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Gender-based violence

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078529/rethinking-preconception-care-a-critical-women-s-health-perspective
#1
Erika L Thompson, Coralia Vázquez-Otero, Cheryl A Vamos, Stephanie L Marhefka, Nolan S Kline, Ellen M Daley
Objectives Preconception care aims to provide care to reproductive aged individuals in order to improve pregnancy and birth outcomes. Given that preconception care is a public health priority, it is important to evaluate the evolution of this health paradigm and the promotion of preconception messages that are obtained by the public. We identified online preconception health messages, which were critically assessed through a women's health perspective. Methods We searched for "preconception care" on three major search engines...
January 11, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064522/the-impact-of-humanitarian-emergencies-on-the-prevalence-of-violence-against-children-an-evidence-based-ecological-framework
#2
Beth L Rubenstein, Lindsay Stark
Little is known about the patterns and mechanisms by which humanitarian emergencies may exacerbate violence against children. In this article, we propose using the ecological framework to examine the impact of humanitarian emergencies on interpersonal violence against children. We consider the literature that supports this framework and suggest future directions for research to fill identified gaps in the framework. The relationship between humanitarian emergencies and violence against children depends on risk factors at multiple levels, including a breakdown of child protection systems, displacement, threats to livelihoods, changing gender roles, changing household composition, overcrowded living conditions, early marriage, exposure to conflict or other emergency events, and alcohol abuse...
January 9, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064513/temporal-patterns-and-predictors-of-bullying-roles-among-adolescents-in-vietnam-a-school-based-cohort-study
#3
Ha Thi Hai Le, Michael P Dunne, Marilyn A Campbell, Michelle L Gatton, Huong Thanh Nguyen, Nam T Tran
Although many cross-sectional studies have examined bullying experiences and correlated factors among adolescents in schools, relatively little is known about the extent to which bullying roles are stable or fluid over time. This short-term quantitative longitudinal study in Vietnam examined temporal patterns and predictors of bullying roles over an academic year. A total of 1424 middle and high school students aged 12-17 years completed two anonymous, self-administered questionnaires six months apart in 2014 and 2015...
January 9, 2017: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031583/suicide-and-suicidal-behavior-among-transgender-persons
#4
REVIEW
H G Virupaksha, Daliboyina Muralidhar, Jayashree Ramakrishna
BACKGROUND: Suicide rate and suicidal tendencies among transgender persons are considerably high compared to general population. Hence, this review is an attempt to understand the issues around the suicide and suicidal behavior among transgender persons. METHODOLOGY: The literature search conducted using three sources, i.e., electronic databases (PubMed, ProQuest, Google Scholar, PsycInfo), manual search (library catalog), and gray literature (consultation with experts)...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026980/addiction-related-stigma-and-discrimination-a-qualitative-study-in-treatment-centers-in-mexico-city
#5
Jazmín Mora-Ríos, Miriam Ortega-Ortega, Maria Elena Medina-Mora
: Social rejection of drug use is greater than that directed at other psychiatric conditions, like depression and anxiety, which may lead to social exclusion of substance users and prevent them from seeking and receiving treatment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to investigate the stigma and discrimination related to addiction in treatment centers in Mexico City. METHODS: Data are from a broad mixed methods study. The present study is a qualitative analysis of 35 in-depth interviews of drug users, family members, and providers, using guidelines for the exploration of experiences of stigma and discrimination related to substance abuse...
December 27, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002982/dangerous-girls-and-cheating-boys-zulu-speaking-disabled-young-peoples-constructs-of-heterosexual-relationships-in-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#6
Paul Chappell
Across South Africa there is a growing body of work that explores gender dynamics in heterosexual relationships between young people aged 15-24 years. This is mainly influenced by the high prevalence of HIV and the incidence of intimate partner violence in this age group. Most studies to date have been based upon non-disabled young people, with limited focus on young disabled people. In an attempt to address this gap, this paper describes findings from a study conducted with 22 Zulu-speaking young people with visual and physical disabilities in KwaZulu-Natal...
December 22, 2016: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993907/prevalence-and-correlates-of-sexual-and-gender-based-violence-against-chinese-adolescent-women-who-are-involved-in-commercial-sex-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Xu-Dong Zhang, Sierra Myers, Hong-Juan Yang, Yun Li, Ji-Hong Li, Wei Luo, Stanley Luchters
OBJECTIVES: Despite the vast quantity of research among Chinese female sex workers (FSWs) to address concerns regarding HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk, there is a paucity of research on issues of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) and the missed opportunity for sexual and reproductive health (SRH) promotion among young FSWs. Our research aimed to assess the prevalence and correlates of SGBV among Chinese adolescent FSWs, and to explore SRH service utilisation. DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study using a one-stage cluster sampling method was employed...
