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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454155/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-nsclc-approaches-on-special-subgroups-and-unresolved-burning-questions
#1
REVIEW
J Remon, N Vilariño, N Reguart
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been incorporated in the treatment strategy of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Beyond the already approved indications in first- and second-line setting of advanced NSCLC, new data has recently emerged demonstrating its efficacy in locally advanced disease as maintenance after chemo-radiotherapy and currently several trials are also exploring its efficacy in earlier stages of the disease to evaluate whether these results could be extrapolated to the adjuvant setting...
February 8, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454147/factors-associated-with-malignancy-in-hysteroscopically-resected-endometrial-polyps-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Lizandra M Paravidine Sasaki, Keitty R C Andrade, Ana Claudia Morais Godoy Figueiredo, Miriam da S Wanderley, Maurício G Pereira
The objective of our study was to estimate the frequency of pre-malignant and malignant lesions in endometrial polyps and to evaluate associated clinical and demographic factors. A literature search was performed in major databases and the gray literature using the terms polyps OR endometrial polyp AND endometrial neoplasms OR endometrial cancer OR endometrial hyperplasia OR malignan*. Studies describing the frequency of pre-malignant and malignant lesions in endometrial polyps and any clinical or demographic factors associated with malignant lesions extracted using hysteroscopy were considered eligible...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454133/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-neural-axis-anomalies-in-idiopathic-scoliosis-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Johan L Heemskerk, Moyo C Kruyt, Dino Colo, René M Castelein, Diederik H R Kempen
BACKGROUND: There is ongoing controversy about the routine use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) preoperatively in patients with presumed idiopathic scoliosis (IS). Routine MRI can help identify possible causes for the deformity and detect anomalies which could complicate deformity surgery. However, routine MRI increases health care costs significantly and may reveal mild variations from normal without clinical relevance, that can still lead to anxiety and influence decision making...
February 14, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454130/abscess-within-a-glioblastoma-mimicking-a-matryoshka-doll
#4
Kislay Kishore, Manish Beniwal, Shilpa Rao, K V L N Rao, Vikas Vazhayil, Dwarkanath Srinivas, Sampath Somanna
BACKGROUND: Abscess co-existing within a brain tumor is a rare entity. Case reports in literature primarily consist of sellar pathology and parenchymal lesions including meningioma, glioma, and metastases. We report a case of glioblastoma with an intra-tumoral abscess in a middle-aged lady with no prior invasive procedure or systemic focus of infection. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 45-year old lady presented with new onset generalized seizures and rapidly progressive left hemiparesis...
February 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454110/study-of-lipid-metabolism-by-estimating-the-fat-fraction-in-different-breast-tissues-and-in-various-breast-tumor-sub-types-by-in-vivo-1-h-mr-spectroscopy
#5
Khushbu Agarwal, Uma Sharma, Sandeep Mathur, Vurthaluru Seenu, Rajinder Parshad, Naranamangalam R Jagannathan
PURPOSE: To evaluate the utility of fat fraction (FF) for the differentiation of different breast tissues and in various breast tumor subtypes using in vivo proton ( 1 H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). METHODS: 1 H MRS was performed on 68 malignant, 35 benign, and 30 healthy volunteers at 1.5 T. Malignant breast tissues of patients were characterized into different subtypes based on the differences in the expression of hormone receptors and the FF was calculated...
February 14, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453972/artemin-regulates-cxcr4-expression-to-induce-migration-and-invasion-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells-through-activation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling
#6
Juan Wang, Hui Wang, Jun Cai, Shaoxia Du, Beibei Xin, Wei Wei, Ti Zhang, Xiaohong Shen
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the most lethal human malignant tumor because of the early onset of local invasion and distant metastasis. Perineural invasion is a prominent characteristic of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, which is a multifactorial process that involves various signaling molecules from different signaling pathways. The glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family of ligands was reported to be involved in perineural invasion in pancreatic cancer. Artemin is one member of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor family of ligands...
February 14, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453919/genetic-and-epigenetic-differences-of-benign-and-malignant-pheochromocytomas-and-paragangliomas-ppgls
#7
Fatemeh Khatami, Mahsa Mohammadamoli, Seyed Mohammad Tavangar
Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are tumors arising from the adrenal medulla and sympathetic/parasympathetic paraganglia, respectively. According to Th e Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), approximately 40% of PPGLs are due to germ line mutations in one of 16 susceptibility genes, and a further 30% are due to somatic alterations in at least seven main genes (VHL, EPAS1, CSDE1, MAX, HRAS, NF1, RET, and possibly KIF1B). Th e diagnosis of malignant PPGL was straight forward in most cases as it was defined as presence of PPGL in non-chromaffin tissues...
January 1, 2018: Endocrine Regulations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453871/examining-the-incidence-and-presentation-of-melanoma-in-the-cardiothoracic-transplant-population
#8
Charles J Puza, Adela R Cardones, Paul J Mosca
Importance: The immunosuppression vital to maintaining transplanted organs comes with an increased incidence of cutaneous neoplasms. Understanding the genesis of malignant melanoma (MM) in transplant subpopulations is necessary for adequate disease surveillance. Objective: To determine the incidence and timing of presentation of MM in the cardiothoracic (heart and/or lung) transplant (CTT) population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a retrospective cohort study of 1164 patients who underwent a CTT from 2001 through 2016 with a median follow-up time of 4...
