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Valter Petersell, Krista Täht-Kok, Mark Karimov, Heli Milvek, Siim Nirgi, Margus Raha, Krista Saarik
Several investigations in Estonia during 1996¬-1999 have shown that permissible level (200 Bq/m(3)) of radon (222Rn) in indoor air is exceeded in 33% of the inspected dwellings. This makes Estonia one of the five countries with highest radon risk in Europe (Fig 1). Due to correlation between the soil radon risk level and radon concentration in houses, small scale radon risk mapping of soil air was carried out (one study point per 70-100 km(2)). It turned out that one-third of Estonian mainland has high radon risk potential, where radon concentration in soil air exceeds safe limit of 50 kBq/m(3)...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Hiroshi Kawaguchi, Hitoshi Shimada, Fumitoshi Kodaka, Masayuki Suzuki, Hitoshi Shinotoh, Shigeki Hirano, Jeff Kershaw, Yuichi Inoue, Masaki Nakamura, Taeko Sasai, Mina Kobayashi, Tetsuya Suhara, Hiroshi Ito
The loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) is a major pathophysiological feature of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). As nigral DA neurons contain both neuromelanin (NM) and dopamine transporter (DAT), decreased intensities in both NM-sensitive MRI and DAT PET reflect decreased DA neuronal density. This study demonstrates that a more specific metric for the nigral DA neuronal density can be derived with multimodal MRI and PET. Participants were 11 clinically diagnosed PD patients and 10 age and gender matched healthy controls (HCs)...
2016: PloS One
Wu Zeng, Donald S Shepard, Carlos Avila-Figueroa, Haksoon Ahn
BACKGROUND: -To manage the human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic, international donors have pledged unprecedented commitments for needed services. The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) projected that low- and middle-income countries needed $25 billion to meet the 2010 HIV/AIDS goal of universal access to AIDS prevention and care, using the resource needs model (RNM). METHODS: -Drawing from the results from its sister study, which used a data envelopment analysis (DEA) and a Tobit model to evaluate and adjust the technical efficiency of 61 countries in delivering HIV/AIDS services from 2002 to 2007, this study extended the DEA and developed an approach to estimate resource needs and decompose the performance gap into efficiency gap and resource gap...
June 2016: Health Policy and Planning
Heli T Viljakainen, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Sanjay Kinra, Shah Ebrahim, Hannah Kuper, K V Radhakrishna, Bharati Kulkarni, Jon H Tobias
BACKGROUND: Fracture risk is rising in countries undergoing rapid rural to urban migration, but whether this reflects an adverse effect of urbanization on intrinsic bone strength, as reflected by bone mineral density (BMD), is currently unknown. METHODS: Lumbar spine (LS) and total hip (TH) BMD, and total body fat and lean mass, were obtained from DXA scans performed in the Hyderabad arm of the Indian Migration Study (54% male, mean age 49 years). Sib-pair comparisons were performed between rural-urban migrants (RUM) and rural non-migrated (RNM) siblings (N = 185 sib-pairs)...
2015: PloS One
J Gagnière, A Dupré, S Chabaud, P Peyrat, P Meeus, M Rivoire
BACKGROUND: Retroperitoneal nodal metastases (RNM) represent 1-2% of metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC). Non-surgical treatments achieve 5-year overall survival (OS) of 0-12%. Radical retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy (RRL) in this setting remains controversial, but most published series do not distinguish local retroperitoneal recurrences from RNM. We specifically report outcomes after RRL for RNM from CRC. METHODS: We analyzed prospectively recorded data from patients who underwent standardized RRL for RNM from CRC between January 1997 and August 2012 in our institution...
June 2015: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Glêbia Alexa Cardoso, Alexandre Sérgio Silva, Alesandra Araújo de Souza, Marcos Antônio Pereira Dos Santos, Raquel Suelen Brito da Silva, Lavoisiana Mateus de Lacerda, Maria Paula Motae
This study investigated the chronic and acute influence of resistance exercise on blood pressure in women with metabolic syndrome before and after climacteric. Twenty sedentary women, nine non-menopausal (RNM) and 11 menopausal (RM), performed training for 12 weeks. Meanwhile, 23 controls, 11 not menopausal (CNM) and 12 menopausal (CM), remained sedentary. Blood pressure was measured before and after the training period in conditions of rest and after a session of exercise. Training promoted variations in blood pressure at rest from 116±13 to 118±10 mmHg (p=0...
