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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446620/how-to-win-the-hiv-1-drug-resistance-hurdle-race-running-faster-or-jumping-higher
#1
REVIEW
Anna Garbelli, Valentina Riva, Emmanuele Crespan, Giovanni Maga
Infections by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the causative agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), are still totaling an appalling 36.7 millions worldwide, with 1.1 million AIDS deaths/year and a similar number of yearly new infections. All this, in spite of the discovery of HIV-1 as the AIDS etiological agent more than 30 years ago and the introduction of an effective combinatorial antiretroviral therapy (cART), able to control disease progression, more than 20 years ago. Although very effective, current cART is plagued by the emergence of drug-resistant viral variants and most of the efforts in the development of novel direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) against HIV-1 have been devoted toward the fighting of resistance...
April 26, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444829/disparities-in-hiv-1-transmitted-drug-resistance-detected-by-ultradeep-sequencing-between-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-heterosexual-populations
#2
E Todesco, C Charpentier, M Bertine, M Wirden, A Storto, N Desire, M Grude, T Nguyen, S Sayon, Y Yazdanpanah, C Katlama, D Descamps, V Calvez, A G Marcelin
OBJECTIVES: Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) can impair the response to first-line antiretroviral therapy. In treatment-naïve patients chronically infected with HIV type 1 (HIV-1), it was previously shown through Sanger sequencing that TDR was more common in men who have sex with men (MSM) than in other transmission risk groups. We aimed to compare two HIV-1 transmission groups in terms of the presence of TDR mutations. METHODS: We investigated, through Sanger sequencing and ultradeep sequencing (UDS), the presence of resistance mutations, both in majority (> 20%) and in minority (1-20%) proportions, in 70 treatment-naïve MSM and 70 treatment-naïve heterosexual patients who recently screened positive for HIV-1...
April 26, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438932/evaluation-of-a-multi-drug-assay-for-monitoring-adherence-to-a-regimen-for-hiv-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-in-a-clinical-study-hiv-prevention-trials-network-073
#3
Yinfeng Zhang, William Clarke, Mark A Marzinke, Estelle Piwowar-Manning, Geetha Beauchamp, Autumn Breaud, Craig W Hendrix, Gavin A Cloherty, Lynda Emel, Scott Rose, Lisa Hightow-Weidman, Marc Siegel, Steven Shoptaw, Sheldon D Fields, Darrell Wheeler, Susan H Eshleman
Daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) is a safe and effective intervention for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We evaluated the performance of a qualitative assay that detects 20 antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for assessing recent PrEP exposure (multi-drug assay; detection limit: 2-20 ng/mL). Samples were obtained from 216 Black men who have sex with men in the United States who were enrolled in a study evaluating acceptability of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) PrEP (208 HIV-uninfected men and eight seroconverters; 165 of the uninfected men and five of the seroconverters accepted PrEP)...
April 24, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434406/efavirenz-based-simplification-after-successful-early-lopinavir-boosted-ritonavir-based-therapy-in-hiv-infected-children-in-burkina-faso-and-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire-the-monod-anrs-12206-non-inferiority-randomised-trial
#4
Désiré Lucien Dahourou, Madeleine Amorissani-Folquet, Karen Malateste, Clarisse Amani-Bosse, Malik Coulibaly, Carole Seguin-Devaux, Thomas Toni, Rasmata Ouédraogo, Stéphane Blanche, Caroline Yonaba, François Eboua, Philippe Lepage, Divine Avit, Sylvie Ouédraogo, Philippe Van de Perre, Sylvie N'Gbeche, Angèle Kalmogho, Roger Salamon, Nicolas Meda, Marguerite Timité-Konan, Valériane Leroy
BACKGROUND: The 2016 World Health Organization guidelines recommend all children <3 years start antiretroviral therapy (ART) on protease inhibitor-based regimens. But lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) syrup has many challenges in low-income countries, including limited availability, requires refrigeration, interactions with anti-tuberculous drugs, twice-daily dosing, poor palatability in young children, and higher cost than non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) drugs. Successfully initiating LPV/r-based ART in HIV-infected children aged <2 years raises operational challenges that could be simplified by switching to a protease inhibitor-sparing therapy based on efavirenz (EFV), although, to date, EFV is not recommended in children <3 years...
