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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922806/linezolid-as-treatment-for-pulmonary-mycobacterium-avium-disease
#1
Devyani Deshpande, Shashikant Srivastava, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Tawanda Gumbo
Objectives: To identify the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters and exposures of linezolid in the treatment of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease. Methods: Human-derived monocytes infected with MAC were inoculated into hollow-fibre systems for dose-effect and dose-scheduling studies. We mimicked linezolid concentration-time profiles achieved in adult human lungs treated for 28 days. Sampling to confirm that the intended linezolid pharmacokinetics had been achieved, and for enumeration of MAC colony-forming units, was performed based on repetitive sampling from each system over the 28 days...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922286/nocardia-infections-in-solid-organ-and-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplant-recipients
#2
Julien Coussement, David Lebeaux, Claire Rouzaud, Olivier Lortholary
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nocardia spp. is a gram-positive bacteria that may cause infections in humans. Nocardiosis has been described since the early years of transplantation. This review aims to provide an overview of present knowledge regarding posttransplant nocardiosis, with a focus on recent findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Nocardiosis is not rare among transplant recipients, especially after thoracic transplantation and/or in case of intense immunosuppressive regimen or use of tacrolimus...
September 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919606/current-trends-of-using-antimicrobials-and-their-sensitivity-pattern-in-infectious-cases-at-department-of-orthopedics-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#3
M M Sarker, S K Saha, S Saha, A N Naushad, S Ajmery, P Roy, M S Chowdhury, L Mukta
This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out to analyse the current trends of using antimicrobials at orthopaedics department in different surgical procedures and observe the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of infective organisms in postoperative wound infection cases at the department of Orthopaedics, Mymensingh Medical College Hospital with collaboration of department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics in Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh from January 2016 to December 2016. Among 253 orthopaedics surgical cases Penicillins, Cephalosporins, and Aminoglycoside group were commonly prescribed antimicrobials that had been use postoperatively in most of the Orthopaedics cases...
July 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899468/-pathogen-distribution-and-bacterial-resistance-in-children-with-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia
#4
Yun-Yun Lu, Rong Luo, Zhou Fu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the distribution of pathogens and bacterial resistance in children with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). METHODS: A total of 522 children with severe CAP who were hospitalized in 2016 were enrolled as study subjects. According to their age, they were divided into infant group (402 infants aged 28 days to 1 year), young children group (73 children aged 1 to 3 years), preschool children group (35 children aged 3 to 6 years), and school-aged children group (12 children aged ≥6 years)...
September 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895694/linezolid-related-adverse-effects-in-clinical-practice-in-children
#5
Nuri Bayram, Mine Düzgöl, Ahu Kara, Fatih M Özdemir, İlker Devrim
INTRODUCTION: Linezolid may cause adverse effects such as thrombocytopenia, which were found to be dependent on receiving linezolid for longer than 2 weeks. There are limited studies concerning the safety and timing of linezolid-related adverse effects in children. Objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of adverse effects associated with linezolid, with especially focusing on the time of occurrence. POPULATION AND METHODS: All children (<18 years of age) who received >3 days of linezolid therapy were included in this study...
October 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894692/case-report-infection-of-total-knee-arthroplasty-treated-with-one-stage-surgery-and-linezolid
#6
Adriana Macedo Dell'Aquila, Cesar Janovsky, Moises Cohen
Staphylococcus spp meticillin resistant infection can be treated with Linezolid. This is a case report of an orthopaedic implant infection in a 60 year-old male treated orally with Linezolid and Rifampicin for three months after one-stage arthroplasty. This is possible provided that platelet count is closely monitored throughout the course of treatment.
2017: Journal of bone and joint infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890512/update-on-the-structure-of-oxazolidinone-analogues-and-comparing-their-in-vitro-and-intracellular-efficacy-with-linezolid-against-clinically-relevant-bacterial-species
#7
Qian Tang, Yanfang Zhao, Boxuan Xu, Ping Gong, Di Wang
 Oxazolidinones comprise a novel class of antimicrobials as inhibitors of bacterial ribosomal protein synthesis. In the present study, we identified 15 novel oxazolidinone analogues with potent antituberculosis activities. Compounds sy124 and sy125 displayed the best antituberculosis activity in vitro, against various clinically relevant bacterial species, including most Gram positive bacteria, Mycobacterium and Helicobacter pylori, which are better than that of the linezolid. Cell based assay indicated that these compounds showed strong ability to kill the intracellular pathogens...
