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Gender-based violence

Rosa Maria Godoy Serpa da Fonseca, Danyelle Leonette Araújo Dos Santos, Rafaela Gessner, Lucimara Fabiana Fornari, Rebeca Nunes Guedes de Oliveira, Michaela Chiara Schoenmaker
OBJECTIVE: To identify and analyze the perception of high school students about violence in intimacy relations in adolescence, in the light of the category Gender. METHOD: A qualitative, descriptive and exploratory study, based on the comments of 27 adolescents participating in the online game, Papo Reto. The discourses were submitted to the analysis of thematic content and discussed in the light of the category Gender. RESULTS: Adolescents naturalize violence in their relationships of intimacy, but when they recognize it, they react in several ways: with aggressions, dialoguing with the partner or seeking support from third parties...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Anne Marie Coleman, Zoë Chouliara, Kay Currie
The aim of this article is to explore the positive and negative impacts of working therapeutically in complex psychological trauma (CPT), particularly the field of gender-based violence (GBV) and childhood sexual abuse (CSA), from the clinicians' perspective. The focus was on the prospect of positive gains and growth for therapists. Twenty-one clinicians ( n = 21; counselors/psychotherapists and psychologists) from National Health Service (NHS) specialist trauma services, a community mental health team, and specialist sexual assault counseling organization participated...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Rebecca de Boer, Frithjof Lutscher
Even though medical intervention measures against HIV transmission are available, the epidemic continues to spread in several sub-Saharan African countries. Empirical studies indicate that many people are unable to implement prevention strategies because of individual factors, such as extreme poverty or lack of education, but also because or relational factors, such as gender-based violence or transactional sex. This phenomenon, known as choice disability, may be such a large obstacle in the effectiveness of medical interventions that several field trials of structural (non-medical) interventions are underway that address these issues...
March 14, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Megan C Lytle, John R Blosnich, Susan M De Luca, Chris Brownson
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to explore how the associations between importance of religion and recent suicide ideation, recent suicide attempt, and lifetime suicide attempt vary by sexual orientation. METHODS: Survey data were collected from the 2011 University of Texas at Austin's Research Consortium data from 21,247 college-enrolled young adults aged 18-30 years. Respondents reported sexual identity as heterosexual, gay/lesbian, bisexual, or questioning...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Anna M Leddy, Deanna Kerrigan, Caitlin E Kennedy, Jessie Mbwambo, Samuel Likindikoki, Carol R Underwood
Female sex workers experience high rates of gender-based violence and HIV. Alcohol has been shown to facilitate women's risk of both gender-based violence and HIV; however, little research has explored how aspects of the sex work environment shape this risk. Drawing on structuration theory, this study explored how social conduct is patterned across time and space within the sex work environment to influence alcohol consumption, gender-based violence and HIV risk among female sex workers. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 24 female sex workers enrolled in an ongoing community randomised controlled trial of a combination HIV prevention intervention in Iringa, Tanzania...
March 16, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Jackson Katz
This article outlines the origins, philosophy, and pedagogy of the Mentors in Violence Prevention (MVP) program, which has played a significant role in the gender violence prevention field since its inception in 1993. MVP was one of the first large-scale programs to target men for prevention efforts, as well as the first to operate systematically in sports culture and the U.S. military. MVP also introduced the "bystander" approach to the field. MVP employs a social justice, gender-focused approach to prevention...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
Elizabeth Miller
The Mentors in Violence Prevention (MVP) model seeks to address the root causes of gender violence using a bystander approach and leadership training to challenge structures of patriarchy. Emerging research on adolescent relationship abuse and sexual violence points to key modifiable targets-transforming gender norms, addressing homophobia, integrating with comprehensive sexuality education, and acknowledging the needs of youth already exposed to violence. A social justice-based bystander approach such as the MVP model should be part of a multi-level approach to sexual violence prevention that addresses gender and power, encourages healthy sexuality conversations, and provides safety and support for survivors...
March 1, 2018: Violence Against Women
George Odwe, Chi-Chi Undie, Francis Obare
BACKGROUND: Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) remains a silent epidemic in many humanitarian settings with many survivors concealing their experiences. Attitudes towards help-seeking for SGBV is an important determinant of SGBV service use. This paper examined the association between attitudes towards seeking care and knowledge and perceptions about SGBV among men and women in a humanitarian setting in Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from May to June 2015 among 601 heads of refugee households (261 females and 340 males) in Rwamwanja Refugees Settlement Scheme, South West Uganda...
March 12, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Cary L Klemmer, Sean Arayasirikul, Henry F Raymond
Psychological processes may mediate the relationship between minority stress and mental health though limited data exist showing this pathway among trans women. Trans women's degree of satisfaction with their body is associated with mental health outcomes. This study used a model of minority stress to explore for indirect effects on the association between transphobia-based victimization and anxiety and depression through one's degree of body satisfaction. Analysis also explored for racial differences. Transgender women ( N = 233) were recruited in 2013 using respondent-driven sampling...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Esnat D Chirwa, Yandisa Sikweyiya, Adolphina Addoley Addo-Lartey, Deda Ogum Alangea, Dorcas Coker-Appiah, Richard M K Adanu, Rachel Jewkes
BACKGROUND: Evidence-based interventions are essential in the prevention of violence against women (VAW). An understanding of risk factors for male perpetration of VAW using population-based research is crucial for developing such interventions. This study is a baseline assessment of a two-arm unmatched cluster randomised controlled trial (C-RCT), set up to assess the impact of a Rural Response System (RRS) intervention for preventing violence against women and girls in Ghana. This study aims at assessing past year prevalence and risk factors for sexual or physical intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration among men...