December 19, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992838/posttraumatic-stress-and-youth-violence-perpetration-a-population-based-cross-sectional-study
#8
M Aebi, M Mohler-Kuo, S Barra, U Schnyder, T Maier, M A Landolt
BACKGROUND: Exposure to trauma was found to increase later violent behaviours in youth but the underlying psychopathological mechanisms are unclear. This study aimed to test whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is related to violent behaviours and whether PTSD symptoms mediate the relationship between the number of trauma experiences and violent behaviours in adolescents. METHOD: The present study is based on a nationally representative sample of 9th grade students with 3434 boys (mean age=15...
December 16, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988489/frequent-experience-of-lgbq-microaggression-on-campus-associated-with-smoking-among-sexual-minority-college-students
#9
Thomas Ylioja, Gerald Cochran, Michael R Woodford, Kristen A Renn
INTRODUCTION: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, or queer/questioning (LGBQ) microaggressions refer to often-unintentional insults, assaults, and invalidations that denigrate sexual minorities. While experiencing hostile discrimination and violence has previously been associated with elevated rates of smoking cigarettes for LGBQ college students, the relationship between LGBQ microaggressions and smoking is unknown. METHODS: Data from a national anonymous online survey of sexual and gender minority college students were used to examine the relationship between past month cigarette smoking and interpersonal LGBQ microaggressions...
November 8, 2016: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939648/clinically-speaking-psychological-abuse-matters
#10
Rita Começanha, Miguel Basto-Pereira, Ângela Maia
BACKGROUND: The adverse effects of intimate partner violence (IPV) on mental health are well-established, except in the cases of psychological abuse and men's victimization. This research study examines the prevalence and the independent contribution of psychological IPV on mental health for both genders. METHODS: The initial sample comprises 661 college students from a Portuguese public university, who completed an e-survey. Statistical analysis focused on a subsample (n=364), 23% of which were men, after removing cases of physical and/or sexual abuse...
December 1, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925107/characteristics-of-motorcyclists-involved-in-road-traffic-accidents-attended-at-public-urgent-and-emergency-services
#11
Márcio Dênis Medeiros Mascarenhas, Rayone Moreira Costa Veloso Souto, Deborah Carvalho Malta, Marta Maria Alves da Silva, Cheila Marina de Lima, Marli de Mesquita Silva Montenegro
Injuries resulting from motorcycle road traffic accidents are an important public health issue in Brazil. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of motorcyclists involved in traffic accidents attended in public urgent and emergency services in the state capitals and the Federal District. This is a cross-sectional study based on data from the Violence and Accident Surveillance System (VIVA Survey) in 2014. Data were analyzed according to sociodemographic, event and attendance characteristics. Proportional differences between genders were analyzed by chi-square test (Rao-Scott) with 5% significance level...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923874/inmate-violence-and-correctional-staff-burnout-the-role-of-sense-of-security-gender-and-job-characteristics
#12
Anna Isenhardt, Ueli Hostettler
Violence in the workplace has serious consequences for employees and organizations. Based on a survey in early 2012 among employees from all work areas of 89 of the total 112 correctional facilities in Switzerland resulting in a sample of 2,045 employees (response rate 48.5%), this study (a) analyzed whether victimization has an impact on correctional staff burnout, (b) tested the hypothetical mediating role of sense of security in the relationship between victimization and burnout, and (c) included gender and job characteristics because work experiences and exposure to violence of staff differ strongly with gender and work tasks...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923371/type-of-sexual-intercourse-experience-and-suicidal-ideation-plans-and-attempts-among-youths-a-cross-sectional-study-in-south-korea
#13
Geum Hee Kim, Hyeong Sik Ahn, Hyun Jung Kim
BACKGROUND: Despite abundant theoretical evidence of higher rates of suicide among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths, little is known about the relationship between suicide and types of sexual intercourse experience in youths. This study examines the association between the type of intercourse experience and suicide risk outcomes (SROs: suicidal ideation, plans for suicide, suicidal attempts) from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data from 146,621 students aged 12-17 years for the years 2012 and 2013...