September 11, 2017: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889756/occurrence-of-vancomycin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-the-oral-cavity-of-patients-with-dental-caries
#8
Sajith Vellappally, Darshan Devang Divakar, Abdulaziz Abdullah Al Kheraif, Ravikumar Ramakrishnaiah, Amer Alqahtani, M H N Dalati, Sukumaran Anil, Aftab Ahmed Khan, P R Harikrishna Varma
Oral streptococci are the major group of microbes isolated from oral microflora. They represent frequent pathogens of infective endocarditis (IE), and it is assumed that in most of the cases oral streptococci are acquired via mucosa layer of oral cavity. Staphylococcus aureus is also frequently isolated from IE as it accounts for 20%-30% of all cases. Vancomycin has been the most reliable therapeutic agent against infections caused by methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The main objective of this study was to examine the occurrence of S...
September 11, 2017: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882763/antimicrobial-resistance-of-enterococcus-in-turkey-a-meta-analysis-of-current-studies
#9
Imdat Kilbas, Ihsan Hakki Ciftci
OBJECTIVES: This study conducted a meta-analysis of Enterococcus isolates collected in 2000-2015 in Turkey and their susceptibility and resistance to antibiotics, clinical indications for the initial drug treatment, and identification of alternative treatments. METHODS: This meta-analysis examined antibiotic susceptibility and resistance in Enterococcus. The study was planned and conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882325/antimicrobial-stewardship-programme-in-critical-care-medicine-a-prospective-interventional-study
#10
J Ruiz, P Ramirez, M Gordon, E Villarreal, J Frasquet, J L Poveda-Andres, M Salavert-Lletí, A Catellanos
OBJECTIVE: Hospital antimicrobial stewardship programmes have achieved savings and a more rational use of antimicrobial treatments in general wards. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the experience of an antimicrobial stewardship programme in an intensive care unit (ICU). DESIGN: Prospective interventional, before-and-after study. SCOPE: 24-bed medical ICU in a tertiary hospital. INTERVENTION: Prospective audit and feedback antimicrobial stewardship programme...
September 4, 2017: Medicina Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880552/novel-inhibitors-of-staphyloxanthin-virulence-factor-in-comparison-with-linezolid-and-vancomycin-versus-methicillin-resistant-linezolid-resistant-and-vancomycin-intermediate-staphylococcus-aureus-infections-in-vivo
#11
Shuaishuai Ni, Hanwen Wei, Baoli Li, Feifei Chen, Yifu Liu, Wenhua Chen, Yixiang Xu, Xiaoxia Qiu, Xiaokang Li, Yanli Lu, Wenwen Liu, Linhao Hu, Dazheng Lin, Manjiong Wang, Xinyu Zheng, Fei Mao, Jin Zhu, Le-Fu Lan, Jian Li
Our previous work (Wang, et al. J. Med. Chem. 2016, 59, 4831-4848) revealed that effective benzocycloalkane-derived staphyloxanthin inhibitors against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infections were accompanied by poor water solubility and high hERG inhibition and dosages (pre-administration). In this study, ninety-two chroman and coumaran derivatives as novel inhibitors have been addressed for overcoming deficiencies above. Derivatives 69 and 105 displayed the excellent pigment inhibitory activities and low hERG inhibition, along with the improvement of solubility by salt type selection...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880210/comparative-pharmacokinetic-study-for-linezolid-and-two-novel-antibacterial-oxazolidinone-derivatives-in-rabbits-can-differences-in-the-pharmacokinetic-properties-explain-the-discrepancies-between-their-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-antibacterial-activities
#12
Mohsen A Hedaya, Vidhya Thomas, Mohamed E Abdel-Hamid, Elijah O Kehinde, Oludotun A Phillips
This is a comparative pharmacokinetics study of linezolid (Lzd), and two novel oxazolidinone antibacterial agents-PH027 and PH051-in rabbits to determine if the discrepancy between the in vitro and in vivo activities of the novel compounds is due to pharmacokinetic factors. The pharmacokinetics after IV and oral administration, plasma protein binding and tissue distribution for the three compounds were compared. The elimination half-lives were 52.4 ± 6.3, 68.7 ± 12.1 and 175 ± 46.1 min for Lzd, PH027 and PH051, respectively...
September 7, 2017: Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874470/inhibition-of-the-atp-synthase-eliminates-the-intrinsic-resistance-of-staphylococcus-aureus-towards-polymyxins
#13
Martin Vestergaard, Katrine Nøhr-Meldgaard, Martin Saxtorph Bojer, Christina Krogsgård Nielsen, Rikke Louise Meyer, Christoph Slavetinsky, Andreas Peschel, Hanne Ingmer
Staphylococcus aureus is intrinsically resistant to polymyxins (polymyxin B and colistin), an important class of cationic antimicrobial peptides used in treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections. To understand the mechanisms underlying intrinsic polymyxin resistance in S. aureus, we screened the Nebraska Transposon Mutant Library established in S. aureus strain JE2 for increased susceptibility to polymyxin B. Nineteen mutants displayed at least 2-fold reductions in MIC, while the greatest reductions (8-fold) were observed for mutants with inactivation of either graS, graR, vraF, or vraG or the subunits of the ATP synthase (atpA, atpB, atpG, or atpH), which during respiration is the main source of energy...
