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Gender-based violence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923034/an-implementation-science-protocol-of-the-women-s-health-coop-in-healthcare-settings-in-cape-town-south-africa-a-stepped-wedge-design
#1
Wendee M Wechsberg, Jacqueline W Ndirangu, Ilene S Speizer, William A Zule, Winnifred Gumula, Courtney Peasant, Felicia A Browne, Laura Dunlap
BACKGROUND: HIV persists as a public health emergency in South Africa, especially among women of childbearing age. In response to the HIV epidemic, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS has put forth the 90-90-90 global goals to achieve an AIDS-free generation by 2020. This goal aspires to have 90% of people living with HIV diagnosed; 90% of those who test positive on sustained antiretroviral therapy (ART); and 90% of those on ART be virally suppressed. Ensuring access to ART is an important first step in reducing HIV incidence, especially among vulnerable populations such as women who use substances and bear the burden of HIV in South Africa...
September 18, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920091/selecting-pure-emotion-materials-from-the-international-affective-picture-system-iaps-by-chinese-university-students-a-study-based-on-intensity-ratings-only
#2
Zhicha Xu, Rongsheng Zhu, Chanchan Shen, Bingren Zhang, Qianqian Gao, You Xu, Wei Wang
There is a need to use selected pictures with pure emotion as stimulation or treatment media for basic and clinical research. Pictures from the widely-used International Affective Picture System (IAPS) contain rich emotions, but no study has clearly stated that an emotion is exclusively expressed in its putative IAPS picture to date. We hypothesize that the IAPS images contain at least pure vectors of disgust, erotism (or erotica), fear, happiness, sadness and neutral emotions. Accordingly, we have selected 108 IAPS images, each with a specific emotion, and invited 219 male and 274 female university students to rate only the intensity of the emotion conveyed in each picture...
August 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915988/learning-to-be-gendered-gender-socialization-in-early-adolescence-among-urban-poor-in-delhi-india-and-shanghai-china
#3
Sharmistha Basu, Xiayun Zuo, Chaohua Lou, Rajib Acharya, Rebecka Lundgren
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to understand the gender socialization process in early adolescence. METHODS: The study was located in two disadvantaged urban communities in Delhi, India and Shanghai, China and was part of the multicountry (15) Global Early Adolescent Study. Qualitative methodologies were used with boys and girls aged 11-13 years, including 16 group-based timeline exercises and 65 narrative interviews. In addition, 58 parents of participating adolescents were interviewed...
October 2017: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903628/what-motivates-serodiscordant-couples-to-prevent-hiv-transmission-within-their-relationships-findings-from-a-prep-implementation-study-in-kenya
#4
Rena C Patel, Anna M Leddy, Josephine Odoyo, Keerthana Anand, Gaelen Stanford-Moore, Imeldah Wakhungu, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Jared M Baeten, Joelle M Brown
With the planned scale-up of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among serodiscordant couples in resource-limited settings, gaining an understanding of what motivates serodiscordant couples to prevent HIV is critical. We conducted 44 semi-structured, in-depth individual or couple interviews with 63 participants (33 HIV-infected and 30 HIV-uninfected participants) enrolled in a prospective implementation study of oral antiretroviral-based prevention in Kisumu, Kenya. Transcripts were iteratively analysed using inductive content analysis...
September 14, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873087/women-s-and-men-s-reports-of-past-year-prevalence-of-intimate-partner-violence-and-rape-and-women-s-risk-factors-for-intimate-partner-violence-a-multicountry-cross-sectional-study-in-asia-and-the-pacific
#5
Rachel Jewkes, Emma Fulu, Ruchira Tabassam Naved, Esnat Chirwa, Kristin Dunkle, Regine Haardörfer, Claudia Garcia-Moreno
BACKGROUND: Understanding the past-year prevalence of male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV) and risk factors is essential for building evidence-based prevention and monitoring progress to Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 5.2, but so far, population-based research on this remains very limited. The objective of this study is to compare the population prevalence rates of past-year male-perpetrated IPV and nonpartner rape from women's and men's reports across 4 countries in Asia and the Pacific...
September 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868929/voices-and-views-of-congolese-refugee-women-a-qualitative-exploration-to-inform-health-promotion-and-reduce-inequities
#6
Shannon McMorrow, Jyotika Saksena
Refugees have recently been thrust into the spotlight worldwide. The strikingly negative rhetoric currently surrounding refugees calls for increased action from public health educators. In 2016, the largest proportion of refugees to the United States came from the Democratic Republic of Congo. This presents the opportunity to explore health needs as Congolese refugees resettle in the United States, with women taking priority due to health disparities linked to gender-based discrimination, trauma, sexual and gender-based violence, lower literacy rates, and less access to learning English...
