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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819499/multiple-jejunal-perforation-secondary-to-intestinal-tuberculosis-infection-a-case-report
#1
Anthony Lyonga Ngonge, Domin Sone Majunda Ekaney, Carlson-Babila Sama, Joffi Musonge-Effoe, Valery Sammah Effoe, Gerald Ekwen
Abdominal tuberculosis (TB) may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. There is an increase in the incidence of abdominal TB favored by the emergence of multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and immunosuppression especially from HIV co-infection. Our case is that of a 31 year old HIV-positive woman, adherent to antiretroviral therapy, who presented with a 2 month history of progressive abdominal distention, drenching night sweat and fatigue, but without fever...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817720/targeting-of-cdk9-with-indirubin-3-monoxime-safely-and-durably-reduces-hiv-viremia-in-chronically-infected-humanized-mice
#2
Sandra Medina-Moreno, Thomas C Dowling, Juan C Zapata, Nhut M Le, Edward Sausville, Joseph Bryant, Robert R Redfield, Alonso Heredia
Successful propagation of HIV in the human host requires entry into a permissive cell, reverse transcription of viral RNA, integration into the human genome, transcription of the integrated provirus, and assembly/release of new virus particles. Currently, there are antiretrovirals against each of these viral steps, except for provirus transcription. An inhibitor of HIV transcription could both increase potency of treatment and suppress drug-resistant strains. Cellular cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9) serves as a cofactor for the HIV Tat protein and is required for effective transcription of the provirus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814161/significant-rates-of-risky-sexual-behaviours-among-hiv-infected-patients-failing-first-line-art-a-sub-study-of-the-europe-africa-research-network-for-the-evaluation-of-second-line-therapy-trial
#3
Jane N Wanyama, Maria S Nabaggala, Bonnie Wandera, Agnes N Kiragga, Barbara Castelnuovo, Ivan K Mambule, Josephine Nakajubi, Andrew D Kambugu, Nicholas I Paton, Rhoda K Wanyenze, Robert Colebunders, Philippa Easterbrook
There are limited data on the prevalence of risky sexual behaviours in individuals failing first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) and changes in sexual behaviour after switch to second-line ART. We undertook a sexual behaviour sub-study of Ugandan adults enrolled in the Europe-Africa Research Network for the Evaluation of Second-line Therapy trial. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect sexual behaviour data and, in particular, risky sexual behaviours (defined as additional sexual partners to main sexual partner, inconsistent use of condoms, non-disclosure to sexual partners, and exchange of money for sex)...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812457/from-half-dead-to-being-free-resistance-to-hiv-stigma-self-disclosure-and-support-for-pmtct-hiv-care-among-couples-living-with-hiv-in-kenya
#4
Sydney A Spangler, Lisa L Abuogi, Eliud Akama, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Anna Helova, Pamela Musoke, Wafula Z Nalwa, Thomas A Odeny, Maricianah Onono, Iris Wanga, Janet M Turan
In sub-Saharan Africa, self-disclosure of HIV-positive status may be a pivotal action for improving access to prevention of mother-to-child transmission services. However, understanding of HIV stigma and disclosure, and their effects on demand for care remains incomplete - particularly in the current context of new antiretroviral therapy guidelines. The purpose of this study was to explore these issues among self-disclosed couples living in southwest Kenya. We conducted 38 in-depth interviews with HIV-positive pregnant or postpartum women and their male partners...
August 16, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810826/improving-fold-resistance-prediction-of-hiv-1-against-protease-and-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-using-artificial-neural-networks
#5
Olivier Sheik Amamuddy, Nigel T Bishop, Özlem Tastan Bishop
BACKGROUND: Drug resistance in HIV treatment is still a worldwide problem. Predicting resistance to antiretrovirals (ARVs) before starting any treatment is important. Prediction accuracy is essential, as low-accuracy predictions increase the risk of prescribing sub-optimal drug regimens leading to patients developing resistance sooner. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are a powerful tool that would be able to assist in drug resistance prediction. In this study, we constrained the dataset to subtype B, sacrificing generalizability for a higher predictive performance, and demonstrated that the predictive quality of the ANN regression models have definite improvement for most ARVs...