December 7, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917766/psychosocial-risk-and-protective-factors-associated-with-perpetration-of-gender-based-violence-in-a-community-sample-of-men-in-rural-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#14
N Mngoma, S Fergus, A Jeeves, R Jolly
BACKGROUND: Rates of gender-based violence (GBV) in South Africa (SA) are among the highest in the world. In societies where social ideals of masculinity encourage male dominance and control over women, gender power imbalances contribute to male perpetration and women's vulnerability. The drivers that cause men to perpetrate GBV and those that lead to HIV overlap and interact in multiple and complex ways. Multiple risk and protective factors for GBV perpetration by males operate interdependently at a number of levels; at the individual level, these include chronic anxiety and depression, which have been shown to lead to risky sexual behaviours...
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917757/the-dual-burden-of-gender-based-violence-and-hiv-in-adolescent-girls-and-young-women-in-south-africa
#15
Q Abdool Karim, C Baxter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908972/clustering-of-health-related-behaviors-among-early-and-mid-adolescents-in-tuscany-results-from-a-representative-cross-sectional-study
#16
Giacomo Lazzeri, Donatella Panatto, Alexander Domnich, Lucia Arata, Andrea Pammolli, Rita Simi, Mariano Vincenzo Giacchi, Daniela Amicizia, Roberto Gasparini
BACKGROUND: A huge amount of literature suggests that adolescents' health-related behaviors tend to occur in clusters, and the understanding of such behavioral clustering may have direct implications for the effective tailoring of health-promotion interventions. Despite the usefulness of analyzing clustering, Italian data on this topic are scant. This study aimed to evaluate the clustering patterns of health-related behaviors. METHODS: The present study is based on data from the Health Behaviors in School-aged Children (HBSC) study conducted in Tuscany in 2010, which involved 3291 11-, 13- and 15-year olds...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863515/feasibility-trial-of-a-scalable-psychological-intervention-for-women-affected-by-urban-adversity-and-gender-based-violence-in-nairobi
#17
Katie S Dawson, Alison Schafer, Dorothy Anjuri, Lincoln Ndogoni, Caroline Musyoki, Marit Sijbrandij, Mark van Ommeren, Richard A Bryant
BACKGROUND: Living in conditions of chronic adversity renders many women more vulnerable to experiencing gender-based violence (GBV). In addition to GBV's physical and social consequences, the psychological effects can be pervasive. Access to evidence-based psychological interventions that seek to support the mental health of women affected by such adversity is rare in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: The current study evaluates a brief evidence-informed psychological intervention developed by the World Health Organization for adults impacted by adversity (Problem Management Plus; PM+)...
November 18, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861479/-gender-based-relations-and-mistreatment-in-medical-schools-a-pending-agenda-in-mexico-and-the-world
#18
Luz María Ángela Moreno-Tetlacuilo, Harumi Quezada-Yamamoto, Elsa Susana Guevara-Ruiseñor, Nora Ibarra-Araujo, Nora Liliana Martínez-Gatica, Roberto Pedraza-Moreno
The purpose of this review is to describe and analyze the status of gender violence in medical schools around the world, and its consequences in undergraduate students' health and academic development, mainly on female students. The different modalities reported in the literature are presented: gender discrimination, sexism, and sexual harassment, among others. The increase of women in medical schools has not transcendentally improved their condition in these institutions, where androcentrism and gender regimes that favor gender violence reproduce...
November 2016: Gaceta Médica de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852317/the-relationship-between-the-maria-da-penha-law-and-intimate-partner-violence-in-two-brazilian-states
#19
Mariana V Gattegno, Jasmine D Wilkins, Dabney P Evans
BACKGROUND: Globally, inequality between men and women manifests in a variety of ways. In particular, gender inequality increases the risk of perpetration of violence against women (VAW), especially intimate partner violence (IPV), by males. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 35 % of women have experienced physical, psychological and/or sexual IPV at least once in their lives, making IPV unacceptably common. In 2006, the Maria da Penha Law on Domestic and Family Violence, became the first federal law to regulate VAW and punish perpetrators in Brazil...
November 17, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849449/suicide-in-relation-to-the-experience-of-stressful-life-events-a-population-based-study
#20
Rita Fjeldsted, Thomas William Teasdale, Martin Jensen, Annette Erlangsen
Stressful life events have been associated with high risk of suicidal behavior. The aim of this study was to examine whether persons who died by suicide in Denmark had more frequently been exposed to stressful life events, specifically divorce, death of a close relative, exposure to violence, and imprisonment, when compared to gender and age-matched controls. Data from Danish national registers were obtained for the period of 2000-2010 and a nested case-control design was applied. The association between exposure to stressful life events and suicide was examined using logistic regression analysis...
November 16, 2016: Archives of Suicide Research: Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research
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