April 24, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422610/joint-bent-cable-tobit-models-for-longitudinal-and-time-to-event-data
#5
Getachew A Dagne
In this article, we show how to estimate a transition period for the evolvement of drug resistance to antiretroviral (ARV) drug or other related treatments in the framework of developing a Bayesian method for jointly analyzing time to event and longitudinal data. For HIV/AIDS longitudinal data, developmental trajectories of viral loads tend to show a gradual change from a declining trend after initiation of treatment to an increasing trend without an abrupt change. Such characteristics of trajectories are also associated with a time-to-event process...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420387/effects-of-host-restriction-factors-and-the-htlv-1-subtype-on-susceptibility-to-htlv-1-associated-myelopathy-tropical-spastic-paraparesis
#6
Satoshi Nozuma, Eiji Matsuura, Daisuke Kodama, Yuichi Tashiro, Toshio Matsuzaki, Ryuji Kubota, Shuji Izumo, Hiroshi Takashima
BACKGROUND: Although human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is a prerequisite for the development of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), specific provirus mutations in HAM/TSP have not yet been reported. In this study, we examined whether HAM/TSP patients had the disease-specific genomic variants of HTLV-1 by analyzing entire sequences of HTLV-1 proviruses in these patients, including familial cases. In addition, we investigated the genetic variants of host restriction factors conferring antiretroviral activity to determine which mutations may be related to resistance or susceptibility to HAM/TSP...
April 19, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419314/adverse-drug-reactions-during-drug-resistant-tb-treatment-in-high-hiv-prevalence-settings-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Kathryn Schnippel, Cynthia Firnhaber, Rebecca Berhanu, Liesl Page-Shipp, Edina Sinanovic
Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of adverse drug reactions or events (ADR) during drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) treatment in the context of settings with high HIV prevalence (at least 20% of patients). Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of articles in PubMed and Scopus. Pooled proportions of patients experiencing adverse events and relative risk with 95% CI were calculated. Results: The search yielded 24 studies, all observational cohorts...
April 16, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407682/genetic-characterization-and-antiretroviral-resistance-mutations-among-treatment-naive-hiv-infected-individuals-in-jiaxing-china
#8
Jinlei Guo, Yong Yan, Jiafeng Zhang, Jimei Ji, Zhijian Ge, Rui Ge, Xiaofei Zhang, Henghui Wang, Zhongwen Chen, Jianyong Luo
The aim of this study was to characterize HIV-1 genotypes and antiretroviral resistance mutations among treatment-naive HIV-infected individuals in Jiaxing, China. The HIV-1 partial polymerase (pol) genes in 93 of the 99 plasma samples were successfully amplified and analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the existence of five HIV-1 genotypes, of which the most prevalent genotype was CRF01_AE (38.7%), followed by CRF07_BC (34.4%), CRF08_BC (16.1%), subtype B/B' (5.4%), and CRF55_01B (2.1%). Besides, three types of unique recombination forms (URFs) were also observed, including C/F2/A1, CRF01_AE/B, and CRF08_BC/CRF07_BC...
March 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404854/autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-disrupts-adaptive-immune-responses-during-rebound-shiv-viremia
#9
Daniel B Reeves, Christopher W Peterson, Hans-Peter Kiem, Joshua T Schiffer
Primary HIV-1 infection induces a virus-specific adaptive/cytolytic immune response that impacts plasma viral load setpoint and rate of progression to AIDS. Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) suppresses plasma viremia to undetectable levels that rebound upon cART treatment interruption. Following cART withdrawal, the memory component of the virus-specific adaptive immune response may improve viral control compared to primary infection. Here, using primary infection and treatment interruption data from macaques infected with simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV), we observe lower peak viral load but unchanged viral setpoint during viral rebound...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403830/effectiveness-of-progressive-resistive-exercise-pre-in-the-context-of-hiv-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-using-the-cochrane-collaboration-protocol
#10
Kelly K O'Brien, Anne-Marie Tynan, Stephanie A Nixon, Richard H Glazier
BACKGROUND: HIV is increasingly considered a chronic illness. More individuals are living longer and aging with the health-related consequences associated with HIV and multi-morbidity. Exercise is a self-management approach that can promote health for people aging with HIV. We examined the safety and effectiveness of progressive resistive exercise (PRE) interventions on immunological, virological, cardiorespiratory, strength, weight, body composition, and psychological outcomes in adults living with HIV...