September 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868903/toward-90-90-90-identifying-those-who-have-never-been-tested-for-hiv-and-differences-by-sex-in-lesotho
#7
Maria Augusta Carrasco, Paul Fleming, Jocelyn Wagman, Vincent Wong
To reach HIV epidemic control it is important to ensure that those who have never been tested access HIV testing and counseling (HTC) particularly in the context of a generalized HIV epidemic. Using data from the 2014 Lesotho Demographic Health Survey bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine the associations between never tested for HIV and key socio-cognitive characteristics by sex. Marginal probabilities at the means were calculated for the socio-cognitive variables for men and women to ascertain the magnitude of the differences in the likelihood of never being tested by sex...
September 3, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857722/-she-got-spoilt-perceptions-of-victims-of-child-sexual-abuse-in-ghana
#8
Bettina Böhm
International research has commented on social stigma as a key reason for nondisclosure of child sexual abuse. However, the actual components of this social stigma frequently remain unexplored. The present study deals with perceptions of consequences of child sexual abuse among professionals and laypeople in Ghana (N = 44), employing a bystander perspective. As a qualitative study using a grounded theory framework, it considers these consequences in light of their underlying beliefs about child and adolescent development, particularly in relation to gender-based expectations placed on girls and boys...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856064/interventions-for-prevention-of-intimate-partner-violence-against-women-in-humanitarian-settings-a-protocol-for-a-systematic-review
#9
Marjan Delkhosh, Ali Ardalan, Abbas Rahimiforoushani, Abbas Keshtkar, Leila Amiri Farahani, Effat Merghati Khoei
INTRODUCTION: Humanitarian emergencies and the number of people who are adversely affected are increasing. In such emergencies, the vulnerability of women and girls to gender-based violence increases signifi-cantly and they often experience high levels of intimate partner violence (IPV). There are a limited number of interventions to reduce gender-based violence (GBV) and IPV in the contexts of humanitarian emergencies, and there is uncertainty about the effectiveness of these preventive interventions...
July 12, 2017: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844360/marital-violence-and-sexually-transmitted-infections-among-women-in-post-revolution-egypt
#10
Seema Vyas
OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between past year physical or sexual partner violence against women and women's self-report of sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptoms in post-revolution Egypt; and to examine the effects of men's and women's risky sexual behavioural characteristics and structural dimensions of poverty and gender inequality on this relationship. STUDY DESIGN: This study uses the nationally representative cross-sectional demographic and health survey data conducted in 2014...
October 2017: Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare: Official Journal of the Swedish Association of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838011/-bio-psycho-social-characteristics-and-therapeutic-aspects-of-methamphetamine-dependent-women-gender-specific-results-of-a-systematic-literature-search
#11
Stefanie Neumann, Michael Soyka, Andreas G Franke
Subject Compared to other illicit drugs Methamphetamine (MethA) is used more frequently by women than by men. Assuming the biopsychosocial etiology model, the dependency is based on several factors in which women and men differ significantly. Systematic gender-differentiated knowledge is missing until today. Method Based on a database research (PUBMED) the review examines biological, social and psychological as well as therapeutic aspects in MethA-dependent women. Results MethA-induced cognitive disturbance appear to have severer manifestations in women than in men...
August 24, 2017: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833795/women-s-experiences-with-healthcare-professionals-after-suffering-from-gender-based-violence-an-interview-study
#12
Inger Wallin Lundell, Louise Eulau, Frida Bjarneby, Margareta Westerbotn
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: This study sought to describe how women in Mexico who have suffered from gender-based violence experience their encounters with healthcare professionals. BACKGROUND: Gender-based violence is a worldwide problem. Previous studies have described that women feel they are not being cared for appropriately during their encounters with healthcare professionals. This study was conducted in Mexico, which has a high rate of gender inequality. DESIGN: A descriptive, qualitative study was conducted...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832753/recent-illicit-drug-use-among-psychiatric-patients-in-brazil-a-national-representative-study
#13
Miriam Almeida Nahas, Ana Paula Souto Melo, Francine Cournos, Karen Mckinnon, Milton Wainberg, Mark Drew Crosland Guimarães
OBJECTIVE: To estimate factors associated to illicit drug use among patients with mental illness in Brazil according to gender. METHODS: A cross-sectional representative sample of psychiatric patients (2,475 individuals) was randomly selected from 11 hospitals and 15 public mental health outpatient clinics. Data on self-reported illicit drug use and sociodemographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics were obtained from face-to-face interviews. Logistic regression was used to estimate associations with recent illicit drug use...
August 17, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28832282/from-fear-to-resilience-adolescents-experiences-of-violence-in-inner-city-johannesburg-south-africa
#14
Fiona Scorgie, Deborah Baron, Jonathan Stadler, Emilie Venables, Heena Brahmbhatt, Kristin Mmari, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe
BACKGROUND: For adolescents growing up in poor urban South African settings, violence is often a part of daily life and has lasting effects on physical and mental health outcomes in adulthood. We conducted a qualitative study to document and understand the forms of interpersonal violence experienced by adolescents living in Hillbrow, Johannesburg. In this article, we explore how violence is experienced differently by adolescent boys and girls, how they conceptualise 'dangerous' and 'safe' spaces in their neighbourhood and what gaps exist in available services for youth in Hillbrow...