August 15, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807730/development-of-a-dual-reporter-screening-assay-for-distinguishing-the-inhibition-of-hiv-tat-mediated-transcription-from-off-target-effects
#6
YoungHyun Shin, Byeong-Sun Choi, Kyung-Chang Kim, Chun Kang, Kisoon Kim, Cheol-Hee Yoon
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encodes a transcription trans-activator (Tat) with an essential role in the transcriptional elongation of viral RNA based on the viral promoter long terminal repeat (LTR). Tat-mediated transcription is conserved and can be distinguished from host transcription, so it is a therapeutic target for combating HIV replication. Traditional screening assays for Tat-mediated transcriptional inhibitors are based on the biochemical properties of Tat and transactivation-responsive RNA...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801428/relationship-between-estimated-cardiovascular-disease-risk-and-insulin-resistance-in-a-black-african-population-living-with-hiv-a-cross-sectional-study-from-cameroon
#7
Steve Raoul Noumegni, Jean Joel Bigna, Vicky Jocelyne Ama Moor Epse Nkegoum, Jobert Richie Nansseu, Felix K Assah, Ahmadou Musa Jingi, Magellan Guewo-Fokeng, Steve Leumi, Jean-Claude Katte, Mesmin Y Dehayem, Liliane Mfeukeu Kuate, Andre Pascal Kengne, Eugene Sobngwi
OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic diseases are growing concerns among patients with HIV infection as a consequence of the improving survival of this population. We aimed to assess the relationship between CVD risk and insulin resistance in a group of black African individuals with HIV infection. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved patients with HIV infection aged 30-74 years and followed up at the Yaoundé Central Hospital, Cameroon...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797289/insulin-resistance-and-associated-factors-among-hiv-infected-patients-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-cross-sectional-study-from-cameroon
#8
Steve Raoul Ngongang Noumegni, Jobert Richie Nansseu, Vicky Jocelyne Moor Ama, Jean Joel Bigna, Felix Kembe Assah, Magellan Guewo-Fokeng, Steve Leumi, Jean-Claude Katte, Mesmin Dehayem, Andre Pascal Kengne, Eugene Sobngwi
BACKGROUND: Little is known on the magnitude and correlates of insulin resistance in HIV-infected people in Africa. We determined the prevalence of insulin resistance and investigated associated factors in HIV-infected adult Cameroonians. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study at the Yaoundé Central Hospital, Cameroon; during which we enrolled HIV-infected people aged 30 to 74 years with no previous history of cardiovascular disease. An homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) like index served to assess insulin sensitivity with insulin resistance defined by values of 2...
August 10, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797181/hiv-resistance-with-correlation-to-pmtct-regimen-in-hiv-infected-infants-in-northern-tanzania
#9
Dorothy Elizabeth Dow, Werner Schimana, Balthazar M Nyombi, Blandina T Mmbaga, Aisa M Shayo, John A Bartlett, Charles G Massambu, Emmanuel G Kifaro, Elizabeth L Turner, Todd DeMarco, Fangping Cai, Coleen Cunningham, Ann M Buchanan
Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) guidelines recommend that all HIV-infected pregnant woman receive antiretroviral therapy (Option B) and HIV-infected infants should initiate therapy with a protease inhibitor based regimen; however, implementation of these guidelines has lagged in many resource-limited settings. Tanzania only recently implemented these guidelines with little country specific data to inform whether HIV non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) resistance was present among infected infants under the Option A guidelines...
August 11, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795954/the-first-characterization-of-hiv-1-subtypes-and-drug-resistance-mutations-among-antiretrovirally-treated-patients-in-kermanshah-iran
#10
Reza Golmohammadi, Kazem Baesi, Abdolvahab Moradi, Molood Farrokhi, Willi McFarland, Shahryar Parsamajd
BACKGROUND: Insufficient therapy during HIV-1 replication can promote the emergence of drug-resistant strains, reduce the effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment (ART), and increase the likelihood of the onward transmission of drug-resistant viruses. We characterized, for the first time, the prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes and drug resistance mutations in a western region of Iran. METHODS: This study was conducted among 122 patients on ART at a major referral center in Kermanshah, Iran...