April 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403828/lower-genetic-variability-of-hiv-1-and-antiretroviral-drug-resistance-in-pregnant-women-from-the-state-of-par%C3%A3-brazil
#11
Luiz Fernando Almeida Machado, Iran Barros Costa, Maria Nazaré Folha, Anderson Levy Bessa da Luz, Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto, Ricardo Ishak, Marluisa Oliveira Guimarães Ishak
BACKGROUND: The present study aimed to describe the genetic diversity of HIV-1, as well as the resistance profile of the viruses identified in HIV-1 infected pregnant women under antiretroviral therapy in the state of Pará, Northern Brazil. METHODS: Blood samples were collected from 45 HIV-1 infected pregnant to determine the virus subtypes according to the HIV-1 protease (PR) gene and part of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) gene by sequencing the nucleotides of these regions...
April 12, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403692/severe-hypokalemia-due-to-a-possible-drug-drug-interaction-between-vinblastine-and-antiretrovirals-in-a-hiv-infected-patient-with-hodgkin-s-lymphoma
#12
Ezequiel Cordova, Laura Morganti, Andrea Odzak, Florencia Arcondo, Mariana Silva, Marcelo Zylberman, Claudia Rodriguez
A 60-year-old HIV-1 infected woman on antiretroviral therapy (emtricitabine/tenofovir, and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir) developed Hodgkin's lymphoma. The patient initiated ABVD (doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine) chemotherapy and presented with neutropenia and severe hypokalemia. Hypokalemia was considered as part of a proximal tubular renal dysfunction, and other causes of hypokalemia were excluded. Due to suspicion of drug--drug interactions between antiretrovirals and vinblastine, ritonavir-boosted atazanavir was switched to dolutegravir and the patient continued emtricitabine/tenofovir...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403052/second-and-third-line-antiretroviral-therapy-for-children-and-adolescents-a-scoping-review
#13
REVIEW
Erica Lazarus, Simone Nicol, Lisa Frigati, Martina Penazzato, Mark F Cotton, Elizabeth Centeno-Tablante, Avy Violari, Liesl Nicol
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization identified a need for evidence to inform revision of second- and third-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) options in children failing ART. We performed an in-depth scoping review of all available literature on second-line and subsequent ART regimens in children younger than 18 years. METHODS: We comprehensively searched, without language or date limitations, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials...
May 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403027/candidates-for-inclusion-in-a-universal-antiretroviral-regimen-tenofovir-alafenamide
#14
Dzintars Gotham, Andrew Hill, Anton L Pozniak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is a standard first-line therapy for HIV. Recently, tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), a different prodrug for the same active moiety, has been approved. In this review, we have conducted a meta-analysis comparing efficacy and safety data for TDF and TAF, to inform a discussion of which drug would be best for a proposed 'universal antiretroviral (ARV) regimen'. RECENT FINDINGS: We identified 10 randomized controlled trials comparing TDF with TAF (6969 patients, 8043 patient-years of follow-up)...
April 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402970/the-genotyping-resistance-profile-of-the-pol-gene-detected-in-blood-of-newly-diagnosed-hiv-positive-men-is-durably-archived-in-the-gut-whatever-the-time-of-initiation-of-cart
#15
Anne Emmanuelle Depincé, Elodie Dussert, Delphine Vergnon-Miszczycha, Abdelaye Keita, Sylvie Pillet, Elisabeth Botelho-Nevers, Anne Frésard, Amandine Gagneux-Brunon, Frédéric R Lucht, Xavier Roblin, Bruno Pozzetto, Stéphane Paul, Thomas Bourlet
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the mutational patterns on the pol gene of the main HIV-1 strain archived in cell genome of 10 chronically infected men according to their clinical and therapeutic history. The genotyping resistance profiles were compared between the first blood plasma available at the time of HIV diagnosis and rectal biopsies and PBMC sampled 1-5 years after the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). METHODS: HIV-1 RNA and cell-associated HIV-1 DNA were quantified by Abbott Real-Time HIV-1 and Generic HIV® DNA cell (Biocentric) assays...
