based-screening-recommendation
#18
Sean P Dempsey, Amy Sickman, William Scott Slagle
SIGNIFICANCE: This case illustrates a novel screening protocol for linezolid-induced toxic optic neuropathy. PURPOSE: To present a case report and analysis of linezolid-induced optic neuropathies in adult patients to develop screening recommendations. CASE REPORT: A case report of optic neuropathy from extended use of linezolid illustrates its potential effects on vision. We conduct a retrospective analysis of 39 reported cases to derive a recommended screening protocol for linezolid-induced toxic optic neuropathy in adult patients...
May 2018: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683776/coagulase-negative-staphylococci-isolated-from-human-bloodstream-infections-showed-multidrug-resistance-profile
#19
Silvia H S P Pedroso, Savio H C Sandes, Robledo A T Filho, Alvaro C Nunes, Jose C Serufo, Luiz M Farias, Maria A R Carvalho, Maria R Q Bomfim, Simone G Santos
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are important pathogens causing nosocomial infections worldwide with increasing resistance to antimicrobials. The aim of this study was to characterize resistance aspects of CNS isolated from patients with bloodstream infections acquired in hospitals in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Staphylococcus strains were characterized using repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) fingerprinting with (GTG)5 primer. Phenotypic resistance was analyzed using AST-P5085 card (bioMérieuxVitek® )...
April 23, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679746/prevalence-of-cfr-in-enterococcus-faecalis-strains-isolated-from-swine-farms-in-china-predominated-cfr-carrying-pcppf5-like-plasmids-conferring-non-linezolid-resistance-phenotype
#20
Liang-Xing Fang, Jia-Hong Duan, Mu-Ya Chen, Hui Deng, Hua-Qing Liang, Yan Q Xiong, Jian Sun, Ya-Hong Liu, Xiao-Ping Liao
The cfr gene associated with linezolid resistance has attracted wide attention. However, little is known about its prevalence and mode of transmission in Enterococcus faecalis. In this study, we investigate the prevalence and genetic environment of the cfr gene in 91 E. faecalis isolates collected from swine faecal swabs in 30 farms in Guangdong Province, China in 2012. A relatively high prevalence of cfr was identified in E. faecalis isolates (11/91, 12.1%) by PCR. All the cfr-positive E. faecalis strains had a multidrug-resistance phenotype including erythrocin, tetracycline, gentamicin, kanamicin and ciprofloxacin, except vancomycin and linezolid...
April 18, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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