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Colistin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334366/modified-colistin-regimen-for-critically-ill-patients-with-acute-renal-impairment-and-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy
#1
Pierantonio Menna, Emanuela Salvatorelli, Alessia Mattei, Dario Cappiello, Giorgio Minotti, Massimiliano Carassiti
Colistin is a last resort antibiotic to treat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria infections. Colistin is administered intravenously in the form of its inactive prodrug colistin methanesulfonate (CMS). For patients with acute kidney impairment and continuous renal replacement therapy high extracorporeal clearance may cause a substantial removal of active colistin from the bloodstream, eventually decreasing its antibacterial efficacy. Currently recommended doses of CMS may therefore be inadequate for these patients...
December 22, 2017: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331890/deep-sequence-analysis-reveals-the-ovine-rumen-as-a-reservoir-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes
#2
Thomas C A Hitch, Ben J Thomas, Jessica C A Friedersdorff, Helen Ougham, Christopher J Creevey
Antibiotic resistance is an increasingly important environmental pollutant with direct consequences for human health. Identification of environmental sources of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) makes it possible to follow their evolution and prevent their entry into the clinical setting. ARGs have been found in environmental sources exogenous to the original source and previous studies have shown that these genes are capable of being transferred from livestock to humans. Due to the nature of farming and the slaughter of ruminants for food, humans interact with these animals in close proximity, and for this reason it is important to consider the risks to human health...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331006/outbreak-of-extensively-drug-resistant-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-in-burn-unit
#3
Usman Ali, Shahid Ahmad Abbasi, Fatima Kaleem, Irum Aftab, Tariq Butt
Stenotrophomonas maltophiliais an emerging cause of nosocomial infections. We report an outbreak of XDR-Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection from burn unit of a tertiary care hospital in July 2016. The strain isolated was resistant to all antimicrobials tested but colistin. Outbreak investigation was carried out which subsided after timely intervention. Patients were treated adequately by Colistin.
October 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329840/determination-of-colistin-in-animal-tissues-egg-milk-and-feed-by-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#4
Qin Fu, Xiaowei Li, Kangni Zheng, Yuebin Ke, Yingyu Wang, Lina Wang, Fugen Yu, Xi Xia
A confirmatory method for the determination of colistin in animal tissues, egg, milk, and feed was developed and validated. Colistin A and colistin B were extracted from samples with the mixture of 10% trichloroacetic acid-acetonitrile and isolated with mixed-mode weak cation exchange cartridge. Analytes were separated from matrix components using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography, and detected with electrospray ionization on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Mean recoveries ranged from 78.0% to 115...
May 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329393/tgf-%C3%AE-mediated-nadph-oxidase-4-dependent-oxidative-stress-promotes-colistin-induced-acute-kidney-injury
#5
Bo Young Jeong, Se-Ra Park, Sungkwon Cho, Seong-Lan Yu, Hoi Young Lee, Chang Gyo Park, Jaeku Kang, Da-Young Jung, Moon Hyang Park, Won-Min Hwang, Sung-Ro Yun, Ju-Young Jung, Se-Hee Yoon
Background: Colistin (polymyxin E) is an important constituent of the polymyxin class of cationic polypeptide antibiotics. Intrarenal oxidative stress can contribute to colistin-induced nephrotoxicity. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide 3-phosphate oxidases (Noxs) are important sources of reactive oxygen species. Among the various types of Noxs, Nox4 is predominantly expressed in the kidney. Objectives: We investigated the role of Nox4 and benefit of Nox4 inhibition in colistin-induced acute kidney injury using in vivo and in vitro models...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325326/-investigation-of-colistin-resistance-gene-mcr-in-gut-bacteria-from-patients-with-acute-diarrheal
#6
Y Li, W J Yan, S Q Liu
Objective: To investigate the presence of colistin resistance gene mcr in gut bacteria from patients with acute diarrhea. Methods: Fresh stool samples were collected from 150 outpatients with acute diarrhea in the intestinal clinic of Henan Provincial People's Hospital, and were directly detected for the presence of mcr by PCR after enrichment in the broth.The mcr-producing bacteria were further isolated and identified by MALDI-TOF MS (Bruker Biotyper). Antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates was conducted by micro-broth dilution method...
December 19, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318460/nebulization-of-antimicrobial-agents-in-mechanically-ventilated-adults-in-2017-an-international-cross-sectional-survey
#7
Joana Alves, Emine Alp, Despoina Koulenti, Zhongheng Zhang, Stephan Ehrmann, Stijn Blot, Matteo Bassetti, Andrew Conway-Morris, Rosa Reina, Enrique Teran, Candela Sole-Lleonart, Maria Ruiz-Rodríguez, Jordi Rello
2017 ESCMID practice guidelines reported safety concerns and weak evidence of benefit supporting use of aerosolized antibiotics in mechanically ventilated patients. Our primary goal was to assess current patterns of aerosolized antibiotic prescription in mechanically ventilated patients. A sequential global survey was performed prior to the release of the ESCMID guidelines, from the 1st of February to the 30th of April 2017, using an electronic platform. Responses were analyzed comparing geographical regions...