2018: PloS One
Susan Andrea Bartels, Saja Michael, Sophie Roupetz, Stephanie Garbern, Lama Kilzar, Harveen Bergquist, Nour Bakhache, Colleen Davison, Annie Bunting
Introduction: The Syrian conflict has resulted in over 2.3 million child refugees in the Middle East and the prevalence of early marriage has reportedly increased among displaced Syrian families. This study explores the underlying factors contributing to child marriage among Syrian refugees in Lebanon with the goal of informing community-based strategies to address the issue. Methods: In July-August 2016, trained interviewers collected self-interpreted stories in Lebanon using Cognitive Edge's SenseMaker, a mixed-method data collection tool...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Nathalie E Williams, Dirgha Ghimire, Karen A Snedker
This article investigates the prevalence and determinants of fear as a consequence of living through armed conflict. We use survey data from Nepal during the armed conflict (1996-2006) to examine how trauma, sex and gender, age, marriage, and household size affect fear of violence. We also disaggregate types of worry, and find substantial variance on whether respondents were more concerned about livelihood consequences of conflict than physical danger. We supplement quantitative analyses with discussion of in-depth interviews from the study area on these same topics...
March 2018: Social Science Research
Darrell E Singer, Ligong Chen, Stephanie Shao, Jonathan Goldsmith, Celia Byrne, David W Niebuhr
Introduction: Sickle cell trait (SCT) affects an estimated 5.02% of non-Hispanic blacks, 1.08% of Hispanics, and 0.1% of Whites in the U.S. military. Policies for SCT screening and occupational restrictions vary by service. Population-based studies of SCT with quantification of military-relevant outcomes are lacking. Methods: The study design was a retrospective cohort of 15,081 SCT-positive versus 60,320 SCT-negative U.S. active duty personnel enlisted from 1992 to 2012 and followed through 2013...
March 1, 2018: Military Medicine
Laura Lara, Javier López-Cepero
The Dating Violence Questionnaire (DVQ) is a 42-item questionnaire that measures victimization in romantic relationships between young people, through eight interrelated scales assessing detachment, humiliation, coercion, emotional punishment, gender-based, sexual, physical, and instrumental violence. It has been validated in a myriad of countries and languages and is commonly used in Spanish-speaking countries; however, two scales (emotional punishment and instrumental violence) have shown reliability issues...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Caroline M Parker, Richard G Parker, Morgan M Philbin, Jennifer S Hirsch
This paper advances research on racism and health by presenting a conceptual model that delineates pathways linking policing practices to HIV vulnerability among Black men who have sex with men in the urban USA. Pathways include perceived discrimination based on race, sexuality and gender performance, mental health, and condom-carrying behaviors. The model, intended to stimulate future empirical work, is based on a review of the literature and on ethnographic data collected in 2014 in New York City. This paper contributes to a growing body of work that examines policing practices as drivers of racial health disparities extending far beyond violence-related deaths...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Allegra R Gordon, Kerith J Conron, Jerel P Calzo, Matthew T White, Sari L Reisner, S Bryn Austin
BACKGROUND: Young people may experience school-based violence and bullying victimization related to their gender expression, independent of sexual orientation identity. However, the associations between gender expression and bullying and violence have not been examined in racially and ethnically diverse population-based samples of high school students. METHODS: This study includes 5469 students (13-18 years) from the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys conducted in 4 urban school districts...
April 2018: Journal of School Health
Jason M Nagata, Sejal Hathi, B Jane Ferguson, Michele J Hindin, Sachiyo Yoshida, David A Ross
Background: In order to clarify priorities and stimulate research in adolescent health in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), the World Health Organization (WHO) conducted two priority-setting exercises based on the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) methodology related to 1) adolescent sexual and reproductive health and 2) eight areas of adolescent health including communicable diseases prevention and management, injuries and violence, mental health, non-communicable diseases management, nutrition, physical activity, substance use, and health policy...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
Dayoung Lee, Song Jung, Seongjun Park, Hyun Ju Hong
The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for suicidal ideation in adolescents by gender and age. This study used 2013 nationwide school-based mental health screening test data from 591,303 seventh grade students and 618,271 tenth grade students in Korea. Suicidal ideation, four psychological problems, and three adverse life events were evaluated using the Adolescents Mental Health and Problem Behavior Screening Questionnaire-II. Of all students, 12.9-14.7% of the boys and 17.1-23.2% of the girls had suicidal ideation...
February 28, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Marcos Antonio Ferreira do Nascimento, Anna Paula Uziel, Jimena de Garay Hernández
This article presents results for young men's health based on an intervention-study on gender, sexuality, and health of adolescents and young men in conflict with the law, deprived of their freedom, and subject to socio-educational confinement in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The themes addressed included questions on overall health, mental health, and sexual and reproductive health, analyzed from a relational gender perspective and social construction of masculinities. The majority of these young men are black, from low-income communities, with low schooling levels, and ranging in age from 14 to 21 years of age; some of them are fathers...
February 19, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Ashley Grosso, Shianne Busch, Tampose Mothopeng, Stephanie Sweitzer, John Nkonyana, Nkomile Mpooa, Noah Taruberekera, Stefan Baral
INTRODUCTION: Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) about gender equality; decent work; and peace, justice, and strong institutions include a focus on eradicating trafficking and sexual exploitation of and violence against women and children. In Lesotho, 86% of women have experienced gender-based violence. In addition, overall HIV prevalence is among the highest globally, and higher among adolescent girls than boys. Moreover, nearly three quarters of female sex workers (FSW) are estimated to be living with HIV in Lesotho...
February 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
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