September 29, 2014: Journal of Human Kinetics
R N M Queiroz, T L P Dias
The fronds of marine macroalgae play an important role in coastal ecosystems because the algae banks are utilized as a microhabitat by different taxa, including molluscs, one of the most abundant and diverse animals of marine ecosystems. In this study, we characterized the malacofauna associated with the macroalgae Gracilaria domingensis (Kützing) Sonder ex Dickie 1874 and Gracilaria cuneata Areschoug 1854 of a hypersaline mangrove on the northern coast of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil...
August 2014: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Feng Shi, Nianping Feng, Emmanuel Omari-Siaw
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to prepare microcapsules for the oral delivery of realgar nanoparticles (RN) that are also capable of improving its stability. METHODS: RN and RN-based microcapsules (RNM) were prepared using ball milling and solvent evaporation techniques, respectively. Properties such as particle size, ζ-potential (ZP), morphology and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) were investigated. In addition, drug release, bioavailability and antitumour studies were also performed...
January 2015: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
M Piles, M Baselga, J P Sánchez
Response on litter size (LS) to selection based on EBV of the own trait and several indexes including EBV of 1 or more parameters of a reaction norm model (RNM) was evaluated by simulation. The RNM described animal's performance under different environmental temperatures assuming that this has an animal-specific effect on LS beyond an animal-specific temperature threshold (i.e., it had 3 parameters: intercept [Int], slope [Slp], and threshold [Thr]). Litter size data were generated assuming this model under 2 environmental conditions (comfort [CC] and comfort-to-heat [CtHC])...
October 2014: Journal of Animal Science
Mahmoud El-Hofi, Azza Ismail, Maher Nour, Osama Ibrahim
BACKGROUND: Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a spice and medicinal herb widely used around the world of the natural antioxidants, and it has been widely accepted as one of the spices with the highest antioxidant activity. Transglutaminase (EC TGase) is an enzyme capable of catalysing acyl transfer reactions by introducing covalent cross-links between proteins, as well as peptides and various primary amines. TGase activity in plants was first observed in pea seedlings, and subsequently found in organs of both lower and higher plants...
July 2014: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
Jonathan M Lovell, Judith Mylius, Henning Scheich, Michael Brosch
The response of neurons in the Red Nucleus pars magnocellularis (RNm) to both tone bursts and electrical stimulation were observed in three cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), in a series of studies primarily designed to characterize the influence of the dopaminergic ventral midbrain on auditory processing. Compared to its role in motor behavior, little is known about the sensory response properties of neurons in the red nucleus (RN); particularly those concerning the auditory modality. Sites in the RN were recognized by observing electrically evoked body movements characteristic for this deep brain structure...
2014: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Amir Azadi, Mehrdad Hamidi, Mohammad-Reza Khoshayand, Mohsen Amini, Mohammad-Reza Rouini
Nanogels loaded with methotrexate (MTX) were prepared via an ionic gelation process using chitosan and sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). The preparation process was optimized by a systematic multi-objective-optimization approach in terms of the size, poly-dispersity index (PDI), loading efficiency (LE) and loading capacity (LC) of the resulting nanocarriers. A combination of the pH of the chitosan solution, the addition time of the TPP solution and temperature effects accounted for nearly 75% of the variation in nanogel size; the TPP initial concentration had a very significant effect on LE (p<0...
September 1, 2012: Carbohydrate Polymers
Raquel Abaurre, Pilar García-Delgado, M Dolores Maurandi, Cristóbal Arrebola, Miguel Ángel Gastelurrutia, Fernando Martínez-Martínez
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to design and pilot a protocol for the dispensing of medications service. DESIGN: Using the requirements proposed in the Ministry of Health Pharmaceutical Care Consensus, a literature search was made applying qualitative consensus techniques. An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted from March to June 2009. SETTING: A total of 53 community pharmacies from 24 Spanish counties. PARTICIPANT: Patients who requested one or more particular medications with or without medical prescription for their own use or for someone in their care...
January 2015: Atencion Primaria
Noor Tromp, Adiatma Siregar, Barnabas Leuwol, Dindin Komarudin, Andre van der Ven, Reinout van Crevel, Rob Baltussen
AIM: to evaluate the costs-effectiveness of scaling up community-based VCT in West-Java. METHODS: the Asian epidemic model (AEM) and resource needs model (RNM) were used to calculate incremental costs per HIV infection averted and per disability-adjusted life years saved (DALYs). Locally monitored demographic, epidemiological behavior and cost data were used as model input. RESULTS: scaling up community-based VCT in West-Java will reduce the overall population prevalence by 36% in 2030 and costs US$248 per HIV infection averted and US$9...
