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Christy S Beitzel, Brenda D Houck, Samantha M Lewis, Abigail L Person
Understanding cerebellar contributions to motor coordination requires deeper insight into how the output structures of the cerebellum, the cerebellar nuclei, integrate their inputs and influence downstream motor pathways. The magnocellular red nucleus (RNm), a brainstem premotor structure, is a major target of the interposed nucleus (IN), and has also been described in previous studies to send feedback collaterals to the cerebellum. Because such a pathway is in a key position to provide motor efferent information to the cerebellum, satisfying predictions about the use of corollary discharge in cerebellar computations, we studied it in mice of both sexes...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
María Victoria Humbert, Amaka Marian Awanye, Lu-Yun Lian, Jeremy P Derrick, Myron Christodoulides
Pathogenic and commensal Neisseria species produce an Adhesin Complex Protein, which was first characterised in Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) as a novel surface-exposed adhesin with vaccine potential. In the current study, the crystal structure of a recombinant (r)Nm-ACP Type I protein was determined to 1.4 Å resolution: the fold resembles an eight-stranded β-barrel, stabilized by a disulphide bond between the first (Cys38) and last (Cys121) β-strands. There are few main-chain hydrogen bonds linking β4-β5 and β8-β1, so the structure divides into two four-stranded anti-parallel β-sheets (β1-β4 and β5-β8)...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
Nicole M Thometz, Jennifer L Dearolf, Robin C Dunkin, Dawn P Noren, Marla M Holt, Olivia C Sims, Brandon C Cathey, Terrie M Williams
The mechanism by which odontocetes produce sound is unique among mammals. To gain insight into the physiological properties that support sound production in toothed whales, we examined myoglobin content ([Mb]), non-bicarbonate buffering capacity (β), fiber-type profiles, and myosin heavy chain expression of vocal musculature in two odontocetes: the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus; n = 4) and the harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena; n = 5). Both species use the same anatomical structures to produce sound, but differ markedly in their vocal repertoires...
January 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Sacha Epskamp, Mijke Rhemtulla, Denny Borsboom
We introduce the network model as a formal psychometric model, conceptualizing the covariance between psychometric indicators as resulting from pairwise interactions between observable variables in a network structure. This contrasts with standard psychometric models, in which the covariance between test items arises from the influence of one or more common latent variables. Here, we present two generalizations of the network model that encompass latent variable structures, establishing network modeling as parts of the more general framework of structural equation modeling (SEM)...
December 2017: Psychometrika
Shashwati Geed, Martha L McCurdy, Peter L E van Kan
Coordinated reach-to-grasp movements require precise spatiotemporal synchrony between proximal forelimb muscles (shoulder, elbow) that transport the hand toward a target during reach, and distal muscles (wrist, digit) that simultaneously preshape and orient the hand for grasp. The precise mechanisms through which the redundant neuromuscular circuitry coordinates reach with grasp, however, remain unclear. Recently, Geed and Van Kan (2016) demonstrated, using exploratory factor analysis (EFA), that limited numbers of global, template-like transport/preshape- and grasp-related muscle components underlie the complexity and variability of intramuscular electromyograms (EMGs) of up to 21 distal and proximal muscles recorded while monkeys performed reach-to-grasp tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Mª Belén Rodríguez Sanz, Mª Del Mar Roldán Cuena, Carlos Alberto Blanco Álvarez, Raúl Sánchez Jiménez
The hydatid cyst is a parasitic infection included within the category of zoonoses, in which there exists a direct or indirect relation with animals, particularly with dogs. We report a clinical case of a patient who has undergone surgery of hydatid cyst in the right hepatic lobe. Seven years later the patient presents hydatid cyst in portal vein with secondary cavernomatosis, which is a rare complication. There are few cases described in the literature. The symtomatology presented by hydatid cyst is variable and the diagnosis is made by ultrasonography, TC and/or RNM...