August 10, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795354/drug-resistance-mutation-profiles-of-the-drug-na%C3%A3-ve-and-first-line-regimen-treated-hiv-1-infected-population-of-suzhou-china
#11
Tingting Li, Feng Qian, Ting Yuan, Weilu Xu, Li Zhu, Jinlong Huang, Haiyan Wang, Yueping Zhu, Yinling Wang, Xiaohong Li, Saihong Gu, Zhuqing Tan, Hui Chen, Xiangrong Luo, Wei Zhu, Wenjuan Lu, Ping Xu, Ming Li, Yuying Chen, Yong Gao, Rongge Yang, Chuanwu Zhu, Binlian Sun
Little is known about the prevalence of drug-resistant mutations in HIV-1-positive individuals in Suzhou, China. To elucidate the transmitted drug resistance (TDR) and acquired drug resistance mutation (ADR) profiles, we collected blood specimens from 127 drug-naïve and 117 first-line drug-treated HIV-1-infected individuals sampled from 2014 to 2016 in Suzhou. We successfully amplified pol fragments from 100 drug-naïve and 20 drug-treated samples. We then determined the drug-resistant mutations to protease (PR) and reverse-transcriptase (RT) inhibitors according to the Stanford drug resistance database...
August 7, 2017: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794047/no-substantial-evidence-for-sexual-transmission-of-minority-hiv-drug-resistance-mutations-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#12
Antoine Chaillon, Masato Nakazawa, Joel O Wertheim, Susan J Little, Davey M Smith, Sanjay R Mehta, Sara Gianella
During primary HIV-infection, the presence of minority drug resistant mutations (DRM) may be a consequence of sexual transmission, de novo mutations or technical errors. Baseline blood samples were collected from 24 HIV-infected antiretroviral-naive, genetically- and epidemiologically- linked source and recipient partners, shortly after the recipient's estimated date of infection. An additional 32 longitudinal samples were available from 11 recipients. Deep-sequencing of HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) was performed (Roche/454) and screened for nucleoside and non-nucleoside RT inhibitor DRM...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791972/hcv-co-infection-is-associated-with-metabolic-abnormalities-among-haart-naive-hiv-infected-persons
#13
M A Kuti, J O Akinyemi, B O Ogunbosi, K M Kuti, O A Adesina, O A Awolude, O S Michael, I F Adewole
OBJECTIVES: To determine the metabolic abnormalities among Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) co infected HAART naïve HIV infected persons within the adult ARV clinic of the University College Hospital/University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria Methods: This was a retrospective study involving the review of clinical records of newly recruited HIV-infected persons in the adult antiretroviral (ARV) clinic over a 12 month period (January - December 2006). Baseline results for fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting lipid profile were retrieved...
July 2017: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782390/treatment-of-pneumocystis-jirovecii-pneumonia-in-hiv-infected-patients-a-review
#14
Yu-Shan Huang, Jen-Jia Yang, Nan-Yao Lee, Guan-Jhou Chen, Wen-Chien Ko, Hsin-Yun Sun, Chien-Ching Hung
Pneumocystis pneumonia is a potentially life-threatening pulmonary infection that occurs in immunocompromised individuals and HIV-infected patients with a low CD4 cell count. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole has been used as the first-line agent for treatment, but mutations within dihydropteroate synthase gene render potential resistance to sulfamide. Despite advances of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), Pneumocystis pneumonia continues to occur in HIV-infected patients with late presentation for cART or virological and immunological failure after receiving cART...
August 5, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774701/fungal-infections-in-hiv-aids
#15
REVIEW
Andrew H Limper, Antoine Adenis, Thuy Le, Thomas S Harrison
Fungi are major contributors to the opportunistic infections that affect patients with HIV/AIDS. Systemic infections are mainly with Pneumocystis jirovecii (pneumocystosis), Cryptococcus neoformans (cryptococcosis), Histoplasma capsulatum (histoplasmosis), and Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei (talaromycosis). The incidence of systemic fungal infections has decreased in people with HIV in high-income countries because of the widespread availability of antiretroviral drugs and early testing for HIV. However, in many areas with high HIV prevalence, patients present to care with advanced HIV infection and with a low CD4 cell count or re-present with persistent low CD4 cell counts because of poor adherence, resistance to antiretroviral drugs, or both...