January 9, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314285/modulation-of-broilers-caecal-microflora-and-metabolites-in-response-to-a-potential-probiotic-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens
#8
G T Cao, X A Zhan, L L Zhang, X F Zeng, A G Chen, C M Yang
Studies have found that a dietary supplement of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens improved the growth performance, increased the nutrient digestibility of hosts and modulated the intestinal microflora. A total of 360 1-day-old Ross broilers were randomly divided into three treatments: a control group with a basal diet, an antibiotic group with a basal diet and added colistin sulphate, and a probiotics group with a basal diet and added Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The HiSeq high-throughput sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA was used to investigate the differences in birds' caecal microflora, and metabolomics was used to analyse changes in caecal metabolites...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307962/monotherapy-versus-combination-therapy-against-nonbacteremic-carbapenem-resistant-gram-negative-infections-a-retrospective-observational-study
#9
Abdul Ghafur, Vidyalakshmi Devarajan, T Raja, Jose Easow, M A Raja, Sankar Sreenivas, Balasubramaniam Ramakrishnan, S G Raman, Dedeepiya Devaprasad, Balaji Venkatachalam, Ramesh Nimmagadda
Background: Superiority of colistin-carbapenem combination therapy (CCCT) over colistin monotherapy (CMT) against carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacterial (CRGNB) infections is not conclusively proven. Aim: The aim of the current study was to analyze the effectiveness of both strategies against CRGNB nonbacteremic infections. Design: This was a retrospective observational cohort study. Subjects and Methods: Case record analysis of patients who had CRGNB nonbacteremic infections identified over a period of 4 years (January 2012-December 2015) was done by medical record review at a tertiary care center in India...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307769/molecular-epidemiology-of-carbapenem-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolates-from-a-korean-hospital-that-carry-blaoxa-23
#10
Hyejin Jeon, Shukho Kim, Mi Hyun Kim, Se Yeon Kim, Donghyuk Nam, Sung Chan Park, Sue-Hyun Park, Hanna Bae, Hyeon-Jeong Lee, Jae Hyun Cho, Won-Kil Lee, Yoo Chul Lee, Sang Hwa Lee, Min Sang Shin, Je Chul Lee
To elucidate the epidemicity of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB), we investigated the antimicrobial susceptibility, the genetic basis of antimicrobial resistance, and the ability to form biofilms of 147 CRAB isolates collected between 2013 and 2015 from a Korean hospital based on sequence types (STs). Six different STs were identified: ST191 (n=47) and ST208 (n=36) were clones that had already been identified in the study hospital, whereas ST229 (n=28), ST369 (n=18), ST357 (n=17), and ST552 (n=1) were previously unknown...
January 4, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305957/isolation-of-an-incp-1-plasmid-with-mcr-1-from-a-chicken-isolate-of-citrobacter-braakii-in-china
#11
Jinxin Liu, Yanxian Yang, Yunxia Li, Dan Liu, Hongmei Tuo, Hongning Wang, Douglas R Call, Margaret Davis, Anyun Zhang
The plasmid-mediated colistin resistance gene mcr-1 has been found worldwide, but the diversity of organisms harboring this gene is unknown. In this study, twelve colistin-resistant Citrobacter spp. isolates were obtained from diseased or dead chickens in China, and PCR analysis indicated that five were positive for mcr-1. One Citrobacter braakii strain (SCC4) with a multidrug resistance phenotype was chosen for further analysis. SCC4 was resistant to ten tested antibiotics and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to colistin was >4 µg/mL...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305956/pharmacokinetics-of-colistin-methanesulfonate-cms-in-healthy-chinese-subjects-after-single-and-multiple-intravenous-doses
#12
Miao Zhao, Xiao-Jie Wu, Ya-Xin Fan, Ying-Yuan Zhang, Bei-Ning Guo, Ji-Cheng Yu, Guo-Ying Cao, Yuan-Cheng Chen, Ju-Fang Wu, Yao-Guo Shi, Jian Li, Jing Zhang
High prevalence of extensive-drug resistance (XDR) gram-negative pathogens has forced clinicians to use colistin as the last-line therapy. Our knowledge on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of colistin methanesulfonate (CMS, an inactive prodrug) and colistin has increased substantially; however, the PK in Chinese population is still unknown due to the lack of a CMS product. This study aimed to evaluate the PK of a new CMS product developed in China for optimizing the dosing regimens. Twenty-four healthy subjects (12 female, 12 male) were enrolled in single- and multiple-dose PK studies...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305954/clinical-use-of-the-polymyxins-the-tale-of-the-fox-and-the-cat
#13
Eric Wenzler, Kristen L Bunnell, Larry H Danziger
BACKGROUND: There is a need to identify practice patterns of polymyxin use, quantify gaps in knowledge, and recognize areas of persistent confusion. METHODS: A structured electronic survey was distributed to physicians, pharmacists, and microbiologists. Demographic information was obtained along with data regarding the availability, stewardship principles, therapeutic usage, dosing, microbiological testing, and knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding the polymyxins...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302147/current-trends-of-drug-resistance-patterns-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-infection-in-blood-transfusion-dependent-thalassemia-patients
#14
Suhail Ahmed Almani, Ali Naseer, Sanjay Kumar Maheshwari, Pir Maroof, Raza Naseer, Haji Khan Khoharo
Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the current trends of drug resistance patterns of Acinetobacter baumannii infection in blood transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients. Study Design: This study was a cross sectional study, conducted at the Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro/Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan from October 2014 to January 2016. Subjects and Methods: Of 921 blood samples, A. baumannii strains were isolated from 100 blood samples...