January 2013: Acta Medica Indonesiana
Manuela Fouqueray, Patrice Noury, Lysiane Dherret, Perrine Chaurand, Khedidja Abbaci, Jerome Labille, Jerome Rose, Jeanne Garric
The toxicity of dietary exposure to artificially aged TiO₂ nanomaterial (T-Lite) used in sunscreen cream was studied on Danio rerio. Embryolarval assays were conducted to assess the effects of TiO₂ residues of nanomaterial (RNM) on fish early life stages. Juvenile fishes were exposed by the trophic route in two experiments. During the first experiment, juvenile fishes were exposed to TiO₂ RNM for 14 days by adding RNM to commercial fish food. The second one consisted in producing a trophic food chain...
May 2013: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Joelly M de Toledo, Daniel C Ribeiro, Marcelo P de Castro, Felipe C Forte, Taiana S Körbes, Max W Rusch, Jefferson F Loss
Different exercises are prescribed by physiotherapists and despite the popular use of elastic resistance, few studies have investigated the effect of such rehabilitation tools on shoulder resultant net moment (RNM). The aim of the present study was to compare shoulder RNM peak values and the respective angle of occurrence during three shoulder rehabilitation exercises: 1) elevation in the scapular plane; 2) flexion; and 3) abduction when performed in three different load situations: 1) without external load; 2) with dumbbells (DB); and 3) with elastic resistance...
February 2013: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
A Rincón Mayans, B Zudaire, J Brugarolas, J Rioja, J Zudaire, D Rosell, J E Robles, J M Berian, I Pascual
BACKGROUND: To study the biochemical progression-free survival (BPFS) achieved by a group of high risk patients in accordance with D'Amico's classification treated with radical prostatectomy. To identify the clinical-pathological variables which are influential in biochemical progression-free survival and, if possible, use them to design a prognostic model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involves 232 patients, out of a series of 1,054, diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer, qualified as high risk on D'Amico's classification (PSA>20 ng/ml or Gleason score 8-10 or T3) treated with radical prostatectomy...
January 2012: Anales del Sistema Sanitario de Navarra
Yili Zeng, Qinmiao Huang, Meizhu Zheng, Jianxin Guo, Jingxin Pan
This study explored the effects of reactive nitrogen metabolites (RNMS) on natural-killer- (NK-) cell-mediated killing of K562 cells and the influence of RNM scavengers, such as tiopronin (TIP), glutamylcysteinylglycine (GSH), and histamine dihydrochloride (DHT), on reversing the suppressing effect of RNM. We administered exogenous and endogenous RNM in the NK + K562 culture system and then added RNM scavengers. The concentrations of RNM, TNF-β and IFN-γ, and NK-cell cytotoxicity (NCC) and the percentage of living NK cells were then examined...
2012: Journal of Biomedicine & Biotechnology
Oliver West, Peter Hajek, Hayden McRobbie
RATIONALE: Individual differences in the rate of nicotine metabolism (RNM) could be related to dependence and success in stopping smoking. A range of studies have examined RNM measured by the ratio of trans-3'-hydroxycotinine and cotinine in body fluids (the ratio). A systematic review of this literature is needed to draw conclusions and identify gaps in evidence. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to review evidence on the association of the ratio to cigarette dependence and its role in individual tailoring of smoking cessation pharmacotherapy...
November 2011: Psychopharmacology
Bernhard Glodny, Parinaz Nasseri, Peter Rehder, Verena Unterholzner, Michaela Plaikner, Christian Koppelstätter, Johannes Petersen
BACKGROUND: Whether living with reduced nephron mass (RNM) poses a risk to humans is the subject of ongoing controversy. The aim of this study was to discover whether or not RNMs are associated with greater atherosclerotic plaque burdens. METHODS: Using the post-operative abdominal CT scans of 739 nephrectomized patients [NP; 315 women and 424 men; mean age 64.5 ± 15.0 years; observation period 4.9 ± 5.7 years (3675.9 patient-years)] and of an age- and a gender-matched control group, a retrospective observational and case-control study was conducted...
June 2011: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
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