April 13, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398959/emergence-of-untreatable-multidrug-resistant-hiv-1-in-patients-failing-second-line-therapy-in-kenya
#16
Seth C Inzaule, Raph L Hamers, Irene Mukui, Kennedy Were, Prestone Owiti, Daniel Kwaro, Tobias F Rinke de Wit, Clement Zeh
: We performed a countrywide assessment of HIV drug resistance among 123 patients with virological failure on second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Kenya. The percentage of patients harboring intermediate-to-high-level resistance was 27% for lopinavir-ritonavir, 24% for atazanavir-ritonavir and 7% for darunavir-ritonavir, and 25% had complete loss of activity to all available first- and second-line drugs. Overall, one in four patients failing second-line ART have completely exhausted available antiretrovirals in Kenya, highlighting the need for increased access to third-line drugs...
April 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394945/using-drug-exposure-for-predicting-drug-resistance-a-data-driven-genotypic-interpretation-tool
#17
Alejandro Pironti, Nico Pfeifer, Hauke Walter, Björn-Erik O Jensen, Maurizio Zazzi, Perpétua Gomes, Rolf Kaiser, Thomas Lengauer
Antiretroviral treatment history and past HIV-1 genotypes have been shown to be useful predictors for the success of antiretroviral therapy. However, this information may be unavailable or inaccurate, particularly for patients with multiple treatment lines often attending different clinics. We trained statistical models for predicting drug exposure from current HIV-1 genotype. These models were trained on 63,742 HIV-1 nucleotide sequences derived from patients with known therapeutic history, and on 6,836 genotype-phenotype pairs (GPPs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387865/strengthening-hiv-therapy-and-care-in-rural-tanzania-affects-rates-of-viral-suppression
#18
Alex J Ntamatungiro, Lukas Muri, Tracy R Glass, Stefan Erb, Manuel Battegay, Hansjakob Furrer, Christoph Hatz, Marcel Tanner, Ingrid Felger, Thomas Klimkait, Emilio Letang
Objectives: To assess viral suppression rates, to assess prevalence of acquired HIV drug resistance and to characterize the spectrum of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations (HIV-DRM) in HIV-1-infected patients in a rural Tanzanian HIV cohort. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study nested within the Kilombero and Ulanga Antiretroviral Cohort. Virological failure was defined as HIV-1 RNA ≥50 copies/mL. Risk factors associated with virological failure and with the development of HIV-DRM were assessed using logistic regression...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387654/ending-aids-as-a-public-health-threat-by-2030-scientific-developments-from-the-2016-interest-conference-in-yaound%C3%A3-cameroon
#19
Catherine A Hankins, Sinata Koulla-Shiro, Peter Kilmarx, Guido Ferrari, Mauro Schechter, Coumba Touré Kane, François Venter, Charles Ab Boucher, Anna-Laura Ross, Debrework Zewdie, Serge Paul Eholié, Elly Katabira
The underpinning theme of the 2016 INTEREST Conference held in Yaoundé, Cameroon, 3-6 May 2016 was ending AIDS as a public health threat by 2030. Focused primarily on HIV treatment, pathogenesis and prevention research in resource-limited settings, the conference attracted 369 active delegates from 34 countries, of which 22 were in Africa. Presentations on treatment optimization, acquired drug resistance, care of children and adolescents, laboratory monitoring and diagnostics, implementation challenges, HIV prevention, key populations, vaccine and cure, hepatitis C, mHealth, financing the HIV response and emerging pathogens, were accompanied by oral, mini-oral and poster presentations...
April 7, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384058/analysis-of-hiv-integrase-resistance-in-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-united-states
#20
Iris Chen, Yinfeng Zhang, Vanessa Cummings, Gavin A Cloherty, Matthew Connor, Geetha Beauchamp, Sam Griffith, Scott Rose, Joel Gallant, Hyman M Scott, Steven Shoptaw, Carlos Del Rio, Irene Kuo, Sharon Mannheimer, Hong-Van Tieu, Christopher B Hurt, Sheldon D Fields, Darrell P Wheeler, Kenneth H Mayer, Beryl A Koblin, Susan H Eshleman
Resistance to reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitors was frequently detected in HIV from black men who have sex with men (MSM) enrolled in the HIV prevention trials network (HPTN) 061 study. In this study, integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) resistance was analyzed in black MSM enrolled in HPTN 061 (134 infected at enrollment and 23 seroconverters) and a follow-up study, HPTN 073 (eight seroconverters). The ViroSeq HIV-1 Integrase Genotyping Kit (Abbott Molecular) was used for analysis. Major INSTI resistance mutations were not detected in any of the samples...
April 6, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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