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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024768/driving-under-the-influence-of-drugs-prevalence-in-road-traffic-accidents-in-italy-and-considerations-on-per-se-limits-legislation
#1
D Favretto, S Visentin, G Stocchero, S Vogliardi, R Snenghi, M Montisci
OBJECTIVE: To present the prevalence and concentrations of drugs in blood samples of drivers involved in road traffic accidents (RTA) and to discuss the effects of adopting different concentration cut-off values proposed or applied in other European countries on the number of driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) offences. METHODS: Blood samples from drivers involved in RTA in the Padova province, from 2014 to 2017, were analysed for the presence of alcohol and drugs...
July 19, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024622/impact-of-ketamine-intervention-for-acute-lung-injury-on-rage-and-tlr9
#2
W-Z Han, S-W Xu, L Wang
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to explore the benefits of ketamine intervention for acute lung injury (ALI) and its effects on the receptor for advanced glycation end-product (RAGE) and toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 3 mg/kg) was used to induce ALI rat model. Forty healthy Sprague-Dawley rats (6-8 weeks) were assigned into control, model, low ketamine (5 mg/kg), and high ketamine (50 mg/kg) groups. After 24 h, these rats were sacrificed and lungs were collected...
July 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024456/intramuscular-ketamine-protocol-as-an-alternative-to-physical-restraints-for-electroconvulsive-therapy-administration-in-a-psychotic-patient-a-case-report
#3
Lucia Angela Smith-Martinez, Lauren Nicole Chatham, Purushothaman Muthukanagaraj
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2018: Journal of ECT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30022437/role-of-a-vgf-bdnf-trkb-autoregulatory-feedback-loop-in-rapid-acting-antidepressant-efficacy
#4
Cheng Jiang, Wei-Jye Lin, Stephen R Salton
Members of the neurotrophin family and in particular brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) regulate the response to rapid- and slow-acting chemical antidepressants and voluntary exercise. Recent work suggests that rapid-acting antidepressants that modulate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) signaling (e.g., ketamine and GLYX-13) require expression of VGF (non-acronymic), the BDNF-inducible secreted neuronal protein and peptide precursor, for efficacy. In addition, the VGF-derived C-terminal peptide TLQP-62 (named by its 4 N-terminal amino acids and length) has antidepressant efficacy following icv or intra-hippocampal administration, in the forced swim test (FST)...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021344/probable-mechanisms-involved-in-the-antipsychotic-like-activity-of-morin-in-mice
#5
Benneth Ben-Azu, Adegbuyi Oladele Aderibigbe, Itivere Adrian Omogbiya, Abayomi Mayowa Ajayi, Olatunde Owoeye, Elizabeth Toyin Olonode, Ezekiel O Iwalewa
Evidence derived from preliminary studies suggests that morin, a neuroactive flavonoid with proven antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties possess antipsychotic-like activity. The present study was designed to evaluate the probable mechanisms involve in the antipsychotic-like activity of morin in ketamine model of schizophrenia. The effects of morin, haloperidol and risperidone on neurobehavioral and anti-schizophrenia-like effects were evaluated in mice (n = 7) following intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of morin (25-100 mg/kg), haloperidol (1 mg/kg) and risperidone (0...
September 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021336/protective-effects-of-spinacia-oleracea-seeds-extract-in-an-experimental-model-of-schizophrenia-possible-behavior-biochemical-neurochemical-and-cellular-alterations
#6
Monu Yadav, Milind Parle, Nidhi Sharma, Deepak Kumar Jindal, Aryan Bhidhasra, Mamta Sachdeva Dhingra, Anil Kumar, Sameer Dhingra
Schizophrenia is one of the psychotic mental disorders characterized by symptoms of thought, behavior, and social problems. Newer biomedicine and pharmacotherapy has been investigated for the treatment of various neuropsychiatric disorders in the past few decades. Spinacia oleracea is one of these, reported to have beneficial effect against several neurodegenerative disorders. The present study was carried to explore the protective effects of Spinacia oleracea seed extract (SOEE) in an experimental model of ketamine-induced schizophrenia in mice...
September 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020573/-new-indications-for-existing-drugs-repurposing-in-psychiatry-and-addiction-medicine
#7
Jurriaan F M Strous, Wim van den Brink
Repurposing is the discovery - whether or not by accident - of a new use for an existing product, for example, a new indication for a drug. In the past, several psychotropic drugs have received their place in the treatment arsenal via this route. Both in psychiatry and addiction medicine, there is an important need for new treatments with new working mechanisms. Potential new uses in both psychiatry and addiction medicine of several drugs that have already been registered for other indications are currently under study...