July 4, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821469/a-cluster-randomized-trial-of-a-middle-school-gender-violence-prevention-program-design-rationale-and-sample-characteristics
#15
Kaleab Z Abebe, Kelley A Jones, Samantha Ciaravino, Lisa Ripper, Taylor Paglisotti, Sarah Elizabeth Morrow, Melanie Grafals, Courtney Van Dusen, Elizabeth Miller
INTRODUCTION: High rates of adolescent relationship abuse (ARA) and sexual violence (SV) reported among adolescents point to the need for prevention among middle school-age youth. This is a cluster randomized controlled trial to test an athletic coach-delivered ARA/SV prevention program in 41 middle schools (38 clusters). Trained coaches talk to their male athletes about 1) what constitutes harmful vs. respectful relationship behaviors, 2) dispelling myths that glorify male sexual aggression and promoting more gender-equitable attitudes, and 3) positive bystander intervention when aggressive male behaviors toward females are witnessed...
August 15, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817565/peer-violence-perpetration-and-victimization-prevalence-associated-factors-and-pathways-among-1752-sixth-grade-boys-and-girls-in-schools-in-pakistan
#16
Rozina Karmaliani, Judith Mcfarlane, Rozina Somani, Hussain Maqbool Ahmed Khuwaja, Shireen Shehzad Bhamani, Tazeen Saeed Ali, Saleema Gulzar, Yasmeen Somani, Esnat D Chirwa, Rachel Jewkes
BACKGROUND: Child peer violence is a global problem and seriously impacts health and education. There are few research studies available in Pakistan, or South Asia. We describe the prevalence of peer violence, associations, and pathways between socio-economic status, school performance, gender attitudes and violence at home. METHODS: 1752 children were recruited into a cluster randomized controlled trial conducted on 40 fairly homogeneous public schools (20 for girls and 20 for boys), in Hyderabad, Pakistan...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809935/effectiveness-of-a-brief-behavioural-intervention-on-psychological-distress-among-women-with-a-history-of-gender-based-violence-in-urban-kenya-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Richard A Bryant, Alison Schafer, Katie S Dawson, Dorothy Anjuri, Caroline Mulili, Lincoln Ndogoni, Phiona Koyiet, Marit Sijbrandij, Jeannette Ulate, Melissa Harper Shehadeh, Dusan Hadzi-Pavlovic, Mark van Ommeren
BACKGROUND: Gender-based violence (GBV) represents a major cause of psychological morbidity worldwide, and particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Although there are effective treatments for common mental disorders associated with GBV, they typically require lengthy treatment programs that may limit scaling up in LMICs. The aim of this study was to test the effectiveness of a new 5-session behavioural treatment called Problem Management Plus (PM+) that lay community workers can be taught to deliver...
August 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789653/occupational-status-as-a-determinant-of-mental-health-inequities-in-french-young-people-is-fairness-needed-results-of-a-cross-sectional-multicentre-observational-survey
#18
Marie Blanquet, Emilie Labbe-Lobertreau, Catherine Sass, Dominique Berger, Laurent Gerbaud
BACKGROUND: Employment conditions are associated with health inequities. In 2013, French young people had the highest unemployment rate and among those who worked as salaried workers most of them had temporary job. The purpose of the study was to assess mental health state of French young people through the prism of their occupational status and to measure whether occupational status is a determinant of health inequities. METHODS: A cross-sectional multicentre observational survey was performed in June and July 2010 in 115 French Local Social Centres and 74 Health Examination Centres, who were available to participate...
August 8, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758882/attitude-towards-gender-roles-and-violence-against-women-and-girls-vawg-baseline-findings-from-an-rct-of-1752-youths-in-pakistan
#19
Tazeen Saeed Ali, Rozina Karmaliani, Judith Mcfarlane, Hussain M A Khuwaja, Yasmeen Somani, Esnat D Chirwa, Rachel Jewkes
BACKGROUND: Violence against women is driven by gender norms that normalize and justify gender inequality and violence. Gender norms are substantially shaped during adolescence. Programs offered through schools offer an opportunity to influence gender attitudes toward gender equity if we understand these to be partly shaped by peers and the school environment. OBJECTIVE: We present an analysis of the baseline research conducted for a randomized controlled trial with 1752 grade 6 boys and girls and their attitudes toward gender roles, VAWG, and associated factors...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755895/the-swper-index-for-women-s-empowerment-in-africa-development-and-validation-of-an-index-based-on-survey-data
#20
Fernanda Ewerling, John W Lynch, Cesar G Victora, Anouka van Eerdewijk, Marcelo Tyszler, Aluisio J D Barros
BACKGROUND: The Sustainable Development Goals strongly focus on equity. Goal 5 explicitly aims to empower all women and girls, reinforcing the need to have a reliable indicator to track progress. Our objective was to develop a novel women's empowerment indicator from widely available data sources, broadening opportunities for monitoring and research on women's empowerment. METHODS: We used Demographic and Health Survey data from 34 African countries, targeting currently partnered women...
September 2017: Lancet Global Health
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