September 5, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872282/changes-in-bacterial-flora-and-antibiotic-resistance-in-clinical-samples-isolated-from-patients-hospitalized-in-the-military-institute-of-medicine-in-warsaw-poland-between-2005-2012
#14
Aneta Guzek, Zbigniew Rybicki, Dariusz Tomaszewski
BACKGROUND: Hospital infections have become an important problem. Knowledge of microbiological situations both helps in ensuring that the optimal choice of antibacterial treatment is made, and in improving the results of the selected therapy. OBJECTIVE: In this paper, both the changes in the bacterial flora of patients hospitalized in the Military Institute of Medicine, and the bacterial resistance to antimicrobials were analyzed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected between 2005 and 2012...
2017: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870771/identification-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-clinical-nocardia-species-in-a-tertiary-hospital
#15
Ming Wei, Peng Wang, Jiuxin Qu, Ran Li, Yongzhe Liu, Li Gu, Chunxia Yang
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of 28 clinical isolates of Nocardia species isolated from Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital, for reducing the insufficiency of information on antimicrobial activities of Nocardia clinical isolates in specific species in China. METHODS: Molecular diagnosis of Nocardia species was performed using partial 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequences. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by broth microdilution was performed according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommendations...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866136/major-globally-disseminated-clonal-complexes-of-antimicrobial-resistant-enterococci-associated-with-infections-in-cancer-patients-in-brazil
#16
Barbara A Santos, Jéssica S Oliveira, Nayara T Cardoso, André V Barbosa, Silvana V Superti, Lúcia M Teixeira, Felipe P G Neves
Cancer and hematological malignancies constitute major comorbidities in enterococcal infections, but little is known about the characteristics of enterococci affecting cancer patients. The aim of this study was to characterize 132 enterococcal clinical isolates obtained from cancer patients attending a Cancer Reference Center in Brazil between April 2013 and March 2014. Susceptibility to 17 antimicrobial agents was assessed by disk diffusion method. Resistance and virulence genes were investigated by PCR. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed for selected Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates...
September 1, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861054/screening-of-tb-actives-for-activity-against-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-delivers-high-hit-rates
#17
Jian Liang Low, Mu-Lu Wu, Dinah Binte Aziz, Benoît Laleu, Thomas Dick
The prevalence of lung disease due to infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been increasing and surpassed tuberculosis (TB) in some countries. Treatment outcomes are often unsatisfactory, highlighting an urgent need for new anti-NTM medications. Although NTM in general do not respond well to TB specific drugs, the similarities between NTM and Mycobacterium tuberculosis at the molecular and cell structural level suggest that compound libraries active against TB could be leveraged for NTM drug discovery...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857738/detection-of-high-levels-of-resistance-to-linezolid-and-vancomycin-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#18
Aysha Azhar, Samreen Rasool, Asma Haque, Sidra Shan, Muhammad Saeed, Beenish Ehsan, Abdul Haque
Both methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) are rapidly overcoming the current array of drugs. One hundred and fifty isolates from a hospital were studied for resistance towards linezolid and vancomycin. Fifty-four (36.0 %) isolates were MRSA. Both MRSA and MSSA showed high resistance towards linezolid when using the disc diffusion method, with the figures being 48.1 and 29.2 %, respectively. The figures for the E-test were 46.3 and 27.0 %, respectively...
September 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28850767/recent-controversies-about-mdr-and-xdr-tb-global-implementation-of-the-who-shorter-mdr-tb-regimen-and-bedaquiline-for-all-with-mdr-tb
#19
REVIEW
Keertan Dheda, Helen Cox, Aliasgar Esmail, Sean Wasserman, Kwok Chiu Chang, Christoph Lange
Tuberculosis (TB) is now the biggest infectious disease killer worldwide. Although the estimated incidence of TB has marginally declined over several years, it is out of control in some regions including in Africa. The advent of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) threatens to further destabilize control in several regions of the world. Drug-resistant TB constitutes a significant threat because it underpins almost 25% of global TB mortality, is associated with high morbidity, is a threat to healthcare workers and is unsustainably costly to treat...
August 29, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28848938/successful-management-of-post-traumatic-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-endophthalmitis
#20
Jason Nguyen, Mary Elizabeth Hartnett
PURPOSE: To highlight good visual outcome with intravitreal amikacin administered 18 days following trauma-inducing vancomycin resistant enterococcal endophthalmitis treated initially with vitrectomy and oral linezolid. OBSERVATIONS: Despite initial vitrectomy, intravitreal vancomycin, ceftazidime and oral linezolid, smoldering vitreous infiltrates prompted treatment with intravitreal amikacin 18 days later and restored vision to 20/40 in a vancomycin-resistant traumatic endophthalmitis...
April 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
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