May 2, 2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020423/acute-ketamine-dysregulates-task-related-gamma-band-oscillations-in-thalamo-cortical-circuits-in-schizophrenia
#8
Tineke Grent-'t-Jong, Davide Rivolta, Joachim Gross, Ruchika Gajwani, Stephen M Lawrie, Matthias Schwannauer, Tonio Heidegger, Michael Wibral, Wolf Singer, Andreas Sauer, Bertram Scheller, Peter J Uhlhaas
Hypofunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) has been implicated as a possible mechanism underlying cognitive deficits and aberrant neuronal dynamics in schizophrenia. To test this hypothesis, we first administered a sub-anaesthetic dose of S-ketamine (0.006 mg/kg/min) or saline in a single-blind crossover design in 14 participants while magnetoencephalographic data were recorded during a visual task. In addition, magnetoencephalographic data were obtained in a sample of unmedicated first-episode psychosis patients (n = 10) and in patients with chronic schizophrenia (n = 16) to allow for comparisons of neuronal dynamics in clinical populations versus NMDAR hypofunctioning...
July 17, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30020004/risk-of-anesthesia-related-complications-in-brachycephalic-dogs
#9
Michaela Gruenheid, Turi K Aarnes, Mary A McLoughlin, Elaine M Simpson, Dimitria A Mathys, Dixie F Mollenkopf, Thomas E Wittum
OBJECTIVE To determine whether brachycephalic dogs were at greater risk of anesthesia-related complications than nonbrachycephalic dogs and identify other risk factors for such complications. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. ANIMALS 223 client-owned brachycephalic dogs undergoing general anesthesia for routine surgery or diagnostic imaging during 2012 and 223 nonbrachycephalic client-owned dogs matched by surgical procedure and other characteristics. PROCEDURES Data were obtained from the medical records regarding dog signalment, clinical signs, anesthetic variables, surgery characteristics, and complications noted during or following anesthesia (prior to discharge from the hospital)...
August 1, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30019434/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-ketamine-as-an-alternative-to-opioids-for-acute-pain-in-the-emergency-department
#10
REVIEW
Nicholas Karlow, Charles H Schlaepfer, Carolyn R T Stoll, Michelle Doering, Christopher R Carpenter, Graham A Colditz, Sergey Motov, Joshua Miller, Evan S Schwarz
BACKGROUND: Opioids are commonly prescribed in the emergency department (ED) for the treatment of acute pain. Analgesic alternatives are being explored in response to an epidemic of opioid misuse. Low-dose ketamine (LDK) is one opioid alternative for the treatment of acute pain in the ED. OBJECTIVES: This systematic review and meta-analysis sought to quantify whether LDK is an effective and safe opioid alternative for acute pain reduction in adults in the ED setting...
July 17, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018590/neuroprotective-drugs-in-infants-with-severe-congenital-heart-disease-a-systematic-review
#11
Raymond Stegeman, Kaya D Lamur, Agnes van den Hoogen, Johannes M P J Breur, Floris Groenendaal, Nicolaas J G Jansen, Manon J N L Benders
Background: Perinatal and perioperative brain injury is a fundamental problem in infants with severe congenital heart disease undergoing neonatal cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. An impaired neuromotor and neurocognitive development is encountered and associated with a reduction in quality of life. New neuroprotective drugs during surgery are described to reduce brain injury and improve neurodevelopmental outcome. Therefore, our aim was to provide a systematic review and best-evidence synthesis on the effects of neuroprotective drugs on brain injury and neurodevelopmental outcome in congenital heart disease infants requiring cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018409/evaluation-of-in-vitro-neuronal-platforms-as-surrogates-for-in-vivo-whole-brain-systems
#12
Anna M Belle, Heather A Enright, Ana Paula Sales, Kristen Kulp, Joanne Osburn, Edward A Kuhn, Nicholas O Fischer, Elizabeth K Wheeler
Quantitatively benchmarking similarities and differences between the in vivo central nervous system and in vitro neuronal cultures can qualify discrepancies in functional responses and establish the utility of in vitro platforms. In this work, extracellular electrophysiology responses of cortical neurons in awake, freely-moving animals were compared to in vitro cultures of dissociated cortical neurons. After exposure to two well-characterized drugs, atropine and ketamine, a number of key points were observed: (1) significant differences in spontaneous firing activity for in vivo and in vitro systems, (2) similar response trends in single-unit spiking activity after exposure to atropine, and (3) greater sensitivity to the effects of ketamine in vitro...
July 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018022/effect-of-acute-restraint-stress-in-a-polytrauma-rat-model
#13
Françoise Arnaud, Georgina Pappas, Ye Chen, Eric Maudlin-Jeronimo, Richard McCarron
INTRODUCTION: A stressful environment may contribute to poor outcomes after TBI. The current study evaluates the impact of acute stress in a polytrauma rat model. METHODS: Rats were stressed by a 45-minute immobilization period before instrumentation under ketamine (t1). Polytrauma was produced by blast overpressure and controlled hemorrhage (t2). Rats were euthanized immediately after a 3 h simulated Medevac-transport time (t3) or after 72 h post-trauma (t4)...