March 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
R Sarin, L Khandrika, Rnm Hanitha, A Avula, M Batra, S Kaul, H Raj, S Shivkumar, S Gupta, E Khan, Tps Bhandari, Svss Prasad, V A Reddy, G Swarnalata, M Bakre, S Chatterjee, J Jain
INTRODUCTION: This is a retrospective study with data collected from breast cancer cases from five major Apollo Hospitals across India, as part of a biobanking process. One aspect of our study focused specifically on data from triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cases. The aim of this study was to analyze epidemiology, treatment options, and survival of the patients with TNBC. Our goal was to draw conclusions on the preponderance of the disease and also to understand the outcomes using the existing therapy options...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Cancer
Valter Petersell, Krista Täht-Kok, Mark Karimov, Heli Milvek, Siim Nirgi, Margus Raha, Krista Saarik
Several investigations in Estonia during 1996¬-1999 have shown that permissible level (200 Bq/m(3)) of radon (222Rn) in indoor air is exceeded in 33% of the inspected dwellings. This makes Estonia one of the five countries with highest radon risk in Europe (Fig 1). Due to correlation between the soil radon risk level and radon concentration in houses, small scale radon risk mapping of soil air was carried out (one study point per 70-100 km(2)). It turned out that one-third of Estonian mainland has high radon risk potential, where radon concentration in soil air exceeds safe limit of 50 kBq/m(3)...
January 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Hiroshi Kawaguchi, Hitoshi Shimada, Fumitoshi Kodaka, Masayuki Suzuki, Hitoshi Shinotoh, Shigeki Hirano, Jeff Kershaw, Yuichi Inoue, Masaki Nakamura, Taeko Sasai, Mina Kobayashi, Tetsuya Suhara, Hiroshi Ito
The loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) is a major pathophysiological feature of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). As nigral DA neurons contain both neuromelanin (NM) and dopamine transporter (DAT), decreased intensities in both NM-sensitive MRI and DAT PET reflect decreased DA neuronal density. This study demonstrates that a more specific metric for the nigral DA neuronal density can be derived with multimodal MRI and PET. Participants were 11 clinically diagnosed PD patients and 10 age and gender matched healthy controls (HCs)...
2016: PloS One
Wu Zeng, Donald S Shepard, Carlos Avila-Figueroa, Haksoon Ahn
BACKGROUND: -To manage the human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic, international donors have pledged unprecedented commitments for needed services. The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) projected that low- and middle-income countries needed $25 billion to meet the 2010 HIV/AIDS goal of universal access to AIDS prevention and care, using the resource needs model (RNM). METHODS: -Drawing from the results from its sister study, which used a data envelopment analysis (DEA) and a Tobit model to evaluate and adjust the technical efficiency of 61 countries in delivering HIV/AIDS services from 2002 to 2007, this study extended the DEA and developed an approach to estimate resource needs and decompose the performance gap into efficiency gap and resource gap...
June 2016: Health Policy and Planning
Heli T Viljakainen, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Sanjay Kinra, Shah Ebrahim, Hannah Kuper, K V Radhakrishna, Bharati Kulkarni, Jon H Tobias
BACKGROUND: Fracture risk is rising in countries undergoing rapid rural to urban migration, but whether this reflects an adverse effect of urbanization on intrinsic bone strength, as reflected by bone mineral density (BMD), is currently unknown. METHODS: Lumbar spine (LS) and total hip (TH) BMD, and total body fat and lean mass, were obtained from DXA scans performed in the Hyderabad arm of the Indian Migration Study (54% male, mean age 49 years). Sib-pair comparisons were performed between rural-urban migrants (RUM) and rural non-migrated (RNM) siblings (N = 185 sib-pairs)...
2015: PloS One
J Gagnière, A Dupré, S Chabaud, P Peyrat, P Meeus, M Rivoire
BACKGROUND: Retroperitoneal nodal metastases (RNM) represent 1-2% of metastases from colorectal cancer (CRC). Non-surgical treatments achieve 5-year overall survival (OS) of 0-12%. Radical retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy (RRL) in this setting remains controversial, but most published series do not distinguish local retroperitoneal recurrences from RNM. We specifically report outcomes after RRL for RNM from CRC. METHODS: We analyzed prospectively recorded data from patients who underwent standardized RRL for RNM from CRC between January 1997 and August 2012 in our institution...
June 2015: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
Glêbia Alexa Cardoso, Alexandre Sérgio Silva, Alesandra Araújo de Souza, Marcos Antônio Pereira Dos Santos, Raquel Suelen Brito da Silva, Lavoisiana Mateus de Lacerda, Maria Paula Motae
This study investigated the chronic and acute influence of resistance exercise on blood pressure in women with metabolic syndrome before and after climacteric. Twenty sedentary women, nine non-menopausal (RNM) and 11 menopausal (RM), performed training for 12 weeks. Meanwhile, 23 controls, 11 not menopausal (CNM) and 12 menopausal (CM), remained sedentary. Blood pressure was measured before and after the training period in conditions of rest and after a session of exercise. Training promoted variations in blood pressure at rest from 116±13 to 118±10 mmHg (p=0...