July 31, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763465/antiretroviral-resistance-following-immunological-monitoring-in-a-resource-limited-setting-of-western-india-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Santosh K Karade, Smita S Kulkarni, Manisha V Ghate, Ajit A Patil, Rajkumar Londhe, Sonali P Salvi, Dileep B Kadam, Rajneesh K Joshi, Bharat B Rewari, Raman R Gangakhedkar
BACKGROUND: The free antiretroviral therapy (ART) program in India still relies on the clinico-immunological monitoring for diagnosis of treatment failure. As the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbone is shared in first- and second-line regimens, accumulation of drug resistant mutations (DRMs) can compromise the efficacy of NRTI. This study was undertaken to describe the pattern of HIV DRMs following immunological monitoring and investigate its impact on the cycling of NRTI between first- and second-line ART...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759645/characteristics-of-hiv-infected-u-s-army-soldiers-linked-in-molecular-transmission-clusters-2001-2012
#17
Shilpa Hakre, Linda L Jagodzinski, Ying Liu, Peter T Pham, Gustavo H Kijak, Sodsai Tovanabutra, Francine E McCutchan, Stephanie L Scoville, Steven B Cersovsky, Nelson L Michael, Paul T Scott, Sheila A Peel
OBJECTIVE: Recent surveillance data suggests the United States (U.S.) Army HIV epidemic is concentrated among men who have sex with men. To identify potential targets for HIV prevention strategies, the relationship between demographic and clinical factors and membership within transmission clusters based on baseline pol sequences of HIV-infected Soldiers from 2001 through 2012 were analyzed. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of baseline partial pol sequences, demographic and clinical characteristics available for all Soldiers in active service and newly-diagnosed with HIV-1 infection from January 1, 2001 through December 31, 2012...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750647/high-level-of-hiv-1-drug-resistance-mutations-in-patients-with-unsuppressed-viral-loads-in-rural-northern-south-africa
#18
Elizabeth M Etta, Lufuno Mavhandu, Cecile Manhaeve, Keanan McGonigle, Patrick Jackson, David Rekosh, Marie-Louise Hammarskjold, Pascal O Bessong, Denis M Tebit
BACKGROUND: Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has significantly reduced HIV morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. However, the sustainability of cART may be compromised by the emergence of viral drug resistance mutations (DRM) and the cellular persistence of proviruses carrying these DRM. This is potentially a more serious problem in resource limited settings. METHODS: DRM were evaluated in individuals with unsuppressed viral loads after first or multiple lines of cART at two sites in rural Limpopo, South Africa...
July 27, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750322/longitudinal-sequencing-of-hiv-1-infected-patients-with-low-level-viremia-for-years-while-on-art-shows-no-indications-for-genetic-evolution-of-the-virus
#19
Leen Vancoillie, Laura Hebberecht, Kenny Dauwe, Els Demecheleer, Sylvie Dinakis, Dries Vaneechoutte, Virginie Mortier, Chris Verhofstede
HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) may present low-level viremia (LLV) above the detection level of current viral load assays. In many cases LLV is persistent but does not result in overt treatment failure or selection of drug resistant viral variants. To elucidate whether LLV reflects active virus replication, we extensively sequenced pol and env genes of the viral populations present before and during LLV in 18 patients and searched for indications of genetic evolution. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic trees were inspected for temporal structure both visually and by linear regression analysis of root-to-tip and pairwise distances...
July 24, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750025/hiv-drug-resistance-in-hiv-positive-individuals-under-antiretroviral-treatment-in-shandong-province-china
#20
Bin Lin, Xiaoguang Sun, Shengli Su, Cuixia Lv, Xiaofei Zhang, Lin Lin, Rui Wang, Jihua Fu, Dianmin Kang
The efficacy of antiretroviral drugs is limited by the development of drug resistance. Therefore, it is important to examine HIV drug resistance following the nationwide implementation of drug resistance testing in China since 2009. We conducted drug resistance testing in patients who were already on or new to HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Shandong Province, China, from 2011 to 2013, and grouped them based on the presence or absence of drug resistance to determine the effects of age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, educational level, route of transmission and treatment status on drug resistance...
2017: PloS One
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