February 16, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453868/coexistent-solid-malignancies-in-pemphigus-a-population-based-study
#9
Khalaf Kridin, Shira Zelber-Sagi, Doron Comaneshter, Arnon D Cohen
Importance: The association of pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus with comorbid malignancies is yet to be firmly established. Objective: To estimate the association between pemphigus and a wide range of nonhematologic malignancies using one of the largest cohorts of patients with pemphigus to date. Design, Setting, and Participants: For this cross-sectional study, we used the computerized database of Clalit Health Services, the largest public health care provider organization in Israel insuring 4...
February 16, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453853/role-of-bi-weekly-serum-galactomannan-screening-for-the-diagnosis-of-invasive-aspergillosis-in-hematologic-cancer-patients
#10
Jade Couchepin, Anne-Sophie Brunel, Katia Jaton, Pascal Meylan, Pierre-Yves Bochud, Frédéric Lamoth
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is a life-threatening infection affecting hematologic cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. The diagnosis of IA often relies on the detection of galactomannan (GM) in serum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL). Bi-weekly serum GM screening has been proposed for a preemptive therapeutic approach of IA in patients not receiving mold-active prophylaxis. We have analyzed all IA cases among patients with hematologic malignancies and prolonged chemotherapy-induced neutropenia (>14 days) in our institution over a 10-year period (2007-2017)...
February 17, 2018: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453660/verification-of-candidate-microrna-markers-for-parathyroid-carcinoma
#11
Ya Hu, Xiang Zhang, Ming Cui, Zhe Su, Mengyi Wang, Quan Liao, Yupei Zhao
PURPOSE: Parathyroid carcinoma (PCa) is a rare endocrine malignancy with poor prognosis and is often difficult to accurately diagnose both before and after surgery. Dysregulated microRNA (miRNA) levels have been identified in PCa using a limited number of samples. The aim of the present study was to verify a group of miRNA markers in a new series of samples to explore their potential significance in PCa diagnosis. METHODS: A total of 58 tissue samples, including 17 PCa lesions and 41 sporadic parathyroid adenomas (PAds), were obtained from 56 primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) patients...
February 16, 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453628/safety-tolerability-and-preliminary-activity-of-imgn529-a-cd37-targeted-antibody-drug-conjugate-in-patients-with-relapsed-or-refractory-b-cell-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-a-dose-escalation-phase-i-study
#12
Anastasios Stathis, Ian W Flinn, Sumit Madan, Kami Maddocks, Arnold Freedman, Steven Weitman, Emanuele Zucca, Mihaela C Munteanu, M Lia Palomba
Background CD37 is expressed on B-cell lymphoid malignancies, thus making it an attractive candidate for targeted therapy in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). IMGN529 is an antibody-drug conjugate comprising a CD37-binding antibody linked to the maytansinoid DM1, a potent anti-mitotic agent. Methods This first-in-human, phase 1 trial recruited adult patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell NHL. The primary objective was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase 2 dose. Secondary objectives were to evaluate safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary clinical activity...
February 17, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453626/drug-approval-based-on-randomized-phase-3-trials-for-relapsed-malignancy-analysis-of-oncologic-drugs-granted-accelerated-approval-publications-and-clinical-trial-databases
#13
Sumimasa Nagai, Keiya Ozawa
Background As relapsed disease is frequently the first target of newly developed therapies, it is vital to address the difficulty in demonstrating the efficacy of new drugs for relapsed malignancy in randomized phase 3 trials. Methods We analyzed the approved indications, target populations, and development status of post-marketing confirmatory trials of all oncology-related drugs that were granted accelerated approval for both hematological and solid malignancies. Furthermore, we searched for randomized phase 3 trials for adult patients with relapsed lymphoid malignancy, other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and multiple myeloma (MM)...