September 29, 2014: Journal of Human Kinetics
R N M Queiroz, T L P Dias
The fronds of marine macroalgae play an important role in coastal ecosystems because the algae banks are utilized as a microhabitat by different taxa, including molluscs, one of the most abundant and diverse animals of marine ecosystems. In this study, we characterized the malacofauna associated with the macroalgae Gracilaria domingensis (Kützing) Sonder ex Dickie 1874 and Gracilaria cuneata Areschoug 1854 of a hypersaline mangrove on the northern coast of the state of Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil...
August 2014: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
Feng Shi, Nianping Feng, Emmanuel Omari-Siaw
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to prepare microcapsules for the oral delivery of realgar nanoparticles (RN) that are also capable of improving its stability. METHODS: RN and RN-based microcapsules (RNM) were prepared using ball milling and solvent evaporation techniques, respectively. Properties such as particle size, ζ-potential (ZP), morphology and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) were investigated. In addition, drug release, bioavailability and antitumour studies were also performed...
January 2015: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
M Piles, M Baselga, J P Sánchez
Response on litter size (LS) to selection based on EBV of the own trait and several indexes including EBV of 1 or more parameters of a reaction norm model (RNM) was evaluated by simulation. The RNM described animal's performance under different environmental temperatures assuming that this has an animal-specific effect on LS beyond an animal-specific temperature threshold (i.e., it had 3 parameters: intercept [Int], slope [Slp], and threshold [Thr]). Litter size data were generated assuming this model under 2 environmental conditions (comfort [CC] and comfort-to-heat [CtHC])...
October 2014: Journal of Animal Science
Mahmoud El-Hofi, Azza Ismail, Maher Nour, Osama Ibrahim
BACKGROUND: Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a spice and medicinal herb widely used around the world of the natural antioxidants, and it has been widely accepted as one of the spices with the highest antioxidant activity. Transglutaminase (EC TGase) is an enzyme capable of catalysing acyl transfer reactions by introducing covalent cross-links between proteins, as well as peptides and various primary amines. TGase activity in plants was first observed in pea seedlings, and subsequently found in organs of both lower and higher plants...
July 2014: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
Jonathan M Lovell, Judith Mylius, Henning Scheich, Michael Brosch
The response of neurons in the Red Nucleus pars magnocellularis (RNm) to both tone bursts and electrical stimulation were observed in three cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), in a series of studies primarily designed to characterize the influence of the dopaminergic ventral midbrain on auditory processing. Compared to its role in motor behavior, little is known about the sensory response properties of neurons in the red nucleus (RN); particularly those concerning the auditory modality. Sites in the RN were recognized by observing electrically evoked body movements characteristic for this deep brain structure...
2014: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Amir Azadi, Mehrdad Hamidi, Mohammad-Reza Khoshayand, Mohsen Amini, Mohammad-Reza Rouini
Nanogels loaded with methotrexate (MTX) were prepared via an ionic gelation process using chitosan and sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). The preparation process was optimized by a systematic multi-objective-optimization approach in terms of the size, poly-dispersity index (PDI), loading efficiency (LE) and loading capacity (LC) of the resulting nanocarriers. A combination of the pH of the chitosan solution, the addition time of the TPP solution and temperature effects accounted for nearly 75% of the variation in nanogel size; the TPP initial concentration had a very significant effect on LE (p<0...
September 1, 2012: Carbohydrate Polymers
Raquel Abaurre, Pilar García-Delgado, M Dolores Maurandi, Cristóbal Arrebola, Miguel Ángel Gastelurrutia, Fernando Martínez-Martínez
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to design and pilot a protocol for the dispensing of medications service. DESIGN: Using the requirements proposed in the Ministry of Health Pharmaceutical Care Consensus, a literature search was made applying qualitative consensus techniques. An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted from March to June 2009. SETTING: A total of 53 community pharmacies from 24 Spanish counties. PARTICIPANT: Patients who requested one or more particular medications with or without medical prescription for their own use or for someone in their care...
January 2015: Atencion Primaria
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