July 6, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30013730/chronic-postsurgical-pain-current-evidence-for-prevention-and-management
#14
REVIEW
Parineeta Thapa, Pramote Euasobhon
Chronic postsurgical pain (CPSP) is an unwanted adverse event in any operation. It leads to functional limitations and psychological trauma for patients, and leaves the operative team with feelings of failure and humiliation. Therefore, it is crucial that preventive strategies for CPSP are considered in high-risk operations. Various techniques have been implemented to reduce the risk with variable success. Identifying the risk factors for each patient and applying a timely preventive strategy may help patients avoid the distress of chronic pain...
July 2018: Korean Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009223/the-effect-of-low-dose-ketamine-in-treating-acute-asthma-attack-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#15
Mehrdad Esmailian, Mahboubeh Koushkian Esfahani, Farhad Heydari
Introduction: Efficient treatment of asthma can play an important role in controlling asthma attacks, rapid recovery and decrease of patient mortality. Therefore, in the present study the therapeutic effect of low-dose ketamine is evaluated in patients with acute asthma attack. Methods: In the present single-blind, randomized clinical trial with placebo control, the effect of low-dose intravenous ketamine in treating 18 to 85 year-old asthmatic patients who presented to the emergency department was evaluated...
2018: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30008467/serotonin-syndrome-in-the-perioperative-setting
#16
Nathan J Smischney, Emily M Pollard, Asha U Nookala, Oludare O Olatoye
BACKGROUND Serotonin syndrome is a life-threatening condition that can lead to neurologic complications and is associated with the use of serotonergic medications. As the use of antidepressant medications has increased, the incidence of perioperative serotonin syndrome has transitioned from a rare diagnosis to one that should be considered as a differential diagnosis for any patient displaying signs of neuroexcitation. CASE REPORT A 70-year-old man (ASA 2) with a history of vestibular migraines (treated with venlafaxine), gastroesophageal reflux disease, and benign prostatic hyperplasia presented to our institution for photoselective vaporization of the prostate...
July 16, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006367/selective-role-of-rgs9-2-in-regulating-retrograde-synaptic-signaling-of-indirect-pathway-medium-spiny-neurons-in-dorsal-striatum
#17
Chenghui Song, Garret R Anderson, Laurie P Sutton, Maria Dao, Kirill A Martemyanov
In the striatum, medium spiny neurons (MSN) are heavily involved in controlling movement and reward. MSNs form two distinct populations expressing either dopamine receptor 1 (D1-MSN) or dopamine receptor 2 (D2-MSN), which differ in their projection targets and neurochemical composition. The activity of both types of MSNs is shaped by multiple neuromodulatory inputs processed by G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that fundamentally impact their synaptic properties biasing behavioral outcomes. How these GPCR signaling cascades are regulated and what downstream targets they recruit in D1-MSN and D2-MSN populations are incompletely understood...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30005738/impaired-pupillary-control-in-schizophrenia-like-wisket-rats
#18
Alexandra Büki, György Kalmár, Gabriella Kekesi, Gyorgy Benedek, László G Nyúl, Gyongyi Horvath
Patients with schizophrenia show impairments in autonomic regulation, including pupillomotor control. The aim of this study was to explore the changes of pupillary light reflex in a new substrain (WISKET) with several schizophrenia-like alterations. Male WISKET rats housed individually (for four weeks) and treated with ketamine (for 3 × 5 days) after weaning and naive group-housed Wistar rats (controls) were involved in the study. The pupillary light reflex was studied in two series after sedation (diazepam) or anesthesia (chloral hydrate)...
September 2018: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30005328/venus-and-mars-on-the-benches-of-the-faculty-influence-of-gender-on-mental-health-and-behavior-of-medical-students-results-from-the-bourbon-national-study
#19
G Fond, A Bourbon, P Auquier, J-A Micoulaud-Franchi, C Lançon, L Boyer
Medical student wellness has emerged as an important issue in medical education. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the gender influence on psychiatric and/or psychological follow-up, psychotropic and illicit drug consumption, addictive behaviors, quality of life and motives for consumption in a large multicentric national sample of medical students. METHODS: Medical students of the 35 French Medicine faculties were recruited through mailing lists and social networks between December 2016 and May 2017 and fulfilled Internet anonymized questionnaires...
July 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30004254/intravenous-ketamine-for-adolescents-with-treatment-resistant-depression-an-open-label-study
#20
Kathryn R Cullen, Palistha Amatya, Mark G Roback, Christina Sophia Albott, Melinda Westlund Schreiner, Yanan Ren, Lynn E Eberly, Patricia Carstedt, Ali Samikoglu, Meredith Gunlicks-Stoessel, Kristina Reigstad, Nathan Horek, Susannah Tye, Kelvin O Lim, Bonnie Klimes-Dougan
BACKGROUND: Novel interventions for treatment-resistant depression (TRD) in adolescents are urgently needed. Ketamine has been studied in adults with TRD, but little information is available for adolescents. This study investigated efficacy and tolerability of intravenous ketamine in adolescents with TRD, and explored clinical response predictors. METHODS: Adolescents, 12-18 years of age, with TRD (failure to respond to two previous antidepressant trials) were administered six ketamine (0...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
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