October 2017: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301193/antibiotic-resistance-of-acinetobacter-spp-isolates-from-the-river-danube-susceptibility-stays-high
#15
Clemens Kittinger, Alexander Kirschner, Michaela Lipp, Rita Baumert, Franz Mascher, Andreas H Farnleitner, Gernot E Zarfel
Acinetobacter spp. occur naturally in many different habitats, including food, soil, and surface waters. In clinical settings, Acinetobacter poses an increasing health problem, causing infections with limited to no antibiotic therapeutic options left. The presence of human generated multidrug resistant strains is well documented but the extent to how widely they are distributed within the Acinetobacter population is unknown. In this study, Acinetobacter spp. were isolated from water samples at 14 sites of the whole course of the river Danube...
December 30, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296190/expression-characteristics-of-the-plasmid-borne-mcr-1-colistin-resistance-gene
#16
Haifang Zhang, Minhui Miao, Jieting Yan, Min Wang, Yi-Wei Tang, Barry N Kreiswirth, Xia Zhang, Liang Chen, Hong Du
The plasmid-encoded colistin resistance gene (mcr-1) has recently been reported in various Gram-negative species. However, the expression profile of mcr-1 remains unknown. Here, we investigated the expression of mcr-1 in various plasmids and bacteria. The mcr-1 expression levels in pMCR1_IncX4 varied from 1.81 × 10-5 to 1.05 × 10-4 (pmol per μg total RNA) in the two K. pneumoniae strains SZ03 and SZ04 (ST25) and the two E. coli strains SZ01 and CDA6 (ST2448 and ST167, respectively). The mcr-1 expression levels of pMCR1_IncI2 in E...
December 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290374/physical-compatibility-of-meropenem-and-vaborbactam-with-select-intravenous-drugs-during-simulated-y-site-administration
#17
James M Kidd, Lindsay M Avery, Tomefa E Asempa, David P Nicolau, Joseph L Kuti
PURPOSE: Meropenem/vaborbactam is a novel intravenous antibiotic combining the carbapenem, meropenem, with a novel β-lactamase inhibitor, vaborbactam. Meropenem/vaborbactam is administered as a 3-hour infusion given every 8 hours, thereby potentially restricting an intravenous line for 9 h/d. Intravenous medications may be given concurrently via Y-site when compatibility data are available. Herein, physical compatibility was determined for the identification which medications can be coadministered with meropenem/vaborbactam via Y-site...
December 28, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288723/intravenous-colistin-combination-antimicrobial-treatment-versus-monotherapy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Konstantinos Z Vardakas, Andreas D Mavroudis, Maria Georgiou, Matthew E Falagas
BACKGROUND: To evaluate whether IV colistin in combination with other antibiotics (IVCC) was associated with lower mortality compared to colistin monotherapy (IVCM) and identify factors influencing study outcomes. METHODS: PubMed and Scopus were searched till November 2016. Studies were included if they evaluated adult patients with MDR/XDR Gram-negative infections and reported comparative mortality data (adjusted and unadjusted) for patients receiving IVCC versus IVCM...
December 27, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286009/efficacy-of-loading-dose-of-colistin-in-acinetobacter-baumannii-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#19
Emine Alp, Esma Eren, Gülseren Elay, Fatma Cevahir, Aliye Esmaoğlu, Jordi Rello
Colistin loading dose (LD) has been postulated as an advance in therapy. The clinical, microbiological effectiveness and nephrotoxicity of adding an LD to systemic colistin in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii remain unknown. In this quasi experimental study, the efficacy, outcomes and nephrotoxicity in 30 adults who received intravenous colistin with LD for MDR A. baumannii ventilator associated pneumonia were compared with 22 in absence of LD...
December 1, 2017: Le Infezioni in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285477/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-producing-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamases-vim-imp-sme-and-aim-in-the-clinical-isolates-of-intensive-care-units-a-university-hospital-in-isfahan-iran
#20
Farzin Khorvash, Mohammadreza Yazdani, Shiva Shabani, Aliasghar Soudi
Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a severe challenge for antimicrobial therapy, due to the chromosomal mutations or exhibition of intrinsic resistance to various antimicrobial agents such as most β-lactams. We undertook this study to evaluate the existence of SME, IMP, AIM, and VIM metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) encoding genes among P. aeruginosa strains isolated from Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients in Al-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective cross-sectional study that was conducted between March 2012 and April 2013, a total of 48 strains of P...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
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