February 17, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453595/cardio-oncology-conflicting-priorities-of-anticancer-treatment-and-cardiovascular-outcome
#14
REVIEW
Lisa M Tilemann, Markus B Heckmann, Hugo A Katus, Lorenz H Lehmann, Oliver J Müller
BACKGROUND: This article about the emerging field of cardio-oncology highlights typical side effects of oncological therapies in the cardiovascular system, cardiovascular complications of malignancies itself, and potential preventive or therapeutic modalities. METHODS: We performed a selective literature search in PubMed until September 2016. RESULTS: Cardiovascular events in cancer patients can be frequently attributed to oncological therapies or to the underlying malignancy itself...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453582/the-clinical-phenotype-of-patients-positive-for-antibodies-to-myositis-and-myositis-related-disorders
#15
S G Gofrit, H Yonath, M Lidar, Y Shoenfeld, S Kivity
Inflammatory myopathies are a clinically diverse group of diseases, in which the detection of particular autoantibodies may facilitate diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. The aim of this report is to summarize our experience with specific autoantibody testing in patients with inflammatory myopathies. Data were collected over the last decade in the Autoimmune Center of the Sheba Medical Center, a tertiary referral hospital. Data regarding patients' positive for autoantibodies against Jo-1, PL-7, PL-12, SRP, Mi-2, Ku, and PM-Scl antigens were retrospectively collected...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453558/inorganic-nanoparticles-in-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-breast-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Cristina Núñez, Sergio Vázquez Estévez, María Del Pilar Chantada
Nanoparticles are being actively developed for biomolecular profiling of cancer biomarkers, tumor imaging in vivo, and targeted drug delivery. These nanotechnology-based techniques can be applied widely in the management of different malignant diseases, such as breast cancer. Although the number of different types of nanoparticles is increasing rapidly, most can be classified into two major types: particles that contain organic molecules as a major building material (such as dendrimers, micelles, liposomes and carbon nanotubes, and other polymers); and those that use inorganic elements, usually metals, as a core...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453410/molecular-characterization-of-colorectal-adenomas-with-and-without-malignancy-reveals-distinguishing-genome-transcriptome-and-methylome-alterations
#17
Brooke R Druliner, Panwen Wang, Taejeong Bae, Saurabh Baheti, Seth Slettedahl, Douglas Mahoney, Nikolaos Vasmatzis, Hang Xu, Minsoo Kim, Matthew Bockol, Daniel O'Brien, Diane Grill, Nathaniel Warner, Miguel Munoz-Gomez, Kimberlee Kossick, Ruth Johnson, Mohamad Mouchli, Donna Felmlee-Devine, Jill Washechek-Aletto, Thomas Smyrk, Ann Oberg, Junwen Wang, Nicholas Chia, Alexej Abyzov, David Ahlquist, Lisa A Boardman
The majority of colorectal cancer (CRC) arises from precursor lesions known as polyps. The molecular determinants that distinguish benign from malignant polyps remain unclear. To molecularly characterize polyps, we utilized Cancer Adjacent Polyp (CAP) and Cancer Free Polyp (CFP) patients. CAPs had tissues from the residual polyp of origin and contiguous cancer; CFPs had polyp tissues matched to CAPs based on polyp size, histology and dysplasia. To determine whether molecular features distinguish CAPs and CFPs, we conducted Whole Genome Sequencing, RNA-seq, and RRBS on over 90 tissues from 31 patients...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453393/adherence-to-antiretroviral-therapy-and-factors-affecting-low-medication-adherence-among-incident-hiv-infected-individuals-during-2009-2016-a-nationwide-study
#18
Jungmee Kim, Eunyoung Lee, Byung-Joo Park, Ji Hwan Bang, Jin Yong Lee
For ideal clinical benefit, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals should receive continuous medication. This is the first nationwide antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence study in Asia, where medication monitoring at national level is systemically available. We estimated the ART adherence of incident HIV-infected individuals and investigated factors affecting low medication adherence using the national health insurance (NHI) claims data from 2007 to 2016. Medication possession ratio (MPR) was used to measure medication adherence and risk factors were identified by multivariable logistic regression analysis...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453321/inhibition-of-cd95-cd95l-signaling-with-apg101-prevents-invasion-and-enhances-radiation-therapy-for-glioblastoma
#19
Jonas Blaes, Carina M Thomé, Philipp-Niclas Pfenning, Petra Rübmann, Felix Sahm, Antje Wick, Theresa Bunse, Torsten Schmenger, Jaromir Sykora, Andreas von Deimling, Benedikt Wiestler, Christian Merz, Manfred Jugold, Uwe Haberkorn, Amir Abdollahi, Jürgen Debus, Christian Gieffers, Claudia Kunz, Martin Bendszus, Michael Kluge, Michael Platten, Harald Fricke, Wolfgang Wick, Dieter Lemke
CD95 (Fas/APO-1), a death receptor family member, activity has been linked to tumorigenicity in multiple cancers, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). A phase II clinical trial on relapsed glioblastoma patients demonstrated that targeted inhibition of CD95 signaling via the CD95 ligand (CD95L) binding and neutralizing Fc-fusion protein APG101 (asunercept) prolonged patient survival. While CD95 signaling may be relevant for multiple aspects of tumor growth, the mechanism of action of APG101 in glioblastoma is not clear...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453230/role-of-biomarkers-in-predicting-the-occurrence-of-thyroid-neoplasms-in-radiation-exposed-children
#20
Joseph Shulan, Leonid Vydro, Arthur B Schneider, Dan Mihailescu
With increasing numbers of childhood cancer survivors who were treated with radiation, there is a need to evaluate potential biomarkers that could signal an increased risk of developing thyroid cancer. We aimed to examine the relationships between thyrotropin and thyroglobulin levels and the risk of developing thyroid nodules and cancer in a cohort of radiation exposed children. 806 subjects who were irradiated in the neck area as children were examined and followed for up to 25 years. All subjects underwent a clinical examination, measurements of thyrotropin, thyroglobulin levels and thyroid imaging...
February 16, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
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